INFLAMMATION IN JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS - THE ROLE OF INTERLEUKIN 6

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Clinical Sciences

Abstract

Japanese encephalitis virus is globally the most important insect-borne virus that infects the brain to cause encephalitis (swelling) and death. It is found in Asia, but is closely related to West Nile virus, which has caused outbreaks of encephalitis in America and Europe, and is spreading. There is no treatment for these diseases. I have been studying Japanese encephalitis for 10 years. Our recent studies on humans with Japanese encephalitis suggest that the body‘s own immune response to the infection may be doing more harm than good. In particular one of the proteins produced in the brain (IL-6) causes leakiness in the blood brain barrier (the lining between the blood vessels and the brain), allowing fluid into the brain, and causing brain swelling, and death. In this Fellowship I examine this problem in more detail by looking at the amount of virus, the amount of IL-6 protein, where the protein comes from, and what effect it has on the blood brain barrier. I also look at potential new treatments that stop this damaging chain of events. This work will point the way towards new treatments for Japanese encephalitis and related conditions.

Technical Summary

Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the most important cause of epidemic viral encephalitis worldwide, with approximately 35-50,000 cases and 10-15,000 deaths annually. Although vaccines exist for JE, they are not available for most of the people in rural Asia that need them, because of issues over cost and production. Like the closely related West Nile virus, which has caused large outbreaks in southern Europe and the United States, this mosquito-borne flavivirus is spreading, and there is no established treatment. However there is increasing evidence that in JE, as in other RNA viral central nervous system (CNS) infections, a poorly regulated immune response may contribute to the pathogenesis - and this may be amenable to treatment.
We have recently found JE patients with high levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are much more likely to die. This pro-inflammatory cytokine is produced by various CNS cells in response to viral infection. Whilst IL-6 may be protective at low levels, high levels can cause increased permeability of the blood brain barrier leading to cerebral oedema and death. Such high levels may be a response to the particular viral strain viral load, or they may be host specific.
In this Fellowship I will test the hypothesis that in JE over-production of IL-6 leads to increased blood brain barrier permeability and cerebral oedema, and makes an important contribution to death.
Using CSF, plasma and autopsy samples collected from humans with JE I will examine the relationship between IL-6, blood brain barrier function, and viral load. I will then use the well-established mouse model to address the same questions; but in the model I have the additional advantage of being able to control the viral strain and inoculum, and the host strain. In addition, I will use IL-6 knockout mice, and anti-IL-6 antibodies to further delineate the pathogenesis. Finally I will use this model to examine the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on IL-6, blood brain barrier permeability, and fatality in the mouse model of JE. Anti-inflammatory drugs offer one of the best potentials for treatment of JE in humans, and these preclinical studies will be a critical prelude towards developing rationale treatment for this devastating disease

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Roald Dahl's Marvellous Medicine 
Description Popular science book 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact TV, radio, newspaper coverage speeches, lectures, appearances at literary and science festivals children's show 
URL http://www.tomsolomon.co.uk
 
Description 2016-present Member, WHO Consultation on Considerations for Regulatory Expectations of Zika vaccines for use during an Emergency
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact WHO policy on Zika, especially in relation to requirements for vaccine development
URL http://www.who.int/immunization/research/development/WHO_UNICEF_Zikavac_TPP_Feb2017.pdf
 
Description Adviser: US National Institutes for Health (NIH) Expert Committee on West Nile Virus Treatment
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Improved outcomes
 
Description Head of Writing Committee, WHO Consultation on Immunological Endpoints for Evaluation of New Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
Impact improved vaccines
 
Description Member of SABTO the UK Government's Advisory Committee on the Safety of Blood, Tissues and Organs
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact The Committee advises Ministers of the UK Government and the Devolved Administrations as well as UK Health Departments on the most appropriate ways to ensure the safety of blood, cells, tissues and organs for transfusion / transplantation. Its remit includes providing independent advice on: the microbiological safety of gametes and stem cells, in liaison with the relevant regulatory authorities; and risk management options for Ministers and UK Health Departments to consider.
 
