The interplay between protein phosphorylation and ubiquitylation in regulating the signalling networks of the innate immune system

Lead Research Organisation: University of Dundee

Abstract

The innate immune system is vital for defence against infection by microbial pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, but if this system is deregulated, or fails to stop inflammation once it has done its job, it can cause a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. These include arthritis, asthma, colitis, lupus, psoriasis and sepsis, type 2 diabetes and even cancers of the blood, such as lymphomas. An understanding of how the immune system is switched on and switched off is therefore vital if we are going to be able to develop improved drugs for the treatment of these diseases that affect millions of individuals worldwide.
My laboratory employs state-of-the-art technologies to study this problem and, over the past two years, three Ph.D. students working under my supervision with MRC support have made important discoveries that have identified novel components of the system and shown for the first time how they can be targeted to treat several conditions, including a type of blood cancer, called DLBCL, as well as the lethal effects of flu as well as
sepsis.

Technical Summary

The innate immune system is vital for defence against infection by microbial pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, but the overproduction of inflammatory mediators, or the failure to resolve inflammation once it has served its purpose, causes many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. They include arthritis, asthma, colitis, lupus, psoriasis and sepsis and even blood cancers, such as lymphomas. An understanding of the signalling networks that control the production of inflammatory mediators at a molecular level is therefore critical to identify key targets for the development of drugs to boost resistance to infection or to suppress inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Protein phosphorylation and ubiquitylation are the two key post-translational modifications that are deployed to regulate the innate immune system. The MRC supported research in my laboratory is focused on understanding how the key transcription factor NF-?B and Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs) are switched on to control the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferon ??(IFN?). Over the past two years significant advances in understanding how NF-?B and the IRFs are regulated have been made by the three Ph.D. students in my lab, who are supported by MRC Unit funding. My student Sam Strickson has made important contributions towards the discovery that a hybrid ubiquitin chain, comprising both Lys63-linked and Met1-linked ubiquitin oligomers, is critical to switch on the I?B kinases (IKKs) that activate NF-?B and that the formation of Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains is a prerequisite for the formation of Met1-linked ubiquitin chains. Sam discovered that the anti-inflammatory drug BAY 11-7082 blocks the activation of the IKKs by inactivating the E2 conjugating enzymes required for the formation of Lys63-linked and Met1-linked ubiquitin oligomers. Excitingly, he also found that this drug is effective in destroying cancerous cells from patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, one of the least treatable forms of this blood cancer. My student Jiang Zhang has discovered that the activation of the IKKs requires two different protein kinases that phosphorylate distinct serine residues in the “activation loops” of the IKKs, a control mechanism that may be of general significance. Another student Nazma Malik has made the unexpected discovery that a drug developed as an inhibitor of the protein kinase PLK1 for the treatment of cancer, blocks the production of IFN? during viral infection by a novel mechanism that is independent of PLK1 and which prevents the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the IFN? gene promoter. This drug and other molecules with a similar mechanism of action may have therapeutic potential for treating the lethal effects or flu and/or sepsis in which the over-production of IFN? is a major contributory factor.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Another grant from Ono
Amount £419,000 (GBP)
Organisation Ono Pharmaceutical 
Sector Private
Country Japan
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2019
 
Description Elucidation of mechanisms that restrict the activation of Toll-like receptors and the IL-1 receptor to prevent inflammatory and autoimmune disease
Amount £1,229,672 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/R021406/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2023
 
Description Grant to MRC funded postdoc in lab
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Organisation Tenovus 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2017
 
Description New research grant from the pharmaceutical industry
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation Ono Pharmaceutical 
Sector Private
Country Japan
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description PhD
Amount £113,156 (GBP)
Funding ID PHD-770/2014 
Organisation Medical Research Scotland 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2019
 
Description Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator Award
Amount £1,674,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2013 
End 03/2018
 
Description David Powell 
Organisation University of Kentucky
Department Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Center
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have provided David Powell with a lupus prone mouse line that we have developed
Collaborator Contribution David Powell is a nephrologist who has analysed the kidney damage that occurs in these mice in great detail
Impact .
Start Year 2013
 
