Temporally patterned closed-loop stimulation for therapy of brain disorders

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford

Abstract

In Parkinson’s disease and tremor, the electrical activity in several different parts of the brain becomes abnormally rhythmic. This increase in rhythmic activity stops the brain controlling movement in a normal way.

These diseases can be treated by placing electrodes in the parts of the brain that are abnormally rhythmic and applying continuous electrical pulses. This treatment increases the amount of normal movement, but it can also cause side effects by disrupting the brains healthy activity. Our aim is to improve such brain pacemaker treatments.

We will record the rhythmic brain activity and use its features to decide when and how to stimulate in a way that will further increase normal movements and decrease side effects. Firstly, we will use the strength of rhythmic activity to decide when to turn the stimulation on and off. Secondly, we can time a pulse of electricity on a specific part of the rhythm to improve movements as efficiently as possible. This is similar to pushing someone on a swing; pushing them at one point will make them go faster, but at another will make them slow down.

We will use experiments in animal models to find the most effective and safest techniques and then test these in patients.

Technical Summary

Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Tremor can be treated using continuous high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of basal ganglia or thalamus. Both diseases are characterised by neuronal synchrony in the cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus that occurs concurrently with symptoms. In tremor, this neuronal synchronisation occurs at the same frequency as the tremulous limb. In PD, there is mounting evidence for elevated neural synchrony in the beta (~20 Hz) frequency band, and this correlates with severity of akinesia and rigidity. Our goal is to utilise this pathological activity to deliver a closed-loop brain stimulation framework that will significantly improve the treatment of these diseases. Although novel, these treatments will be tractable, based as they are on electrical stimulation that, even in its rawest forms, has already proven beneficial to tens of thousands of patients. To this end, we will develop three closed-loop strategies.

Firstly, and most simply, we will limit stimulation to those periods during which pathological activity is elevated to give adaptive high frequency DBS (aHF DBS). We have shown that acute aHF DBS affords improved therapeutic benefit in PD patients as compared to continuous stimulation. We will continue to develop this strategy in both PD and tremor patients.

Secondly, we will deliver stimulation locked to a particular point (phase) in the cycle of the underlying pathological activity to give adaptive phase locked DBS (aPL DBS). As oscillatory activity seems likely to be mechanistically important in driving symptomatology in PD and tremor, aPL DBS may be more specific and selective than conventional DBS by interacting directly with the pathological activity. We have demonstrated the potential efficacy of this strategy in tremor and will continue this work in patients. In PD, we will develop this methodology in the rat model and test the most successful protocols on patients.

The pathological oscillatory activity in these conditions is likely an emergent property of altered functional connectivity, arising across specific circuit components as a consequence of chronic disturbances in neurotransmission. To this end, for our third strategy will use spike-triggered stimulation to progressively and selectively weaken or strengthen key connectivities over time to rebalance networks and ameliorate disease related impairment. These experiments will be carried out using animal models, to allow flexibility in stimulation protocols and the examination of structural changes in connectivity.

Our approaches are intended to be generic and applicable to other brain targets and diseases, and eventually implementable by alternative, more selective forms of stimulation, when these become suitable for use in patients.

Publications

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Abdi A (2015) Prototypic and arkypallidal neurons in the dopamine-intact external globus pallidus. in The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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Anzak A (2015) Excessive neural synchrony in Machado-Joseph disease responsive to subthalamic nucleus stimulation. in Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society

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Aron AR (2016) Frontosubthalamic Circuits for Control of Action and Cognition. in The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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Beudel M (2015) Tremor Reduction by Deep Brain Stimulation Is Associated With Gamma Power Suppression in Parkinson's Disease. in Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society

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Brittain JS (2015) Distinguishing the central drive to tremor in Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. in The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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Cagnan H (2017) Stimulating at the right time: phase-specific deep brain stimulation. in Brain : a journal of neurology

 
Description Member of Research Advisory Panel of Parkinson's UK
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.parkinsons.org.uk/content/grant-assessment-panels
 
Description Member of Scientific Affairs Council of International Movement Disorders Society
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Contributed to several guideline and clinical reviews
 
