Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes

Lead Research Organisation: MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit

Abstract

In the UK there are approximately 3.7 million people (2017) diagnosed with diabetes with a further 1 million undiagnosed. Around 90% of the people affected by diabetes have type 2 (T2D), which is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and action, and is generally a later onset disease. Diabetes causes a variety of complications resulting in ill-health and a reduced quality of life, and treatment costs the NHS an estimated £27 million/day.

We are investigating the mechanisms involved in type 2 diabetes and our research is currently focussed on novel genes identified in human population studies that are linked to diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk through changes in fat and its distribution.

To investigate these genes, we use the mouse as a model system where we can make genetic alterations to test the functions of genes and their effects on whole body physiology. This helps us to understand how genetic differences can predispose people to these diseases.

In a new approach we are developing a human fat tissue three-dimensional cell culture model that we can use to study genes of interest and to screen for drugs.

Technical Summary

In the UK there are approximately 3.7 million people (2017) diagnosed with diabetes with a further 1 million undiagnosed. Around 90% of the people affected by diabetes have type 2 (T2D), which is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and action, and is generally a later onset disease. Diabetes causes significant mortality and morbidity as a result of the development of complications in multiple tissues which costs the UK NHS an estimated £27 million/day.

My research interests are in the genetics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its physiological risk factors, particularly fat distribution and adiposity. Genome wide association (GWA) studies have identified hundreds of robust well-replicated human loci linked to T2D and associated traits. These associations include genes involved in fat distribution (waist-hip-ratio, WHR) which have associations with diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk independently of BMI. The alteration of metabolic risk through changes in the size and capacity of particular adipose depots points to important physiological mechanisms that are not well understood. There is an opportunity to exploit the human genetics of WHR to gain novel insights into mechanisms and complex tissue interactions that alter the balance of whole-body metabolism, relevant to human disease. The challenge is to translate this wealth of genetic information, largely identifying gene regulatory elements in non-coding DNA, into mechanistic understanding and for patient benefit.

Our research objectives are to understand the genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying specific GWA loci. Specific loci under current investigation are the WARS2/TBX15 WHR locus; (2) the ARL15 candidate gene in a locus linked to T2D, low adiposity with increased metabolic risk and adiponectin and (3) the RREB1 gene implicated in ectopic fat distribution and beta cell function. These projects are multidisciplinary collaborations with human geneticists, computational biologists, and those doing cellular and physiological studies in humans and model organisms.

We use the mouse as a model system to investigate these loci, in which we can probe individual gene function and DNA regulation interactions, using genetic alteration and physiological assays.

In addition, we have developed an in vitro 3-dimensional spheroid adipose cell culture system in order to better model functional in vivo tissue. Our objective is to further progress this model using human cells and by combining all of the key cell types of adipose tissue to generate a robust and reproducible functional model for genetic manipulation, mechanistic studies and high throughput screens.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description MRC Workshop on Neuroscience of Obesity: Gut-Brain communication
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Mouse Genetics; Models for Human disease ICGEB course; 2010, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolic Medicine Workshop
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Diabetes UK, Project Grant
Amount £88,047 (GBP)
Organisation Diabetes UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2008 
End 12/2008
 
Description EU FP7 PHENOSCALE
Amount £775,541 (GBP)
Funding ID 223263 
Organisation European Commission 
Department Seventh Framework Programme (FP7)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 03/2009 
End 02/2012
 
Description MRCT Development Gap Funding
Amount £96,748 (GBP)
Organisation MRC-Technology 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2006 
End 06/2008
 
Description Project Grant- MRC KLF14
Amount £138,271 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/J0106421/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2012 
End 01/2015
 
Description STFC Harwell HeathTec Cluster
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 03/2018
 
Description STFC proof of concept proposals in collaboration the Harwell heathtech cluster
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 3D bioprinting models of adipose tissue depots in order to facilitate genetic and genomic studies related to obesity and diabetes 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description Wellcome Trust Project Grant- Joint PI
Amount £445,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2007 
End 09/2010
 
Description Wellcome Trust Project Grant- Joint PI FTO
Amount £794,581 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start  
End 10/2015
 
Title 3D adipose cell cultures 
Description Druggable adipose spheroid cell cultures 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publication Further collaborations 
 
Title Generation of adipose pimary culture mouse ATAC data sets 
Description ATAC timne course data from sub-cutaneous and visceral fat depot derived primary adipocytes 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Ongoing informatics analysis 
 
Title Mouse model for mitochondrial disease 
Description Mouse model with a hypomorphic mutation in the Wars2 gene. Pleiotropic phenotype effects including altered adipose tissue function, deafness and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publication 
 
Title Mouse model for pro-hormone processing (Pcsk1) 
Description A new mouse Pcsk1 mutation model that exhibits traits comparable to human patients carrying PCSK1 mutations 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None so far 
 
Title Mouse model of osteoporosis 
Description Mouse model with hypercortisolism (Cushings like) due to a CRH promoter mutation. Bone pehnotypes and other Cushing traits. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Clinical research groups investigating bone disease using this model 
 
Title Mouse models for FTO function 
Description New alleles for the FTO gene in mouse. Functional analysis of the FTO gene and evaluation as a therapeutic target. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2009 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publications (already entered into form) Continued collaborations with chemists who have small molecules we can test. 
 