Description Member, Japanese Encephalitis Working Group. World Health Organization
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Improved health care of patients with encephalitis
 
Description Member, MRC Training and Careers Group
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Hopefully ther group is facilitating training of clinical and non-clinical junior researchers, through a more joined up approahc, and various innovations.
 
Description Member, National Tuberculosis Meningitis Guidelines Committee
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
Impact Improved patient care
 
Description Member, Neurology Specialty Group, NIHR Comprehensive Clinical research Network
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Improved national research portfoilo
 
Description Member, UK Government's Zika Outbreak Precautionary Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (preSAGE)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Member, UK Government's Zika Outbreak Precautionary Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (preSAGE) Supported policy on travel, risks assessments, developing diagnosis, etc
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/584350/160203_PreSAGE_Zika...
 
Description Member, WHO Disease Surveillance Standards, Japanese Encephalitis Case Definitions Committee
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
Impact Improved disease surveillance
 
Description Our reseaerch is cited widely in all the major journals
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in clinical reviews
Impact No subsequent impact
 
Description Research through NIHR Health Protection Research Unit on Ebola Virus risk to UK
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact The NIHR HPRU, of which I am the director, is a collaboration between Liverpool and Public Health England (PHE). Our research on risk of Ebola transmission by airline travel and effects of airport screening was fed to DH via PHE to inform policy decisions on protecting the UK from Ebola;
 
Description Technical Adviser: WHO Steering Committee Meeting on Japanese encephalitis and Dengue Vaccines
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact new and imporved vaccines, being implemented more widely; eg 90 million children in India immunized against japanese encephalitis in the last couple of years
 
Description WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) Working Group on Japanese encephalitis vaccines
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
 
Description A phase I study of recombinant poxvirus Zika vaccine. Co-applicant
Amount £4,700,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2021
 
Description Adjuvant free vaccines and companion diagnostics to control emerging flaviviruses. Co-applicant
Amount £382,974 (GBP)
Funding ID 971526 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 01/2018
 
Description Clinical Research Career Development Fellowship (to Lance Turtle): Understanding cross-reactive immunity to Japanese encephalitis
Amount £573,824 (GBP)
Funding ID 205228/Z/16/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 07/2019
 
Description David Sainsbury Fellowship (Dr Adjanie Patabendige)
Amount £194,860 (GBP)
Funding ID NC/K500525/1 
Organisation National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2012 
End 01/2015
 
Description Development of a novel blood test to aid the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.
Amount £791,702 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/R015406/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 05/2021
 
Description Doctoral Training Fellowship (Dr Fiona McGill)
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 01/2016
 
Description Dr Hadwen Trust Project Grant
Amount £134,050 (GBP)
Organisation Dr Hadwen Trust (DHT) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2008 
End 01/2011
 
Description European Union Horizon 2020
Amount € 11,000,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2020
 
Description Global Challenges Research Fund. One Health Regional Network for the Horn of Africa (HORN). Co-applicant
Amount £7,700,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P027954/1 
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 10/2020
 
Description Global Health Research Group in Acute Brain Infections Principle Investigator
Amount £1,999,761 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 07/2021
 
Description Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections
Amount £3,909,867 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2014 
End 03/2019
 
Description Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections - Extension. Chief Investigator / Director
Amount £781,973 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2019 
End 05/2020
 
Description Health Technology Assessment Programme (BASICS study)
Amount £2,038,353 (GBP)
Funding ID 10/104/30 
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 01/2017
 
Description Improving diagnosis of brain infections in Indonesia using novel and established molecular diagnostic tools. Co-applicant
Amount £330,149 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/S019960/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 01/2022
 
Description Leverhulme Trust Programme Grant
Amount £752,210 (GBP)
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2009 
End 01/2012
 
Description MRC Fellowship in Clinical Pharmacology and Therpaeutics (Dr Sam Nightingale)
Amount £350,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2010 
End 01/2013
 
