Ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-SD OCT) in infants and children: characterisation of normal and abnormal foveal development

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leicester
Department Name: Cardiovascular Sciences

Abstract

The recent development of optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides pictures of the back of the eye (the retina) with the precision of a microscope in living people. This has contributed to significant progress in the diagnosis and treatment of retinal diseases in adults. However, OCT is not currently clinically available for young children.
The normal retina is not mature at birth and undergoes significant changes until about 45 months leading to visual improvement. We aim to visualise for the first time changes in the retina from birth to 6 years of age using a newly developed hand-held OCT device, comparing also results in older children and adults. OCTs will be performed in a large amount of children with normal eyes and in children with developmental eye problems which can occur, for example, in albinism (pigment deficiency), colour blindness or other genetic problems. We will investigate whether retinal development is "arrested" or slowed down after birth in these patients.
We aim to determine whether OCT images can assist in the diagnosis and prediction of vision in preverbal infants and of the vision developing later in life. We hope that this study will help to understand the cause of nystagmus, involuntary eye movements frequently occurring in children with retinal problems.
We anticipate that our study will be an important step in validating and providing access of OCT in newborns, infants and young children. The data we aim to acquire from normal children will also lay the ground to investigate other diseases using OCT such as retinal problems of premature children, glaucoma or retinitis pigmentosa. To examine retinal structures in vivo in small children with high precision will be an important component of evaluating and timing imminent gene therapy, for example in achromatopsia.

Technical Summary

Recently, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has significantly improved diagnosis and therapy of retinal diseases in adults. However, OCT is not yet available clinically for infants and young children. Histological studies suggest that the fovea develops until at least 45 months of age but this has never been visualised in vivo. We aim to use a recently developed handheld ultra-high resolution spectral domain OCT (UHR-SD OCT) designed for children to (i) characterise normal and abnormal development of the fovea, (ii) improve early diagnosis of infants and children with foveal hypoplasia, (iii) better understand mechanisms of nystagmus and (iv) estimate or predict later visual acuity by also characterising eye movements in nystagmus.
Approximately 320 OCT images of control subjects and patients with idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN), albinism, PAX6 mutations and achromatopsia will be obtained using cross-sectional and longitudinal sampling (from birth to 6 years of age, in 10-12 year old children, and in young adults).
OCTs will be obtained using a spectral domain handheld OCT (3.2micro meter resolution, 1000 A-scans x 100 B-scans, 10x10mm, Bioptigen Inc, NC)
Analysis will include measurements of the thickness of the nerve fiber layer, all processing and photoreceptor layers and retinal pigment epithelium. Foveal grading will be based on total retinal thickness, foveal pit depth, and widening of the outer nuclear and outer segment layers at the fovea.

Eye movements of children with nystagmus will be recorded with head free high resolution infrared oculography (EyeLink 1000) suitable for infants and children. Eye movement characteristics such as amplitude, frequency, intensity, foveation characteristics and waveform will be analysed using Spike 2 Software.
We anticipate that this study will help establish OCT as a key investigational and diagnostic tool for children.

Planned Impact

We anticipate that this research will benefit children with retinal diseases by giving them access to a new technology called optical coherence tomography. So far this technique has mainly be used in adults, where it has had an enormous impact on diagnosis and treatment. Infants will benefit from this research through better diagnosis, assessment of visual potential and possible prediction of visual acuity later in life. The results of this study will be immediately applicable for clinical purposes and further research. Giving children access to retinal imaging in-vivo will also improve methods for selecting suitable patients and determining the best ages for treatment as well as monitoring results of imminent gene therapies. We will also create databases of patients' pheno- and genotype and make possible trials in genetic therapy immediately available to these patients. Patients with diseases like glaucoma in childhood, retinopathy of prematurity, any retinal or optic nerve disorders will also potentially benefit from this study. For example, it is extremely difficult to monitor glaucoma in early childhood as subjective measurements such as visual fields are not feasible and not precise. The objective monitoring of the retinal nerve fibre layer would be extremely important in childhood glaucoma. Normative data and advance in techniques in acquisition and analysis of data obtained in the proposed study will contribute to examine several childhood diseases. Proving that the method of the handheld OCT is suitable clinically for children is likely to increase production of such instruments by several companies in the field. This is likely to improve the quality of these instruments and reduce costs. A successful study will also improve the likelihood of relevant medical charities to raise funds for this research.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description iii Leicester OCT coourse
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Several paediatric ophthalmologists have decided to acquire hand-held OCT instrument which will make changes in their clinical practice.
 