Description Henning Walczak 
Organisation University College London
Department Department of Geography
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are studying TLR3 signalling using macrophages from HOIP knock-out mice provided by henning Walczak
Collaborator Contribution .Provision of HOIP knockout mice
Impact .
Start Year 2015
 
Description Iain Macinnes 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration has only just been set up. The aim is to test a novel idea about how to identify patients destined to develop lupus before they are aware that this will happen.
Collaborator Contribution .
Impact .
Start Year 2017
 
Description Nathanael Gray 
Organisation Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Country United States 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution We have used many protein kinase inhibitors developed by Nathanael Gray to advance a number of our projects
Collaborator Contribution Provision of protein kinase inhibitors with defined specificities
Impact Several papers have been published (see publication list). The projects are multidisciplinary and combined Nathanael Gray's expertise in Chemistry with our expertise cell signalling and the innate immune system.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Ono Pharmaceutical Company Collaborative Research Project 
Organisation Ono Pharmaceutical
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Investigating the therapeutic potential of inhibiting the SIK family of protein kinase
Collaborator Contribution Production of compounds and animal studies, secondment of staff from Japan to Dundee
Impact Increased research funding for my laboratory over the next two years. The collaboration is inter disiplinary involving mouse genetics, animal studies, cell signaling, biochemistry and chemical biology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Steve Ley 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We are studying the mechanism by which mice expressing a ubiquitin-binding defective mutant of ABIN2 develop intestinal inflammation
Collaborator Contribution Steve Ley our collaborator has provided an antibody that recognises ABIn2 and has provide advice that has been useful in advancing this project
Impact .
Start Year 2016
 
Description Vikram Rao 
Organisation Pfizer Inc
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have used mouse genetics to validate the protein kinases IRAK1 and IRAK4 as drug targets for the treatment and/or prevention of lupus
Collaborator Contribution Vikram Rao has providing small molecule inhibitors of these protein kinases to studying the physiological roles of these kinases and to test their efficacy in a mouse model of lupus
Impact A paper has been written and submitted for publication
Start Year 2013
 
Description 8th World Conference on Waldenstrom's Lymphoma 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On the evening of August 16th Philip Cohen gave the closing lecture of the 8th International Workshop on Waldenstrom's Lymphoma in the Churchill rooms of the Houses of Parliament in London. Waldenstrom's lymphoma is caused by mutations in the protein MyD88, and 95% of the patients who are afflicted by this disease express the same mutant in which the leucine residue at position 265 is changed to proline. MyD88 is an essential adaptor protein in the signalling networks that are triggered by the binding of bacterial and viral components to Toll-Like Receptors or by the interaction of interleukins 1, 18 and 33 with their receptors.


Philip's talk to an audience that mainly comprised patients with Waldenstrom's lymphoma, their physicians, relatives and friends, focused on how MyD88 was discovered, and its key role in the innate immune system that is vital for protection against infection by microbial pathogens, especially during childhood. He also explained how the hyper-activation of the MyD88-dependent signalling network can lead to autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, and how its constitutive activation caused by the MyD88[Leu265Pro] mutation leads to lymphoma. The talk was followed by a formal dinner in the Churchill rooms, at which Philip and Tricia Cohen were the guests of honour.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference on Kinases in Drug Discovery, Berlin, Germany, May 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Demonstrating practical experiments to primary school children 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 2 Postdocs employed on the grant (Marta Lopez-Pelaez & Juanma Ortiz-Guerrero) showed 10-12 year old children at Baldragon Academy, Dundee how to identify blood types, assay enzymes and demonstrated the concepts of pH, muscle fatigue and the reflex actions of the brain in 5 seperate visit to the school during 2015. In a further visit to St Pius school, Juanma explained to 7-8 year olds what microbes are and the importance of washing their hands.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description German TV interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact In 2016 I gave an interview to a German TV channel about the potential impact of Brexit on UK Science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview with ZDF (German National Public Broadcasting) Regarding Scottish Referendum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact ZDF wished to interview Professor Cohen regarding the risks for life sciences in an independent Scotland for their European affairs programme that wished to discuss an economic case for and against independence.