Description MRC/NIHR Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation (EME) Programme. COHESIVE - COrticosteroids in HErpes SImplex Virus Encephalitis.
Amount £1,132,339 (GBP)
Funding ID EME/12/205/28 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2014 
End 12/2020
 
Description MRC/NIHR Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation (EME) Programme. Intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of children with encephalitis.
Amount £2,136,846 (GBP)
Funding ID EME/12/212/15 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2014 
End 11/2018
 
Description Meningitis Research Foundation Project Grant
Amount £110,000 (GBP)
Organisation Meningitis Research Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2011 
End 01/2013
 
Description NIHR Programme Grant
Amount £2,030,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2011 
End 01/2015
 
Description NIHR Senior Investigator
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NF-SI-0514-10177 
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2020
 
Description Project Grant, VLA
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Veterinary Laboratories Agency 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2008 
End 01/2012
 
Description Wellcome Trust PhD Fellowship Scheme (Laura Benjamin)
Amount £350,723 (GBP)
Funding ID 089672/Z/09/A 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2009 
End 01/2013
 
Description Wellcome Trust Postdoctoral Training Fellowships for MB/PhD Graduates (Dr Lance Turtle)
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 087757/Z/08/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2009 
End 01/2012
 
Description Wellcome Trust Training Fellowship
Amount £110,845 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2007 
End 01/2007
 
Description Wellcome Trust Training Fellowship
Amount £312,810 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2006 
End 01/2008
 
Description Zika Rapid Response Initative
Amount £519,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 07/2018
 
Title Brain Infections UK Network of hospitals 
Description Datbaseprovides infrastructure for the network; allows other research groups to access hospitals and patient cohorts 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of Data/Biological Samples 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Supported the establishment of new researches studies, including UK-ChiMES, UK Childhood Meningitis and Encephalitis Study 
URL http://www.braininfectionsuk.org/
 
Title Clinical Cases Definitions for WHO Japanese encephalitis Surveillance Guidelines 
Description These are simple clinical case defintions that we have now validated and published 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2008 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The case definitions have been published and are now widely used across asia 
 
Title Liverpool Outcome Score 
Description This is a simple clinical outcome score we developed and validated for assessing the outcome of patients that have had encephalitis; 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2007 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It is available on the web, and is now being used in India, Nepal, Cambodia, malaysia, Indonesia 
 
Description Brain Infections Global 
Organisation Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz)
Department Fiocruz Pernambuco
Country Brazil 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Collaboration on NIHR Global health Research Group
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration on NIHR Global health Research Group
Impact see publications
Start Year 2019
 
Description Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, USA 
Organisation Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Department Vector-borne diseases
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution (Marc Fischer, Susan Hills, Japanese encephalitis control, since 2008)
Collaborator Contribution collaboration
Impact SEE PUBLICATIONS
Start Year 2008
 
Description Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, USA (Monique Stins) 
Organisation Johns Hopkins University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, USA (Monique Stins); an in vitro model of the blood brain barrier; since 2009)
Collaborator Contribution new Post Doc Fellowship funded by Hadwen Trust
Impact see publications
Start Year 2009
 
Description Neuroinflammation Research Unit, Lerner Institute, Cleveland (Richard Ransohoff) 
Organisation Cleveland Clinic
Department Lerner Research Institute
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Neuroinflammation Research Unit, Lerner Institute, Cleveland (Richard Ransohoff, blood brain barrier model since 2009) Post Doctoral Research Fellowship funded by Hadwen Trust dr Adjanie Patabendige
Collaborator Contribution development of new blood brain barrier model
Impact see publications
Start Year 2009
 
Description Oxford Vaccine Group 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Vaccine Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution new collaboration
Collaborator Contribution new collaboration
Impact early days
Start Year 2012
 
Description Pathogen discovery 
Organisation University of Washington
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Washington University, St Louis (David Wang and Mike Diamond, Pathogen discovery and Flavivirus epitope mapping since 2009)
Collaborator Contribution Pathogen discovery work
Impact see publications
Start Year 2009
 