Description Changes of retinal layers in Schizophrenia 
Organisation University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Initiate collaboration, research set up, supervision, ophthalmic examination, OCT acquisition and analysis, manuscript writing, statistics
Collaborator Contribution Patient recruitment and psychiatric examination of patients, manuscript revision
Impact Retinal Layer Abnormalities as Biomarkers of Schizophrenia. Samani NN, Proudlock FA, Siram V, Suraweera C, Hutchinson C, Nelson CP, Al-Uzri M, Gottlob I. Schizophr Bull. 2017 Dec 19. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbx130. [Epub ahead of print]
Start Year 2016
 
Description Development of segmentation techniques for automatic OCT segmentation 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department School of Life Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have initiated this collaboration and provided data and solutions for analysis.
Collaborator Contribution They have developed an image decomposition model for denoising and segmenting OCT images
Impact Phys Med Biol. 2015 Nov 21;60(22):8901-22. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/60/22/8901. Epub 2015 Nov 10. New variational image decomposition model for simultaneously denoising and segmenting optical coherence tomography images. Duan J1, Tench C, Gottlob I, Proudlock F, Bai L.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Use of hand-held OCT in children with malaria retinopathy 
Organisation Wellcome Trust
Department Malawi-Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme
Country Malawi 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Expertise in hand-held OCT, equipment (hand-held OCT has been transported to Malawi and is still there), lead by our team to collect data. We have examined for the first time children with cerebral malaria using hand-held OCT in Malawi to investigate if specific retinopathy changes can predict course of disease and to what extend OCT can contribute to characterise the retinal changes at high resolution. We have characterised the retinal changes on OCT and compared them with fundus pictures, fluorescein angiography and histology. We have looked at optic nerve changes and correlated swelling to opening pressure at lumbar puncture and found correlation. Publication is in preparation
Collaborator Contribution We have examined for the first time children with cerebral malaria using hand-held OCT in Malawi to investigate if specific retinopathy changes can predict course of disease and to what extend OCT can contribute to characterise the retinal changes at high resolution. We have characterised the retinal changes on OCT and compared them with fundus pictures, fluorescein angiography and histology. We have looked at optic nerve changes and correlated swelling to opening pressure at lumbar puncture and found correlation. Publication is in preparation. Our partners have done treatment and all paediatric examinations.
Impact http://ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract June 2017 New insights into malaria retinopathy using optical coherence tomography OPEN ACCESS Jack Gormley; Zhanhan Tu; Viral Sheth; Frank A Proudlock; Karl Seydel; Terrie Taylor; Gerald Msukwa; Nicholas V Beare; Simon P Harding; Irene Gottlob Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.. 2017; 58(8):5134. doi: Subclinical changes on hand-held optical coherence tomography in apparently malaria retinopathy-negative patients with cerebral malaria OPEN ACCESS Zhanhan Tu; Jack Gormley; Viral Sheth; Frank A Proudlock; Karl Seydel; Terrie Taylor; Gerald Msukwa; Nicholas V. Beare; Simon P Harding; Irene Gottlob Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.. 2017; 58(8):5135. doi:
Start Year 2016
 
Description "Big Bang" Science and Technology fair at Leicester Grammar School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A visit with demonstating the Hand-hel OCT and explaining anatomy and physiology of the eye and research popportunities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Albinism Fellowship Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact We have summarised the work being done by our research group and answer questions in relation the research projects that are available to anyone that may be interested in volunteering.

Several participants from this events have volunteered to participate in the study as a result of the information provided from this event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Anterior Optical Coherence Tomography in Children with Primary Congenital Glaucoma< ARVO, May 2017, Baltimore USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk/presentation at ARVO annual meeting with questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Attendance of American Nystagmus Network patient and researcher conference, New Orleans, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact The purpose of the visit was to be involved in a combined researcher and patient meeting to share with sufferers of nystagmus some of the research we have been doing and to offer expert opinions. The visit also enabled researchers to hear from patients about what really impacts upon their life as individuals with nystagmus and express their views concerning where further research needs to be carried out.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://nystagmus.org/new/conferences/previous-conferences/2015-conference/
 
Description Attendance of European Days of Albinism (EDA) patient and researcher conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact The European Days of Albinism (EDA) are organised to bring together researchers and patients under the one roof to share information and establish links. The meeting involves research talks which are then summarised to the patients which attend from all over the world. The meeting also provides an opportunity for individuals with albinism to share their experienced and to hear about difficulties encountered from individuals across the globe. This includes those who suffer persecution as a result of having albinism. The meeting offers education to researchers and patients alike.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2016
URL http://www.ledha.it/allegati/LED_t2_notizie_allegati/2171/FILE_Allegato_Albinism_DEF_19022016.pdf
 
Description BIPOSA prize 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This prestigious price was won by a trainee in our team for presenting "The prediction of later visual acuity in nystagmus from OCT early in life)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
URL https://www2.le.ac.uk/colleges/medbiopsych/research/clinical-academic-training/trainee-achievements/...
 