Title Mouse models for GWAS genes associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity 
Description Functional characterization of GWAS genes by making multiple alleles in the mouse using genome editing, transgenics, knock in and knock out technologies and ENU mutagenesis. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Ongoing collaborations with GWAS groups, human geneticists and clinical scientists. Scientific publications. 
 
Title Mouse models for type 2 diabetes 
Description Mouse models for type 2 diabetes generated using ENU mutagenesis 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Identification of a number of novel genes. Publications (already entered into form). 
 
Title New mouse models of obesity 
Description Obesity model resulting from a mutation in the Otp gene 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Demonstration that mutations in this hypothalamic gene can give rise to obesity. Publication 
 
Description Amgen Inc collaboration 
Organisation Amgen Inc
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution New mouse models for type 2 diabetes
Collaborator Contribution Sequencing and genotyping and metabolic disease expertise. Research support.
Impact Identification of the genetic basis of novel models for type 2 diabetes. Publication in Diabetes journal.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Cambridge obesity 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Metabolic Research Laboratories
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Novel obesity genes modelled in the mouse
Collaborator Contribution Human mutations in obesity genes
Impact None yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with the Electrospinning Company 
Organisation The Electrospinning Company
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Collaboration on a STFC Cross-Cluster POC concept grant.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise and materials
Impact Multidisciplinary - biology and materials
Start Year 2019
 
Description Functional Analysis of GWA loci 
Organisation Broad Institute
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Data on WHR locus Joint research on the FTO intron-1 enhancer and its functional effects
Collaborator Contribution Informatics analysis of WHR locus to predict functional SNPs and regulation.
Impact Informatics analysis to direct functional investigation. Joint publications being drafted
Start Year 2016
 
Description Functional analyis of the Fat Mass and Obesity Gene (FTO) 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Generation of mouse models Physiological and biochemical analysis
Collaborator Contribution Analysis of samples and models. Analysis of mutants and functional anlaysis of proteins
Impact Publication (as entered in the form). Multidisciplinary; Genetics, Physiology and Chemistry
Start Year 2017
 
Description Functional characterisation of GWAS candidate genes 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism (OCDEM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Identification of mouse models carrying mutations in genes of interest within GWAS loci. In vivo and in vitro phenotyping
Collaborator Contribution Information regarding specific target genes from population genetics studies. Expertise in islet studies. Joint MRC grant
Impact New models, functional validation of GWAS genes, mechanistic studies Publications
Start Year 2010
 
Description Liver Disease 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Faculty of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Mouse models of diabetes and liver disease Samples, physiology and biochemistry
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in NAFLD/NASH Histological analysis Shared clinical research students
Impact Publications. Generation of fatty liver disease models. Generation of drug induced liver injury models.
Start Year 2006
 
Description MODO Consortium: models of diabetes and obesity - IMPC 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Institute of Metabolic Science (IMS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Adoption of International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) lines. Input into pipelines and phenotyping. Input into genes of interest for prioritization.
Collaborator Contribution Complementary expertise in metabolic disease
Impact New mouse models for metabolic disease
Start Year 2011
 
Description MODO Consortium: models of diabetes and obesity - IMPC 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Adoption of International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) lines. Input into pipelines and phenotyping. Input into genes of interest for prioritization.
Collaborator Contribution Complementary expertise in metabolic disease
Impact New mouse models for metabolic disease
Start Year 2011
 
Description MODO Consortium: models of diabetes and obesity - IMPC 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism (OCDEM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Adoption of International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) lines. Input into pipelines and phenotyping. Input into genes of interest for prioritization.
Collaborator Contribution Complementary expertise in metabolic disease
Impact New mouse models for metabolic disease
Start Year 2011
 
Description Models for Disorders of Bone and Cartilage - IMPC 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism (OCDEM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Selection of genes and expertise in phenotyping
Collaborator Contribution Clinical expertise Expertise of multiple partners in different centers.
Impact Publications.
Start Year 2012
 
Description OXION ion channels and disease Inititative 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Mouse models for KATP channel dysfunction Mouse models for ion channels
Collaborator Contribution Access to OXION core facilities Microarray experiments Access to OXION students and postdocs
Impact Publications (as entered in the form). Multidisciplinary; Genetics, Mouse Models, Electrophysiology, Physiology.
Start Year 2006
 
Description OxSyBio collaboration 
Organisation OxSyBio
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Collaborative project on 3D cell culture. Expertise and staff time.
Collaborator Contribution Access to equipment, staff and proprietary technology.
Impact Publication on 3D adipose cultures. STFC HealthTech grant funding.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Part II biochemistry student 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Biochemistry
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosting a part II biochemistry student from the University of Oxford for an 18 week project.
Collaborator Contribution Highly motivated student carrying out a piece of research of value to the group.
Impact Contribution to ongoing research. Promotion of careers in science.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Protein structure function analysis 
Organisation University of Reading
Department School of Biological Sciences Reading
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Information on a novel gene involved in obesity and on specific mutations.
Collaborator Contribution Structure function analysis, assistance in protein production and initial beamline experiments at Diamond.
Impact Animal models Structural Modelling Protein production and purification Physical measurements
Start Year 2012
 