Description World Health Organisation Japanese encephalitis Laboratory Diagnostic Network 
Organisation World Health Organization (WHO)
Country Global 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Took a lead role in establishing the Network
Collaborator Contribution Standardising the diagnostic approaches to Japanese encephalitis facilitates research on this disease
Impact The network is standaridising the approaches to diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis across the Asia-Pacific Region to allow improved management and better determination of disease incidence. Publications in preparation
Start Year 2006
 
Title University of Liverpool (Mike Griffiths/Tom Solomon) 
Description Diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis Our novel approach to distinguishing bacterial from viral brain infections by measuring host response genes in the blood has been patented and is due to be licenced soon with SME industrial partner with Fast Track Diagnostics 
IP Reference GB1606537.7 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed Yes
Impact Strengthened collaboration with industrial partner FastTrack Diagnostics
 
Title Enceph UK Cluster RCT 
Description Intervention It has been found that many patients with suspected encephalitis are not started on aciclovir treatment within 6 hours, or have an LP performed within the first 12 hours of admission; both of these are key features of the National encephalitis guidelines published in 2012. This study will evaluate both the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an intervention to support the implementation of these encephalitis guidelines. The use of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) in twenty eight hospitals with an evaluation period of 12 months will allow both cost effectiveness and clinical outcomes to be assessed. The intervention will target clinicians responsible for the diagnosis and initial management of suspected encephalitis. Intervention development will be informed by existing evidence on professional behaviour change and sub-studies within the ENCEPH UK programme. This consists of semi structured interviews with health care professionals who have a variety of roles within several hospitals. From this, the major barriers and enablers to using the encephalitis guidelines will be deduced and a novel intervention will be developed and implemented in 14 hospitals over four months, with short training sessions every four months so that staff on new rotations are aware of the intervention over the course of one year. Primary Outcome The proportion of patients meeting the definition of suspected encephalitis whose care met all of the following criteria: Aciclovir given within 6 hours at the appropriate dose unless alternative diagnosis; A lumbar puncture performed within 12 hours of hospital arrival unless clinically contraindicated; and If lumbar puncture performed at any time, CSF tested for HSV PCR, and CSF to serum glucose ratio determined. 
Type Support Tool - For Medical Intervention
Year Development Stage Completed 2014
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact Cluster RCT 
URL http://www.encephuk.org/studies/intervention.aspx
 
Title Japanes Encephalitis Rapid Diagnostics 
Description To improve diagnostics of Japanese encephalitis (JE) , the my University of Liverpool (UoL) team worked with colleagues at the University of Malaysia, Sarawak from 1995-8 to develop and field-test simple rapid kits for diagnosing JE in the rural field hospitals where it occurs. Many of these have subsequently been further refined over subsequent years. These diagnostic kits allow JE to be distinguished from the related dengue virus, which can also cause neurological disease, and from other emerging causes of acute central nervous system infection such as enterovirus 71. 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Non-Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Market authorisation
Year Development Stage Completed 2010
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact The University of Liverpool (UoL) rapid diagnostic kit for diagnosing Japanese encephalitis (JE) was the prototype for kits developed by the My group at UoL, and others, some of which have gone through to commercialisation , such as that produced by Venture Technologies, Singapore, and since 2008, Pan Bio, Australia, and Excyton Diagnostics, India . Such kits are now widely used across Asia, through the JE laboratory diagnostic network that he UoL helped establish. This is playing an essential role in helping recognition of JE so that the disease burden can be ascertained. 
URL http://www.xcyton.com/
 
Description Brain Awareness Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I devised and led a one week roadshow "Battle of the Brain Bugs" which toured local partner instituions (hospitals and universities), and culminated in an interactive event at the Liverpool World Museum; this was the launch of y Institutes Saturday Science Programme at the Museum

increased interest from the public, school children, and collaborators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Brain on Fire 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Institute of Infection and Global Health organised an event at Waterstones Bookshop Liverpool One on Wednesday 28th August which saw ?New York Post bestselling author Susannah Cahalan discuss her book Brain on Fire: My Month of Madness (about her experinces of egtting encephalitis) alongside the Institute's Professor Tom Solomon. The event was well attended and the audience included clinicians, Encephalitis Society members, fans of the book and interested members of the public. Many people stayed behind at the end to chat to Susannah and Tom further, and a large queue formed for Susannah to sign copies of the newly released paperback edition of the book.