Description PD UK Panel Discussions Workshop on role of lay reviewers and PPI in PD UK grant evaluation
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description l'Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://icm-institute.org/menu/actualites
 
Description BRC2-3 transition funding
Amount £142,300 (GBP)
Organisation Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 
Department NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2018
 
Description BRC3 Research Fellowship
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 
Department NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2020
 
Description MRC Industrial Strategy Studentship
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia Project grants
Amount $726,000 (AUD)
Organisation National Health and Medical Research Council 
Sector Public
Country Australia
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2019
 
Description Oxford BRC
Amount £2,800,000 (GBP)
Organisation Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 
Department NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2012 
End 03/2017
 
Description Rosetrees Trust project grant
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rosetrees Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2019
 
Description Rosetrees Tust: Project grant
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rosetrees Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 12/2018
 
Description StopBeta
Amount € 195,455 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2017
 
Description Wellcome/University of Oxford Clinical PhD Studentship
Amount £235,319 (GBP)
Funding ID 109030/Z/15/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Title Depth LFPs 
Description Depth recordings in patients with Parkinson's disease 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Publications 
 
Title Directionality Index 
Description Means to identify the best site for stimulation when using directional electrodes for deep brain stimulation 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Tinkhauser G, Pogosyan A, Debove I, Nowacki A, Shah SA, Seidel K, Tan H, Brittain JS, Petermann K, di Biase L, Oertel M, Pollo C, Brown P*, Schuepbach M.* Directional local field potentials: a tool to optimize deep brain stimulation. Movement Disorders. PMID: 29150884 DOI: 10.1002/mds.27215. Patent pending 
 
Title Tremor Stability Index 
Description Simple means of distinguishing essential tremor and parkinsonian tremor 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact di Biase L, Brittain JS, Shah SA, Pedrosa DJ, Cagnan H, Mathy A, Chen CC, Martín-Rodríguez JF, Mir P, Timmerman L, Schwingenschuh P, Bhatia K, Di Lazzaro V, Brown P. (2017) Tremor Stability Index: a new tool for differential diagnosis in tremor syndromes. Brain, 140: 1977-1986. PMCID: PMC5493195 Scientific Commentary: A simple way to distinguish essential tremor from tremulous Parkinson's disease. Brain, 2017; 140: 1820-1822. F1000Prime.com/727567227Patent Pending 
 
Title Database capturing the in vivo activity dynamics of neurons in a rat model of Parkinsonism. 
Description We have generated a unique database that contains electrophysiological readouts of single neuron function and neural population dynamics in the basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebral cortex of dopamine-depleted Parkinsonian rats and their dopamine-intact controls. This database is an asset of particular value to computational neuroscientists and others who are not positioned to gather such data themselves. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact New insights into pathological changes to these brain circuits in Parkinson's disease. External users have published one original research article that leveraged the database (Edgerton & Jaeger 2011, PMID: 21795543). 
 
Title Depth recordings in PD patients 
Description Clinical recordings during a specific task 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Herz DM, Tan H, Brittain JS, Fischer P, Cheeran B, Green AL, FitzGerald J, Aziz TZ, Ashkan K, Little S, Foltynie T, Limousin P, Zrinzo L, Hariz M, Bogacz R, Brown P. Distinct mechanisms mediate speed-accuracy adjustments in cortico-subthalamic networks. eLife. 
 
Description Bionics institute 
Organisation Bionics Institute
Country Australia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Advice on paradigms and evaluation of data
Collaborator Contribution Device development
Impact National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia: Closed-loop deep brain stimulation: Optimising treatment of Parkinson's disease using adaptive stimulation. $726,000 Co-applicant.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Dr C. Stagg tACS fMRI and TMS studies 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-supervision of a DPhil student and visiting fellow Manuscript published in Current Biology
Collaborator Contribution Co-supervision of a DPhil student and visiting fellow Manuscript published in Current Biology
Impact 3 publications
Start Year 2016
 