Description Renal disease, bone and mineral disorders 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism (OCDEM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Mouse models of renal, bone and mineral disorders
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in renal, bone and mineral disorders
Impact New mouse models for Bone and Mineral Disorders. Publications (as listed)
Start Year 2006
 
Description Retinal vasculature- diabetes 
Organisation University of Manchester
Department Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Mouse models of type 2 diabetes. Tissue samples
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in the analysis of retinal vasculature in models of type 2 diabetes.
Impact Identification of potential models of diabetic retinopathy.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK GoLD: UK Genetics of Liver Disease Consortium - IMPC 
Organisation Newcastle University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Gene selections Hosting of clinical fellows
Collaborator Contribution Multiple partner consortium- variety of expertise and clinical input
Impact None yet
Start Year 2012
 
Description York MSC 
Organisation University of York
Department Department of Biology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of a 6 month MSc project
Collaborator Contribution Provision of an MSc student
Impact Data for publications
Start Year 2013
 
Title NNT 
Description Methods and compositions for the diagnosis or treatment of type 2 diabetes 20070224648 
IP Reference US2007224648 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2007
Licensed No
Impact NNT is a mitochondrial membrane protein that when mutated causes impaired insulin secretion and may be a potential drug target in type-2 diabetes
 
Description 15th Congress of the European Neuroendocrine Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 15th Congress of the European Neuroendocrine Association- invited speaker. Vienna 12-15 September 2012


The fat mass and obesity gene (FTO) and body composition
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description 5Live interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 5Live with Victoria Derbyshire 03 December 2012. Live visit to unit and animal facility and interview slot on Diabetes and Obesity.

The Program won the 2013 'Best Live Journalism-Radio' category at the Association of International Broadcast Awards.

http://theaibs.tv/aibs-2013-winners-and-highly-commended-announced/


Tweets from general public to programme; raising awareness of need for animals in medical research, raising awareness of diabetes and obesity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b007v5cz
 
Description Careers in science and research 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Banbury Academy (School) held a careers event in the form of two workshopsattened by around 15 stdudents, the school reported positive responses and interest in carrers in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.aatbanbury.org/367/science-apprenticeships-evening
 
Description Centenary Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Questions about diabetes and obesity for children and adults

Helped to promote our work to a wider audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Diamond Open day T2D 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Activity around sugar contenet of food, rasing awareness of obesity and diabetes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.har.mrc.ac.uk/news-events/news-archive/discussing-diabetes-diamond-open-day
 
Description FTO Nature Genetics publication press release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact News stories in most dialy newspapers 15 November; including the Independent, Daily Telegraph, The Times,Daily Express and Daily Mail. Radio interviews with BBC local radio Oxford and Tees.

None yet apart from widespread media interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Invited talk Genomics England Collaborative Partnerships Mouse Genetics Workshop, 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact CRISPR/Cas9 and human genomics case study
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Lecture on GWAS of obesity and metabolic disease 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture to undergraduate students at the University of Reading
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Lecture to Final Honors Students 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture FHS Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, November 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description MRC Festival 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact MRC Festival Open Day - On site, activities relating to obesity and type 2 diabetes for general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description MRC Harwell Festival 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Tours and activities for school students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Metabolism Oxford day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk on research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Nuffield Science Bursary scheme- A level students 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 1 A level student carries out a summer project each year.

Interest in degrees in science and medicine, future science careers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
 
Description Primary school visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 10 final year primary school children made DNA and talked about cells, chromosomes and DNA.
Lots of very good questions and enthusiasm.

None so far.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Research seminar, Reading University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research Seminar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description School Vistit (Middle Barton), science afternoon 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Two classes of children participated in 4 activities over two sessions. The activities were genetics of tabby cat coat colour, adiposity, sugar in food and cell structure related. The aim was to promote science and communicate a number of concepts. There were lots of questions and the feedback from the school was positive and would like us to return to do some activities around various curriculum related themes in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description School visits to Harwell 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Work experience and school days

Increased interest in research careers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012
 
Description Symposium European Teratology Society (ETS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Questions and Discussion afterwards

Some interest in resources, awaiting follow up.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.etsoc.com/43rd-annual-meeting,-2015,-amsterdam,-the-netherlands
 
Description U3A 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact University of 3rd Age Quester group visit. Presentation on diabetes and the underlying genetics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Visit of local MP 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Visit of local MP to Unit
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Wellcome Trust vacation scholarship 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Undergraduate student experienced research for a summer.

None yet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Work experience- one week 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Experienced the research environment and learnt something about genetics and diabetes. Encouraged towards careers in Sciecne and Medicine.

Very interested in science or medicine careers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014,2015
 
Description York University year away student 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact 1 student currently working on a real research project; gaining experience of research and knowledge of the genetics of diabetes.

None yet- student interested in future research career
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2015