The role of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins during viral infection and host-cell immunity

Lead Research Organisation: MRC Virology Unit

Abstract

During infection viruses must evade multiple host defence mechanisms in order to establish a productive infection. These include antibody and cell mediated acquired immunity, interferon regulated innate immunity, and intrinsic cellular immunity. In order to counteract these host defences many viruses have evolved strategies to engage with cellular ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modification pathways to modulate their intracellular environment in favour of viral replication. This programme of research aims to define how specific viruses engage with components of these pathways in order to design and develop alternative therapeutic intervention strategies.
Our research has identified unique aspects relating to cellular immune defence and associated viral counter measures. Our current work aims to determine whether these pathways affect other clinically important human viruses, and to establish a platform of biochemical techniques that will facilitate the screening of compounds to inhibit viral counter measures of these pathways.

Technical Summary

The post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related polypeptides regulates many essential cellular processes including protein degradation, transcription, DNA repair and host-cell anti-viral immunity. Consequently, many human viruses have evolved strategies to utilise or suppress these modification pathways in order to enhance their replication, thereby maintaining their presence within the human population. Utilising a variety of techniques; library screening, lentiviral expression, RNAi technologies, in vitro biochemistry and mass spectrometry, the aim of this programme is to identify and biochemically define how human viruses engage with components of these pathways during infection with respect to disarming host-cell anti-viral immunity. This work will provide a platform of biochemistry in order to develop novel strategies for future therapeutic intervention. The lab focuses on three clinically important human viruses: Herpes Simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), Influenza A virus, and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV).

HSV-1 causes a variety of clinically important diseases, including herpes keratitis and encephalitis, and provides an ideal model system for studying multiple aspects of intracellular immunity in response to DNA virus infection. An important regulator of HSV-1 infection is ICP0, a viral ubiquitin ligase that targets a subset of cellular proteins implicated in anti-viral immune defecne for ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Our research aims to identify and characterise the cellular regulators associated with nuclear immunity in response to DNA virus infection, both at a molecular and biochemical level, by virtue of identifying ICP0’s cellular substrates and biochemical specificity.

Recent progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the regulation of intrinsic immunity in response to HSV-1 infection are also being investigated in during the nuclear replication of RNA viruses, specifically Influenza A virus, in order to determine the specificity of these host defence mechanisms. Influenza virus infection is the leading causative agent associated with acute viral respiratory illnesses and causes significant annual morbidity and mortality within humans.

HCV infection is a leading cause of non-alcohol related liver disease within the UK, including decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV induces the re-distribution of intracellular ubiquitin conjugates during infection, a phenotype that is dependent upon viral RNA replication. However, little is known about how HCV engages with components of the ubiquitin-pathway or the functional importance of these interactions with respect to viral replication. This research aims to identify and characterise the role of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications during HCV infection and their relationship to anti-viral defence.

Publications

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Smith MC (2011) HSV-1 ICP0: paving the way for viral replication. in Future virology

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Boutell C (2013) Regulation of alphaherpesvirus infections by the ICP0 family of proteins. in The Journal of general virology

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Everett RD (2013) Interplay between viruses and host sumoylation pathways. in Nature reviews. Microbiology

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Busnadiego I (2014) Host and viral determinants of Mx2 antiretroviral activity. in Journal of virology

 
Title in vitro SUMO biochemistry update 
Description The cloning, expression, and purification of various proteins implicated in the regulation of host SUMOylation. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - in vitro 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Conn KL, Wasson P, McFarlane S, Tong L, Brown JR, Grant KG, et al. Novel Role for Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) in the Restriction of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 by the Cellular Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response. Journal of virology. 2016;90(9):4807-26. doi: Brown JR, Conn KL, Wasson P, Charman M, Tong L, Grant K, et al. SUMO Ligase Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT1 (PIAS1) Is a Constituent Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Body Protein That Contributes to the Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus 1. Journal of virology. 2016;90(13):5939-52. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00426-16. PubMed PMID: 27099310; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4907222. 
 