Description Dr Christian Moll/Prof Andreas Engel 
Organisation University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf
Country Germany 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Introduction of new experimental stimulation protocols
Collaborator Contribution Complementary data to our Parkinson's Disease animal models from Parkinson's patients
Impact Translational pilot data for phase dependent stimulation
Start Year 2015
 
Description Dr Litvak 
Organisation University College London
Department Institute of Neurology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Clinical advice, supervision and interpretation
Collaborator Contribution Scanning and analysis
Impact PMID: 21147836 PMID: 25754518 PMID: 25134978 PMID: 24150222 PMID: 24089489 PMID: 23277109 PMID: 22855804 PMID: 22815506
Start Year 2008
 
Description Dr Tim Constandinou 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Neurotechnology (CDT) for Life and Health at Imperial College London. Sponsor on Wellcome Trust Henry Wellcome Fellowship awarded to Dr Colin McNamara.
Collaborator Contribution Shared PhD student to start Oct. 2018
Impact Shared PhD student to start Oct. 2017
Start Year 2017
 
Description Mainz collaboration 
Organisation Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Protocol development and help with ethics application
Collaborator Contribution Ethics application
Impact None yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Marwan Hariz and Ludvic Zrinzo 
Organisation University College London
Department Division of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution recording and analysis and publication preparation
Collaborator Contribution provision of clinical material
Impact Multidisciplinary with over 15 publications
Start Year 2007
 
Description Prof Kuhn 
Organisation Charité - University of Medicine Berlin
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Experimental design, data collection and manuscript preparation
Collaborator Contribution Provision of research material and data collection. Intellectual input
Impact 16476944 16364953 16623853 16499911 16905134 16930593 17113373 17213215 17336961 17425586 17561827 17686048 17686426 18178569 18312587 18430031 18682201 18550758 18760276 19070616 19139047 19291224 19525877
 
Description Prof T Aziz 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Experimental design and recording. Analysis and joint manuscript preparation
Collaborator Contribution Provision of research material and intellectual input
Impact 17084697 17686426 18312587 18430031 18682201 19226423
Start Year 2006
 
Description Prof. Bernard Balleine 
Organisation University of Sydney
Department School of Chemistry
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have not contributed to this research team yet.
Collaborator Contribution One of my team, Dr Rahul Shah, has spent two weeks at the Balleine lab learning to train rodents in skilled motor tasks.
Impact Training of research staff
Start Year 2017
 
Description Prof. Jerrold Vitek 
Organisation University of Minnesota
Department College of Pharmacy
Country United States 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Novel data analysis
Collaborator Contribution Providing complementary data recorded in non-human primates
Impact The Vitek lab are recording new data to facilitate our own projects. The collaboration in not multi-disciplinary.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Rosetrees Tust: In search of the optimal closed-loop stimulation for Parkinson's disease. 
Organisation Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Country Israel 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint successful application to the Rosetrees Trust
Collaborator Contribution Joint successful application to the Rosetrees Trust
Impact none yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description SIBET 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences
Department Department of Medical Electronics
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Specified equipment and paradigms. Training and supervision
Collaborator Contribution Equipment, data, personnel
Impact Engineering from Chinese arm Engineering and clinical from UK
Start Year 2014
 
Description St Georges hospital 
Organisation St George's Hospital
Department Department of Neurosurgery
PI Contribution Protocol developed. Ethics obtained
Collaborator Contribution Protocol developed with me. Ethics obtained
Impact none as yet
Start Year 2017
 
Title Method and system for optimisation of DBS programming 
Description Identification that the specific pattern of subthalamic local field potentials can predict with electrode contact should be selected for chronic stimulation. This cuts physician programming time down from about 8 hours to 2 hours. 
IP Reference WO/2017/158067 and published Sept. 21, 2017 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed No
Impact None as yet
 
Title A new index for differential diagnosis of PD and Essential Tremor 
Description Patent filed 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Non-Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Refinement. Clinical
Year Development Stage Completed 2017
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact Patent filed and Publication in revision 
 
Title New Method for surgical target localisation based on local field potentials 
Description Means of improving deep brain stimulation by assisting targeting and selection of stimulation site Patent filed 
Type Support Tool - For Medical Intervention
Current Stage Of Development Early clinical assessment
Year Development Stage Completed 2017
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact Patent filed and manuscript in preparation 
 