Sir Philip's signature on an open letter and viewpoints expressed, while his own, brought to light in the general public, the potential deleterious impact a 'Yes' vote would have had upon Scottish scientific research funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.zdf.de/ZDFmediathek#/hauptnavigation/startseite
 
Description Keynote Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting of the JBKlebsen Foundation (Bekkjarvik, Norway October 2016)Keynote Lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Keynote Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Claude Klee Memorial Symposium, National Instititutes of Health, Bethesda, USA Keynote Lecture (November 2017)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Keynote Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 1st Frankfurt conference on Ubiquitin and Autophagy (July 2016, Frankfurt) Keynote Lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Keynote Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International Conference on Clinical Sciences and Drug Discovery (July 2016, Dundee, Scotland) Keynote Lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Keynote Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Symposium on Regulatory Biology and Stress Responses (Singapore,October 2015) Keynote lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Keynote Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics Keynote Lecture (Glasgow, August 2015)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a lecture at the 6th Annual Donald B. McCormick Lecture, Emory University, Georgia, USA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Vallee Lecture, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA (November 2013)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The UK and Ireland NF-kappaB meeting (Newcastle, June 2017)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Albert Einstein World Award of Science Lecture (Aalto University, Helsinki, November 2014)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Annual Symposium of the Centre for Life Sciences (Beijing November, 2015)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Oliver Smithies Lecture, The Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Toronto, Canada (April 2014)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Shanghaitech SIAIS Bioforum 2014 on Cellular Processing of Information (Shanghai, China, November 2014)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keystone Symposium on Ubiquitin (March 2016, Whistler Mountain, BC Canada)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Signaling in Inflammation and Immunity (VIB Ghent, October 2014)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Harden Conference on Protein Kinases in Health and Disease, Winchester , UK (September 2015)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact British Society for Immunology (Brighton, UK December 2014).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Landmarks in Cell Signaling lecture, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (May 2014)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact UK and Ireland biannual conference on NF-kappaB (Glasgow, June 2015)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The FASEB Conference on Protein Kinase and Protein Phosphorylation (Cambridge UK, August 2017)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Kinome III to mark the retirement of Brian Hemmings Keynote Lecture (Basel, September 2014)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The international auto-inflammatory diseases conference (Cyprus, May 2017)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Lecture at the Orkney International Science Festival 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sir Philip Cohen gave a lecture at the Orkney Science Festival. Entitled "Protein Kinase Inhibitors The Major Drugs of the 21st Century". The lecture described the remarkable impact that these drugs are having on the treatment of some cancers and discussed their likely future impact on the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The lecture also explained how fundamental research performed in the MRC Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit had contributed to this area and helped to change the perception of protein kinases as drug targets.

The audience, consisting of locals, as well as an international contingent of visitors, was engaged and asked numerous questions about the cellular processes Professor Cohen spoke of.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Lecture at the University of South Alabama 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Charles M. Baugh Lecture in Basic Medical Sciences, University of SouthAlabama, Mobile, USA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2013
 
Description New Drugs for the 21st Century 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Philip Cohen gave a talk about kinase drug discovery to the Scotland International Group at the Gleneagles Hotel Scotland on Friday November 29th 2013. Entitled "New Drugs for the 21st Century". The audience of 60 included the CEOs and CFOs of 20% of the UK's FTSE 100 companies, the Brazilian and Russian Ambassadors, the former UK Ambassador to the USA, the former Secretary General of NATO), Sir the former head of UK Government Operations, and Scotland's only two billionaires."