Title in vitro ubiquitin biochemsitry updated 
Description The cloning, expression, and purification of various proteins implicated in ubiquitin biochemistry. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - in vitro 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact 1. Lilley, C. E., M. S. Chaurushiya, C. Boutell, S. Landry, J. Suh, S. Panier, R. D. Everett, G. S. Stewart, D. Durocher, and M. D. Weitzman. 2010. A viral E3 ligase targets RNF8 and RNF168 to control histone ubiquitination and DNA damage responses. Embo J 29:943-55. 2. Morris, J. R., C. Boutell, M. Keppler, R. Densham, D. Weekes, A. Alamshah, L. Butler, Y. Galanty, L. Pangon, T. Kiuchi, T. Ng, and E. Solomon. 2009. The SUMO modification pathway is involved in the BRCA1 response to genotoxic stress. Nature 462:886-90. 3. Morris, J. R., L. Pangon, C. Boutell, T. Katagiri, N. H. Keep, and E. Solomon. 2006. Genetic analysis of BRCA1 ubiquitin ligase activity and its relationship to breast cancer susceptibility. Hum Mol Genet 15:599-606. 
 
Title shRNA lentiviral cell lines updated 2016 
Description Primary cell lines that have been transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to deplete components of the ubiquitin and SUMO conjugation pathways. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Research ongoing. Conn KL, Wasson P, McFarlane S, Tong L, Brown JR, Grant KG, et al. Novel Role for Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) in the Restriction of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 by the Cellular Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response. Journal of virology. 2016;90(9):4807-26. doi: Brown JR, Conn KL, Wasson P, Charman M, Tong L, Grant K, et al. SUMO Ligase Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT1 (PIAS1) Is a Constituent Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Body Protein That Contributes to the Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus 1. Journal of virology. 2016;90(13):5939-52. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00426-16. PubMed PMID: 27099310; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4907222. 
 
Description Cellular restriction of Influenza virus 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of reagents to study SUMOylation and ubiquitination during Influenza virus infection
Collaborator Contribution Provision of reagents and expert knowledge within this area of research
Impact multi-disciplinary virology research
Start Year 2012
 
Description Defining the role of SUMOylation during arbovirus infection 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Defining the biochemical activity of host SUMOylation enzymes expressed in Aedes aegepti.
Collaborator Contribution Cloning of cDNAs that express Aedes aegepti SUMOylation enzymes
Impact Research ongoing. Student selected for national presentation (microbiology society)
Start Year 2014
 
Description Intrinsic immunity to Influenza A Virus 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department MRC - University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision or reagents and research support to establish a role for intrinsic immunity against IAV.
Collaborator Contribution Provision or reagents and research support to establish a role for intrinsic immunity against IAV.
Impact We have identfied the TRIM protein 22 to play a role in the cellular restriction of IAV prior to the activation of innate immune signalling, thereby confirming a role for intrinsic immunity in the intracellular restriction of IAV. A manuscript is currently in preparation.
Start Year 2015
 
Description SUMO modification and centromeres 
Organisation National Center for Scientific Research (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS)
Department Center for Molecular Genetics (CGM)
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution biochemical analysis
Collaborator Contribution Cell biology analysis
Impact Cell biology Ubiquitin SUMOylation Biochemistry
Start Year 2012
 
Description X-ray crystallography studies of the purified ICP0 RING-finger domains from HSV-1 and VZV 
Organisation York University Toronto
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of reagents for the purification of RING-domain containing viral E3 ubiquitin ligases expressed during HSV-1 and VZV infection
Collaborator Contribution Purification of recombinant proteins and X-ray crystallography trials
Impact none
Start Year 2015
 
Description 24th Annual Glasgow Virology Workshop June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The CVR hosted the 24th Glasgow Virology Workshop (GVW) on Friday VV June 2019 (Sir Charles Wilson Building, University of Glasgow). This annual one-day meeting aims to communicate the latest innovative science in the world of virology, and to promote interactions between scientists and a variety of stakeholders throughout the world. This meeting is an informal and welcoming one day event comprising a mix of presentations from both external and internal speakers, along with networking sessions. It is rounded off by an evening ceilidh to provide attendees with a more relaxed opportunity to engage with one another. The annual event attracts a wide age range of attendees (from undergraduate students through to healthcare professionals, members of the biotech industry to retired professors), providing an ideal opportunity to catch up with former colleagues, establish new collaborations, and listen to truly inspirational science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.facebook.com/centreforvirusresearch/
 
Description Annual PCR Workshops September 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Each year the CVR runs a series of 6 individual workshops for Higher Biology school pupils. Around 100 pupils attend each workshop and travel from schools throughout Scotland. The workshops are fully booked each year and run in collaboration with the Glasgow Science Centre and supported by Thermo Fisher. The workshops require the support of around 15-20 volunteers from the CVR and wider MVLS each year. The workshops provide pupils with experience and knowledge they would not normally receive until attending university.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.facebook.com/centreforvirusresearch/
 