Earlier in the day Tom and Susannah also presented a lunchtime lecture aimed specifically at clinicians at the Walton Centre, a major neurology hospital in Liverpool

Plans for further public engagement work together in the future
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.liv.ac.uk/infection-and-global-health/news/stories/title,348842,en.html
 
Description Encephalitis Society Professional Advisory Panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Regular advisor to the encephalitis society, at professioanl advisory panel meetings, plus through meetings with its lay members and public

Improved understanding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009
 
Description Expert 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Expert Advisor for several news media articles from local and national newspapers and magazines (Times, Woman's Own, etc)

Better public understanding of scientific issues
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009
 
Description Expert for the Science Media centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This organisation which is an independent venture working to promote the voices, stories and views of the scientific community to the national news media when science is in the headlines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description International Women's Day March 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I initiated, on behalf of the Institute I lead (IGH-Liverpool), an interactive exhibit at the Royal Liverpool Hospital on March 8th to celebrate International Women's Day.
The exhibit featured a photographic mosaic of Kitty, who was known as the Saint of the Slums for her work during a 1832 Liverpool cholera epidemic, created using the images of current female staff and researchers from IGH whose work builds on her legacy.
There was also a display featuring the Women of the Institute; staff nominated by their colleagues for being an inspiration to others through their commitment to research, charity work, helpfulness and more.
Visitors joined in by reflecting on the women who inspire them, and adding their names and thoughts to a collective.
The event was a great success and we met lots of lovely people with interesting stories to tell. Some people even remembered the wash houses of Liverpool that Kitty helped create!

Much more recognition of the role of women in scienc,e both today and in the past
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.470397199680727.1073741825.184437834943333&type=3
 
Description MRC Centenary Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In celebration of 100 years of the Medical Research Council (MRC), scientists at the University's Institute of Infection and Global Health presented their work on brain infections, called Japanese encephalitis, in India and Nepal to a public audience at the Victoria Gallery and Museum. The film of their work shows photography taken by Liverpool researchers during their research trips to the region.

Professor Tom Solomon said: "Initial clinical symptoms of encephalitis can be subtle and therefore identifying the disease early can be difficult. With the support of the MRC we aim to raise awareness of the disease so that hospital doctors know what to look for when a patient comes in with suspected viral infection."

Positive discussions afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.liv.ac.uk/infection-and-global-health/news/articles/film-battling-brain-infections-in-asi...
 
Description Panel Discussant - Bon Voyage: Travel, health and disease, hosted by BBC Radio 4's Quentin Cooper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Panel Discussant - Bon Voyage: Travel, health and disease, hosted by BBC Radio 4's Quentin Cooper at World Museum Liverpool, in conjunction with British Society for Immunology

7th Dec, 2011

-
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Roald Dahl's Marvellous Medicine, Family Show, presented at Edinburgh Festival Fringe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Roald Dahl's Marvellous Medicine, Family Show, presented at Edinburgh Festival Fringe, and BBC, and West Ed Theatre (Leicester Square) . Audience >2000 in person. A chance to use a novel approach to explain some of our research (and other aspects of medical science) to a new audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Schools Visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact "My Brilliant Brain" - As part of the University's engagement with local communities, and public understanding of science role I introduced 8-year old school children to the brain, how it works, and what can go wrong with it. 2008.