Title TACS control of tremor 
Description Non-invasive stimulation for tremor therapy 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Medical Devices
Current Stage Of Development Refinement. Clinical
Year Development Stage Completed 2013
Development Status Under active development_distribution
Impact Interest from industry and press 
 
Title adaptive brain stimulation 
Description Funded by MRC 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Medical Devices
Current Stage Of Development Refinement. Clinical
Year Development Stage Completed 2013
Development Status Under active development_distribution
Impact Interest from Industry, and press. 
 
Description Basal Ganglia, Parkinson and Treatments Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a talk on "Electrophysiological signatures of Parkinson disease"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Discussion of the relative uses of clinical and animal research 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Dissemination of information


Meeting discussions were disseminated widely through branch publications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Discussion of the relative uses of clinical and animal research 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Dissemination of information.

Meeting discussions were disseminated widely through branch publications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Generating Genius School Visit during MRC Festival Week (commencing week 20 June 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Generating Genius, http://www.generatinggenius.org.uk/ a charity that works with high-achieving secondary school students from disadvantaged backgrounds to help them acquire the skills they need to win places on STEM courses at top universities. 22 Students from two schools attended the open day on 22 June 2016.

A group of bright GCSE students from the pre-16 strand of the programme called Junior Genius. A range of hands-on practical sessions, lab tours and talks will be run by Unit members at all levels to provide the children with an insight into the nature and benefits of medical/brain research, and inspire them to pursue a career in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.generatinggenius.org.uk/
 
Description Generating Genius School Visit during MRC Festival Week (commencing week 20 June 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Generating Genius, http://www.generatinggenius.org.uk/ a charity that works with high-achieving secondary school students from disadvantaged backgrounds to help them acquire the skills they need to win places on STEM courses at top universities. 22 Students from two schools attended the open day on 22 June 2016.

A group of bright GCSE students from the pre-16 strand of the programme called Junior Genius. A range of hands-on practical sessions, lab tours and talks ran by Unit members at all levels to provide the children with an insight into the nature and benefits of medical/brain research, and inspire them to pursue a career in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.generatinggenius.org.uk/
 
Description Hosting of Work Experience Student 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A student from a local school spent 3 days in the lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Oxfordshire Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact OSF provides the opportunity to deliver a variety of engagement activities, from interactive stalls at the city-centre fair, to debates and more innovative formats. Many children and their parents attended to participate in an interactive journey about the brain - systems to single cell level.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.mrcbndu.ox.ac.uk/news/unit-members-engage-oxfordshire-science-festival-2015
 
Description School Open Day - 16 March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 120 GCSE/A level students from 8 local schools within Oxfordshire area attended the school open day. A range of hands-on practical sessions, lab tours and talks ran by Unit members at all levels to provide the children with an insight into the nature and benefits of medical/brain research, and inspire them to pursue a career in science. Also in attendance were local County Cllr Lorraine Lindsay-Gale , City Councillors Pat Kennedy and Louise Upton.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.mrcbndu.ox.ac.uk/news
 
Description School Open Day - 17 March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 140 GCSE/A level students from 12 local schools within Oxfordshire area attended the school open day. A range of hands-on practical sessions, lab tours and talks ran by Unit members at all levels to provide the children with an insight into the nature and benefits of medical/brain research, and inspire them to pursue a career in science.

Also in attendance were local Oxfordshire MP (Rt. Hon Mr Andrew Smith) and Councillor (Mr Bob Price) attended the school open day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.mrcbndu.ox.ac.uk/outreach
 
Description School Open Day - 17 March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 140 GCSE/A level students from 12 local schools within Oxfordshire area attended the school open day. A range of hands-on practical sessions, lab tours and talks ran by Unit members at all levels to provide the children with an insight into the nature and benefits of medical/brain research, and inspire them to pursue a career in science.