Description CVR Coffee Mornings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact We have been holding monthly coffee mornings for staff and students within our social space since 2017 to offer an informal opportunity for people working across the centre to meet and network. The events are regularly attended by 50-70 people each time with attendance continuing to grow. Staff and students have provided positive feedback about this opportunity to meet with one another and make use of it as a chance to discuss work related matters or simply to make new connections.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.facebook.com/centreforvirusresearch/
 
Description CVR Stoker Award 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Every year, CVR early career scientists nominate and vote for an established, outstanding virologist who has made a significant contribution to their field. In 2019 CVR early career researchers presented the award to Professor Ann Palmenberg - plus podcast
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description CVR Travel Award 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact One PhD student and one post-doc are each awarded a prize of £1500 to use towards presenting at a conference of their choosing in 2020.
The Students and Postdocs are asked to submit an abstract up to 400 words in length (excluding title, authors etc) detailing the work they wish to present at the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast S2 ep6: Robert Gifford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr. Robert Gifford, CVR's resident evolutionary virologist and senior research fellow. Rob's lab combines sequence data and software development to explore virus genomics and coevolution of viruses and their hosts. He applies virus genomics to help and guide treatment of HCV-infected patients; support genomic surveillance and outbreak response for bluetongue and rabies; and explore the diversity of endogenous viral elements in published genome sequence data, just to name a few of his projects. Listen to him tell us how he became interested in this paleovirology by starting out working on endogenous retroviruses at Imperial College long before the NGS metagenomics techniques come about.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/podcast-s2-ep6-robert-j-gifford
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast S2 ep7: Marlene Dreux 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A podcast with Dr Marlene Dreux, Team Leader in immunovirology at the Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI) in Lyon, France.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/podcast-s2-ep7-marlene-dreux
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast S3 ep10: Laura McCoy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this episode of Contagious Thinking Connor and Elihu are talking with Dr Laura McCoy about why study and continue to study broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV, and the role of B cell biology in HIV infection and vaccine responses. She also discusses her career so far, and gives advice to PhD and early career researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/podcast-s3-ep10-laura-mccoy
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast S3 ep11: Connor Bamford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this episode, Jack Hirst and Andrew Burns (on his podcast debut) are joined by Contagious Thinking veteran and founder Connor Bamford, who is crossing to other side and telling us about his own research on a peculiar immune protein that seems to make Hepatitis C infections worse rather than better.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/podcast-s3-ep11-connor-bamford
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast S3 ep12: Diane Griffiths 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this episode we're extremely lucky to be welcoming Professor Diane Griffin, from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg school of public health who is also the vice-president of the US National Academy of Sciences (www.nasonline.org/member-directoryers/3007695.html).

Diane - who is an MD/PhD - is a pioneering expert in how viruses cause disease, focusing on those viruses that infect your brain (like measles), and viruses spread by insects (like alphaviruses, such as Sindbis and chikunungya viruses).

In this episode, CVR PhD student Arthur Wickenhagen and postdoc Connor Bamford, chat with Diane about her inspiring career in virology, why she's so fascinated with the brain and insect viruses, and the worrying rise in measles across the world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/podcast-s3-ep11-diane-griffin
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast S3 ep1: Juan Fontana 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This is the third season of the refreshing virology podcast. In this episode, we're starting off with Dr Juan Fontana, a structural biologist from the University of Leeds. Juan speaks with fellow postdoc Connor Bamford, about his career so far in Virology, how cryoEM works, and how he uses this technique to study deadly human viruses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/podcast-s3-ep1-juan-fontana
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast S3 ep3: Paul Griffiths 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this episode we're welcoming Professor Paul Griffiths, from the Royal Free hospital and University College London. Professor Griffiths - who is a clinician by training - came to the CVR in Glasgow earlier this year to give a seminar.