Invited back to do further work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009
 
Description Scientific Advisor and Expert on TV Series 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was the Scientific Advisor, and appeared several times in this highly acclaimed ITV series for Channel Four, which introduced key concepts in neuroscience, including the devastation caused by encephalitis, through case studies of people with rare but fascinating neurological afflictions

Lots of interesting discussions afterwards in the news media
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description TEDx Talk: Sex Drugs and Emerging Viruses - Tom Solomon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Broader discussion around the issues

2000 hits on Youtube, so far
plus increased followers on Twitter
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tySFXZ-ABZA
 
Description The Emrys Jones Lecture 2013. Merchant Taylors' Schools, Liverpool, UK 26 September 2013 • 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact From the School Website:-

A Memorable Lecture from the "Running Mad Professor"!
Back to News
Merchant Taylors' Schools in Liverpool were delighted to welcome Professor Tom Solomon as their Guest Speaker for the Emrys Jones Lecture. This annual event has been made possible through an endowment given by Emrys Jones (a pupil at Merchant Taylors' Boys' School from 1918-1924) in 1959, so that a lecture could be given to the pupils every year, by a person of high achievement. For over five decades now the Lecture has attracted high-calibre speakers from many different walks of life, including Peter Scott and Group Captain Douglas Bader in the 60's, Chris Bonington in the 70's, John Dankworth in the 80's, Steve Redgrave CBE in the 90's and Tanni Grey-Thompson in the "noughties".
Following in these illustrious footsteps, Professor Tom Solomon delivered a wonderful and memorable lecture to the boys and girls. Professor Solomon was brought up in Manchester, and studied medicine in Oxford, before working on brain infections in Vietnam, with a Wellcome Trust Training Fellowship. He then became Clinical Lecturer at the University of Liverpool, and was awarded a Wellcome Trust Career Development Fellowship, with two years in the USA. Returning to Liverpool, he became Senior Lecturer, MRC Senior Clinical Fellow, then Chair of Neurological Science, and Director of the Liverpool Institute of Infection and Global Health, which has 100 leading scientists working on major infection and global health issues in a new state-of-the-art £35 million facility.
Professor Solomon also heads the multi-disciplinary Brain Infections Group, which studies brain infections of major global importance with collaborations in Asia, Africa, the UK and the US. The group has more than £6M in funding principally from MRC, Wellcome Trust, Gates Foundation, and NIHR. He has published more than 20 book chapters and 80 papers in the medical journals and is as an advisor to the US National Institutes for Health, the WHO, the UK Health Protection Agency, and the Encephalitis Society.
Professor Solomon's work on Public Understanding of Science and Widening Participation has included acting as Scientific Advisor and appearing in the ITV series "My Strange Brain" (2008), appearances on BBC TV, and contributing regularly to local radio. His schools work has ranged from small group discussions in local primary schools to giving the Scholar's Day Lecture at Shrewsbury School (2012).
He established the Saturday Science Programme at World Museum Liverpool, but is perhaps best known for his role as the Running Mad Professor, with nearly 20,000 YouTube hits, running the Virgin London Marathon in 2010, and winning the Guinness World Record for the fastest marathon dressed as a doctor (4 hours, 20 minutes 19 seconds!)
Following the lecture Professor Solomon said "It was a great honour to give this lecture, especially considering the extremely high calibre of some of the lecturers from previous years. I enjoyed finding out more about the school, and meeting the students. The discussion with the students was especially enjoyable, and they had some very challenging questions!"
If anyone wishes to follow the work of Professor Solomon then there is a Facebook page for the Liverpool Institute of Infection and Global Health. To hear about future events and opportunities please email Nic Frost nfrost@liverpool.ac.uk and ask to be put on the "Friends of IGH" mailing list.

Increased interest from the school children, and their parents, in the research we are doing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.merchanttaylors.com/senior-boys/a-memorable-lecture-from-the-running-mad-professor.html
 
Description World's Biggest Brain Guinness Record-Winning Interactive Event for World Encephalitis day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact raised awareness of encephalitis among the 800 partiicipants, and the 3500 people who viewed the video on YouTube, plus the tens of thousands around the world who read news articles about the event

Much greater interest in the disease encephalitis itself, and other forms of brain disease, plus the research of the University of Liverpool in this areas
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.liv.ac.uk/infection-and-global-health/news/articles/university-of-liverpool-has-the-worl...