Sir Philip's talk stimulated much discussion as he recounted the research being undertaken in Dundee and the potential of many of the targets torwards therapeutic development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Public lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave the Pehr Edman Edman Lecture to the general public at St Vincent's Institute, Melbourne, Australia in June 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.svi.edu.au/news/signals_of_success_the_2016_pehr_edman_lecture/
 
Description Publicity arising from the new collaboration with Ono Pharmaceuticals 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Following a press release, Philip Cohen was interviewed by Scottish Television, which appeared on Scottish Tv in the evening. He was also interviewed by two local Dundee radio stations, Wave1 and Radio Tay, and these interviews were broadcast throughout the day. Newspaper articles appeared in the Dundee Evening Telegraph and the Dundee Courier.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Scotland: For Richer or Poorer? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Sir Philip Cohen will be featured on Robert Peston's BBC2 Documentary 'Scotland: For Richer or Poorer' airing tonight at 9pm on BBC2. How will independence affect Dundee's reputation for excellence in life sciences?


Sir Philip's signature on an open letter and viewpoints expressed, while his own, brought to light in the general public, the potential deleterious impact a 'Yes' vote would have had upon Scottish scientific research funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b049b89z/scotland-for-richer-or-poorer
 
Description Scottish Referendum - Open Letter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "A group of eminent Scottish medical experts have warned that independence would seriously damage research funding for Scotland's universities and medical schools.

The open letter from 14 experts, including senior staff from all five of the country's main medical schools, said they had ""grave concerns"" that Scotland's world-leading biomedical and life sciences research would suffer if Scotland ""sleepwalks"" into leaving the UK.

The letter, coordinated by Sir David Carter, a former chief medical officer in Scotland, said Scottish universities did disproportionately well out of the UK's research funding system and from the UK's charitable and medical foundation grants.
"


Sir Philip's signature on an open letter and viewpoints expressed, while his own, brought to light in the general public, the potential deleterious impact a 'Yes' vote would have had upon Scottish scientific research funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/may/23/scottish-independence-research-funding-medical-exper...
 
Description Society meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Biochemical Society Meeting on Signaling - from Structure to Function (York, July 2013)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Student's important protein discovery could help fight cancer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Jiazhen Zhang, a research student in Professor Sir Philip Cohen's laboratory at the University of Dundee, has uncovered how the protein complex, called NF-?B, is activated. The results are published in July, 2014.


Research being undertaken in the Cohen lab was discussed by the broader lay community in an effort to share the impact of these studies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://news.stv.tv/tayside/282195-jiazhen-zhang-at-university-of-dundee-publishes-research-on-nf-b/
 
Description Summer School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Summer School on Pathogen-Host Interactions at Cellular Barriers (June 2014, Munster, Germany).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 11th International Symposium on Mass Spectrometry. Keynote Lecture (San Francisco, August 2014)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Symposium to mark Bill Whelan's 90th Birthday (Miami November 2014)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact How cells communicate. A symposium in celebration of Tony Pawson's impact on science. Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Toronto, Canada (May 2014)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Koch Cancer Symposium MIT, Boston USA (November 2013)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Vallee Foundation Symposium on Protein Homeostasis, Metabolism & Cancer (Boston, USA, August 2014).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Teaching young children about microbes and the immune system 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Nicola Darling and Kristopher Clark, postdoctoral researchers employed on the grant, participated in an event called "Incredible Immunology", which was a two day public outreach programme, organised by the School of Life Sciences at the University of Dundee. It took place at the Dundee Science Centre and was aimed at introducing the immune system and the ways in which research is carried out in this field. The first day was targeted at primary school children and about 125 attended, whilst the second day was attended by members of the general public, mostly families.

Nicol Darling also participated in Open Doors Day in which the School of Life Sciences at the University of Dundee shows the general public around the building. As part of this event members of the public were invited to learn more about the research being carried out at the MRC Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit with about 100 people attending. The main topics were the brain and cancer introduced through interactive games and opther activities.

Nicola Darling was also involved in teaching 160 S1 pupils (aged 11-12 years) at the Baldragon Academy high school. The aim of her class on was to help the students to improve their understanding of acids, alkalis and pH, and to encourage their enthusiasm for science by performing experiments. In addition Nicola demonstrated a more complex experiment and answered questions from the children about careers in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact National Cancer Research Centre of Ireland Workshop (Dublin, June 2013)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013