Connor Bamford caught up with Paul in this episode and discuss his favourite virus, human cytomegalovirus (CMV), the road to making and testing vaccines against this very important virus, and his surprising side career as an author of factual and fictional science-inspired books.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/podcast-s3-ep3-paul-griffiths
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast S3 ep4: Pat Nuttall 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Season 3 Episode 3: This week Jack and Douglas are talking ticks with Professor Pat Nuttall, where we hear about how changing conditions are increasing the risk of tick-borne viruses and how these viruses benefit from the peculiar properties of tick saliva.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/podcast-s2-ep4-pat-nuttall
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast S3 ep5: Carolina Lopez 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this special episode for our Spanish speakers listeners, Mila and Elihu are talking with Carolina Lopez about how viruses interact with the immune system during infection. As viruses copy their genomes, a large number of defective copies are made. Carolina studies the different forms of a virus, including those with regular and defective copies of their genome, that are present in an infection and how these different forms interact with the infected cell and influence its function.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/podcast-s3-ep5
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast S3 ep6: Paul Lehner 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this episode of Contagious Thinking Jack and Arthur are talking with Professor Paul Lehner about HIV and silencing of these viruses by the newly discovered HUSH complex. Paul talks about his career so far and his research on HIV. He further explains how he and colleagues discovered the HUSH complex and its role in silencing viruses like HIV.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/podcast-s3-ep6-paul-lehner
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast S3 ep7: Rachel Ulferts 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this episode, Dr Connor Bamford speaks with Dr Rachel Ulferts from the Francis Crick Institute in London after she came to Glasgow recently to present her fascinating work.

Dr Ulferts is currently a postdoc in the lab of Dr Rupert Beale at the Crick where she works on influenza virus and a cell process known as autophagy - or 'self eating'.

Previously Rachel worked on a number of RNA viruses, like coronaviruses or picornaviruses in labs across Europe, including Northern Ireland and The Netherlands, before coming back to the UK to work at The University of Cambridge and then onto London.

In this episode Connor talks with Rachel about her work on autophagy, her interest in fundamental virology, and her exciting plans for the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/podcast-s3-ep7-rachel-ulferts
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast: Ann Palmenberg 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Ann Palmenberg from the University of Wisconsin-Madison talking to us about her journey through academia as a virologist, her views on vaccines and women in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/2019-stoker-award-winner-prof-ann-palmenberg
 
Description Contagious Thinking podcast: Siyuan Hu: A Tale of One City 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In a very special ad hoc episode, we have the personal experience from the inside of the coronavirus outbreak. From mainland China in Wuhan City, fellow postdocs Elihu Araday and Rute Pinto talked with Siyuan Hu, a PhD student in the Professor Margaret Hosie's group, who is currently in Wuhan and living this outbreak from a different perspective.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://cvrblog.myportfolio.com/siyuan-hu-a-tale-of-one-city
 
Description Glasgow Science Festival Science Sunday - June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact CVR researchers took a range of popular activities (build a virus, glovebox chamber game and Biolegomatics along to the Science Sunday event as part of the Glasgow Science Festival. 10 researchers from the CVR volunteered for the event and they estimated that they interacted with around 200 people over the course of the day. The activity was also supported by social media activity. MP Patrick Grady also made a point of visiting the stand to try an activity, take a photograph and tweet about the day. Stand visitors tend to have a keen interest in science but it is an opportunity for families to have a fun day out and learn something new.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://twitter.com/CVRinfo/with_replies
 
Description May 2019 - MRC Public Engagement Training Session Steve Cross 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact The MRC offered Public Engagement training from freelance consultant Steve Cross in May 2019. The session was offered to all MRC centres taking part in the MRC Festival of Medical Research across the UK. 12 CVR researchers including a mix of students and staff attended the session and provided positive feedback relating to their experience of the day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Meet the Researcher Showcase Event Feb 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Ilaria Epifano and Michaela Conley attended a two day event that took place in both the Dundee and Glasgow Science centres to run an exhibition attended by 200 Higher Biology School pupils from across Scotland each day. Our researchers used our build a virus activity to engage in conversation and took leaflets to share information about entering a career in virology. They estimate that they engaged with around 100 school pupils each day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.facebook.com/centreforvirusresearch/
 
Description Outbreak: The Pub Quiz 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Join scientists from the Centre for Virus Research for some infectious fun at this pub quiz! Scientists will share their expertise and challenge your knowledge about the viruses hitting the headlines
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description PCR workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Since 2006, this activity has been delivered to more than 700 Scottish high school students. The teaching resources developed have been adopted by Learning Teaching Scotland to teach higher biology. Workshop has been praised in an HMIE report. Evaluation student feedback is very positive each year.

Our PCR workshop run in partnership with Glasgow Science Centre is a flagship/exemplar activity in high-school education. The PCR workshop has been cited by HMiE as an example of excellence. School pupils from all over Scotland travel to Glasgow to participate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014