Also in attendance were local Oxfordshire MP (Rt. Hon Mr Andrew Smith) and Councillor (Mr Bob Price) attended the school open day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.mrcbndu.ox.ac.uk/outreach
 
Description School visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Encouraging students in to science, very enthusiastic reception to the subject.



Please see evaluation report and http://www.ndcn.ox.ac.uk/news/international-students-visit-our-department-to-learn-about-neuroscience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ndcn.ox.ac.uk/news/international-students-visit-our-department-to-learn-about-neuroscienc...
 
Description School visit - Work experience 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A group of 5 students from local schools within Oxforsdshire area spent two weeks in the Unit to gain work experience. A range of activities was arranged for them. During this period, the students were able to observe, participate in and learn about research science; Gain insight into scientific techniques and methods; Get exposure to a University environment, scientists, PhD students, and professors; Develop self-confidence, verbal and written communication skills

In2Science, http://in2scienceuk.org/ partners with academic institutions to give sixth-form students from low income backgrounds the opportunity to work alongside STEM scientists, with a view to inspiring/coaching them to get into top universities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://in2scienceuk.org/
 
Description School visit - Work experience 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A group of 5 students from local schools within Oxforsdshire area spent two weeks in the Unit to gain work experience. A range of activities was arranged for them. During this period, the students were able to observe, participate in and learn about research science; Gain insight into scientific techniques and methods; Get exposure to a University environment, scientists, PhD students, and professors; Develop self-confidence, verbal and written communication skills

In2Science, http://in2scienceuk.org/ partners with academic institutions to give sixth-form students from low income backgrounds the opportunity to work alongside STEM scientists, with a view to inspiring/coaching them to get into top universities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://in2scienceuk.org/
 
Description School visit - work experience 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A group of 5 students from local schools within the Oxfordshire area was enrolled on a 2-week programme (non-residential) during which they were given:
- Personalised mentoring from scientists
- Opportunities to gain a wide variety of practical experiences as well as exposure to key concepts and challenges in research
- Integrated workshops with in2scienceUK, where the pupils receive guidance on university applications, wider information about STEM careers, and training in transferable skills. In2science partners with academic institutions to give sixth-form students from low income backgrounds the opportunity to work alongside STEM scientists, with a view to inspiring/coaching them to get into top universities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://in2scienceuk.org
 
Description Work Experience 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Hosted 5 pupils from 4 local schools in Oxford.

The placement scheme hosted at the Unit was a first for Oxford, and was tailored for pupils from local state-funded schools to support their progress into university degrees and careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM).

During their time in the Unit, the pupils worked alongside Unit scientists and received personalised mentoring to gain a wide variety of practical experiences and learn more about key concepts and challenges in neuroscience and medical research. In a series of integrated workshops with in2scienceUK, the pupils also received guidance on university applications, wider information about STEM careers, and training in transferable skills. The pupils recorded their experiences and progress in blogs and images.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.mrcbndu.ox.ac.uk/news
 
Description Work Experience 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Hosted 5 pupils from 4 local schools in Oxford.

The placement scheme hosted at the Unit was a first for Oxford, and was tailored for pupils from local state-funded schools to support their progress into university degrees and careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM).

During their time in the Unit, the pupils worked alongside Unit scientists and received personalised mentoring to gain a wide variety of practical experiences and learn more about key concepts and challenges in neuroscience and medical research. In a series of integrated workshops with in2scienceUK, the pupils also received guidance on university applications, wider information about STEM careers, and training in transferable skills. The pupils recorded their experiences and progress in blogs and images.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.mrcbndu.ox.ac.uk/news
 
Description discussion with film maker about a PE film on motor control and benefits of Dance in PD 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Advice and discussion with film maker about a PE film on motor control and benefits of Dance in PD


Dr Higgins sent the following after: Many thanks for taking time out to chat with me earlier today. It was a very useful conversation for me and I'm really grateful for your suggestions, input and support of the project. I'll contact Professor Lynn Rochester and Barry Gibb as you suggested and keep you updated on how things develop and progress. Much appreciate, also, your consent to act as 'consultants' to the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2015
URL https://www.linkedin.com/pub/ceri-higgins/55/613/648