Description Big Bang Science air - Leicester Grammar School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We had a stand at the Science Day of Leicester Grammar School about our research and the connection of the eye and brain. We also offered a retinal scan with the handheld OCT to students. There was large interest with queues forming in front of our station. After the event we had many emails and phone calls to enquire study collaborations by parents in the school who are medical doctors or scientists. Families who could not be scanned on the day are keen to come in our department to help with normative data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Brain Awareness Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Demonstration of the hand-hel oct to the public, explanation of visual anatomy and physiology and research in our group
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Brain Awareness Day, University of Leicester, March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Research made lay for the general public, increase awareness in Brain/eye research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Brain awareness Day University of Leicester 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The demonstration was called: "The developing eye - using light to explore the retina". It was given at the Brain awareness day and there was one session for school children and one for the general public. The hand-held OCT was used to demonstrate how the retinal layers and the optic nerve can be visualised. Thee were also short talks to explain how the OCT can be used for patients and for observing normal retinal / optic nerve development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Careers Fair at Leicester Grammar School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Aarti was invited to participate in a local careers fair for senior school students. During the event she spoke about a career in academic medicine and has subsequently helped students organise work experience within the department and guided them through the medical school application process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Comparison of retinal development in idiopathic infantile nystagmus and nystagmus associated with albinism, PAX6 mutations and achromatopsia, ARVO May 2017, Baltimore USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk/presentation at ARVO annual meeting with questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Contribution of Central and Peripheral Visual Cues to Postural Control in Infantile Nystagmus, ARVO, May 2017, Baltimore USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk/presentation at ARVO annual meeting with questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description EAST MIDLANDS - LASERS, IMAGING and OCT workshop for Specialty and Associate Specialist doctors 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact We discussed the relatively new concept of using OCT in the clinical setting in patients with nystagmus in order to assist in reaching a diagnosis. A lot of interest was generated in its use especially in children presenting with nystagmus.

As awareness has been raised for the clinical utility in using the hand-held OCT as a diagnostic tool, more referrals have been made for children with nystagmus to have this imaging as part of their investigations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www.eastmidlandsdeanery.nhs.uk/document_store/13786642561_east_midlands_ophthalmology_worksh...
 
Description High School Vision Program (Diversity Initiatives and Committee) event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School children were invited to attend a special event at The Association for Vision and Ophthalmology Annual Meeting in Baltimore May 2017. Aarti volunteered to help giving individuals a tour of the event and discussing her own and other research activities. She looks forward to taking part again in 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International OCT course in Leicester 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a 2 day OCT course , the first day was hands on with practical teaching to enable other practitioners to acquire OCT images. Patients (children) attended to allow to develop practical skills. The second day included dissemination of the latest research results and how they can be applied in clinic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/npb/news-1/oct-course
 
Description Interview with the Leicester Mercury 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This article was published in the local paper, which highlighted to the public, the work that is being carried out with the OCT scanner, as well as all the benefits for infants and young children.

We received many queries with regards to participating in this study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.leicestermercury.co.uk/Boost-children-s-health/story-16804310-detail/story.html
 
Description Invited Presentation - Optic Nerve Changes in Children with Primary Congenital Glaucoma, BIPOSA, Hull, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk/presentation at BIPOSA meeting with questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited Presentation - Optic Nerve Head Drusen and IIH, Northampton Eye Meeting, Northampton, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk/presentation at Northampton eye meeting with questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited Presentation - Optic Neuropathy in Children with Primary Glaucoma, ARVO 2017 Baltimore USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk/presentation at ARVO annual meeting with questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Leicester Grammar Visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Participation in workshop to Leicester Grammar School which sparked questions and discussions afterward. Aim was to increase awareness about research in Ophthalmology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Leicester OCT Course Demonstration and Case Report 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the Leicester OCT Course
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Leicester OCT course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was the first course for paediatric OCT which was held in Leicester by our research team. Participants were mainly paediatric ophthalmologist from all over the country. The course consisted of lectures and a hands-on workshop. We had excellent feed-back. The audience was interested to use themselves hand-held OCT for their patients and were asking for Leicester to organise this course on a yearly base.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description New insights into malaria retinopathy using optial coherence tomography, ARVO, May 2017, Baltimore USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk/presentation at ARVO annual meeting with questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Normative Recruitment Presentation at Tongren Eye Hospital 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk/presentation on recruitment of patients for OCT testing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Nursery Visit - Stanhope Nursery, Leicester 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Recruitment for OCT Testing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Nursery Visit, Play Days Nursery, Leicester 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Recruitment of children for OCT testing for research grant
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Nursery Visit, Willows Pre-School, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Recruitment of children for OCT testing at Leicestershire nursery
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Nystagmus Network Open day 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact We were able to discuss the work that had been carried out so far and its benefits to date with many of the current participants as well as any potential participants that attended the open day.

We generated a lot of interest in this project and many more volunteers have now participated in this research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Optic Nerve Head Development of Premature and Full Term infants from Term to Six Years of Age Using Hand-Held Ultra-High Resolution Spectral Domain Coherence Tomography, ARVO, May 2017, Baltimore USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk/presentation at ARVO annual meeting with questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Organisation of symposium on OCT in Children at BIPOSA meeting in Hull 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a symposium , Irene Gottlob was invited to organise at the largest Peadiatric Opthalmology meeting in the UK, there were 4 talks. The feed-back was very possitive and many ophthalmologists are now interested to use hand-held OCT themselves.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Paediatric OCT Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact OCT course in Leicester with international attendance
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Paediatric and World Ophthalmology Registrars Prize 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paediatric and World Ophthalmology Registrar's Prize
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/press/press-releases/2017/july/university-of-leicester-researcher-wins...
 
Description Participation in Brain Awareness Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Involvement in demonstration of hand-held optical coherence tomography to schools and members of the public attending the Brain Awareness Day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/npb/news-1/baw
 
Description Participation in Brain Awareness Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Involvement in demonstration of hand-held optical coherence tomography to schools and members of the public attending the Brain Awareness Day. Poster used to describe amblyopia research and engage the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/npb/news-1/baw
 
Description Participation in IV European Days of Albinism (EDA) in Norway (near Oslo) for people with albinism and researchers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact The European Days of Albinism (EDA) are organised to bring together researchers and patients under the one roof to share information and establish links. The meeting involves research talks which are then summarised to the patients which attend from all over the world. The meeting also provides an opportunity for individuals with albinism to share their experienced and to hear about difficulties encountered from individuals across the globe. This includes those who suffer persecution as a result of having albinism. The meeting offers education to researchers and patients alike.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://4eda.albinism.eu/
 
Description Participation in Wobbly Wednesday 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wobbly Wednesday is a day run by Nystagmus Network UK to raise public awareness of nystagmus and assist with fund raising.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://nystagmusnetwork.org/fundraise/wobbly-wednesday/
 
Description Patient Public Involvement - questionnaire 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Aarti has utilised written correspondence to communicate with participants of the study including cards, questionnaires and newsletters. Questionnaires have enabled her to canvass patient opinion of the study. Cards and newsletters have enabled her to maintain relationships with participants and disseminate research findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Postgraduate Research Day, Clinical Characteristics of Albinism Carriers, Leicester, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research day for Postgraduate students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Reproducibility of measurements of iridocorneal angle in children using hand-held spectral domain optial cohrence tomography, ARVO, May 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk/presentation at ARVO annual meeting with questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Roger Trimble Lecture 2017 Irene Gottlob 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a named lectured for service in Paediatric Ophthalmology at the BIPOSA meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
URL http://www.biposa.org/trimble-lecturers.html
 
Description School Visit (Leicester Grammar School) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Big Bang Science Fair held by Leicester Grammar School is a one day event showcasing science, technology engineering and maths. Aarti organised attendance and participation of Ulverscroft Eye Unit which involved demonstrating clinical and research aspects of her work,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.leicestergrammar.org.uk/Big-Bang
 
Description Subclinical changes on hand-held optical coherence tomography in apparently malaria retinopathy-negative patients with cerebral malaria, ARVO, May 2017, Baltimore USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk/presentation at ARVO annual meeting with questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Television Interview for BBC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The interview was broadcast to a wide audience as part of the BBC Midlands today program.

We received many queries and volunteers from members of the public with regards to participation in the research projects using the hand-held OCT.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-leicestershire-19436194
 
Description Third Leicester OCT course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact OCT course to teach how to use hand-held OCT including hands on course and practical activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Visit to Capitol Hill, Washington DC for ARVO Advocacy Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact As part of The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) programming committee I attended an advocacy day to campaign for continued support for vision and eye research from the US government through funding via the Institute of Health (and the National Eye Institute). The ARVO committee wanted to use optical coherence tomography as an example of success leading to improved treatment, diagnosis and ultimately saving money for health services worldwide. I was able to use the research carried out with hand-held optical coherence tomography as funded by the MRC to highlight this point. The congressmen and senators and their office received this information enthusiastically and were particularly interested in its use in child health where it has the potential to improve diagnosis and treatment from birth onwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.arvo.org/Advocacy_and_Outreach/toolkits/
 
Description science fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We had a stand at the Science Fair of Leicester Grammar School. There have been about 600 students and visitors as well as their parents. We have made the public aware of our research and also recruited study participants. On this day we have recruited 40 children and we have distributed flyers to raise awareness of our study and for further families to participate and to visit us at the University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017