The human fetal liver: development and response to maternal drug use.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Aberdeen
Department Name: Division of Applied Medicine

Abstract

It is well known that if a woman smokes while pregnant there are bad consequences for the resulting offspring, especially slowed growth in the womb. However, other serious problems are also likely to occur in children exposed to their mothers' cigarette smoke chemicals during pregnancy. These include an impaired immune system (e.g. increased asthma), poorer educational performance and a raised chance of developing obesity, diabetes and heart disease (called metabolic syndrome). Many of these effects also happen if the mother regularly drinks alcohol while pregnant, even if not to the extent of addiction. We do not know exactly how much the chance of somebody developing metabolic syndrome is altered if their mother smoked and/or drank while pregnant. However, a recent study of 74,000 women found that if their mothers smoked while pregnant, the women had a 53% higher chance of becoming obese. This would be a major added drain on the NHS and would mean that many more people would be likely to suffer these debilitating conditions since smoking and/or alcohol use during pregnancy continues in 20-40% of women. In 2006-07 costs to the English NHS of lifestyle and related conditions were: smoking £3.3 billion, alcohol £3.3 billion, overweight/obesity £5.1 billion and diabetes £3.5 billion annually.

Adult health is partly programmed by events during fetal life when the individual is still in the womb and an individual may be badly adjusted for life if the mother uses recreational drugs. Growth restriction is important in this process and the liver is one of the organs most affected by disturbed growth before birth. The fetal liver is a key organ, protecting the fetus from harmful chemicals and controlling fetal growth. Progress in understanding the effects of maternal drug use on fetal development suffers from two problems: firstly, our ignorance of the levels of drugs to which the fetus is exposed and, secondly, the mechanisms by which these drugs affect development. Tactors contribute to our ignorance. Firstly, very little research uses normal human fetuses. Secondly, there is a lack of low-cost means with which to measure how much/which chemicals (nicotine, alcohol, cannabis etc.) are getting into the human fetus during pregnancy. This project aims to resolve these issues using our uniquely large collection of normal, second trimester human fetal livers and by collecting both the liver and the placenta from further terminations of normal pregnancies.

We will use highly sophisticated methods at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (USA) to measure chemicals from tobacco, cannabis, cocaine and alcohol in the fetal liver and in matched pairs of fetal livers and placentas. This will tell us how much the fetus has been exposed to drugs taken by the mother and whether the placenta can be used to measure the fetal burden of drugs and chemicals from the mother. This would allow us to carry out much larger studies of newborn babies to measure exposure levels in the placenta and their contribution to adult ill-health.

At the same time as measuring drug levels in the fetal liver we will work out how those drugs have affected liver function. Then, by using cell culture, it will be possible to re-create the effects of drug exposure in the culture dish with a view to understanding the long-term consequences. We will also be able to find out more about how liver function develops and how it differs between male and female babies Overall, our aim is to relate changes in the control of fetal liver development to the effects of chemicals in cigarette smoke. This will allow us to understand liver mal-development turns to metabolic syndrome. The information from this study will allow us to measure, and to understand, the effects of exposing the developing fetus to its mother's recreational drug use. This will enable treatments to be designed to reverse these effects and to lower the incidence of the modern scourge of metabolic syndrome.

Technical Summary

The human fetus is exposed to many potentially damaging chemicals, e.g. through maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. With large studies now linking such exposures with priority diseases (metabolic syndrome: cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes), accurate understanding of the underpinning pathophysiology is required. The human fetal liver has extensive metabolic and endocrine roles essential for normal growth and has been shown to be dysregulated by maternal drug use. This study will determine, for the first time, the exposure of the human fetal liver to maternal drug use and the effects that this has on liver function at the transcript, protein and cellular level. Understanding how maternal recreational drug use disturbs normal developmental pathways would represent a significant advance in our comprehension of mechanisms affecting fetal programming of adult health.

Initially, 120 second trimester human fetal livers (a unique resource already collected) and 40 liver+placenta pairs (to be collected) will undergo analysis through collaboration with the National Institute on Drug Abuse to measure levels of over 20 drug metabolites (e.g. of cigarette, alcohol, cannabis, heroin). RNA transcript and protein levels will then be measured in a rigorously matched subset (60) of these samples to determine the effects of drug exposure on fetal liver function. Finally, stem cell culture models will be used to examine how exposure affects activity at the cellular level.

The principal outcomes of the study will be:

(1) to show what drug exposure levels are in the human fetus.

(2) to demonstrate how these real-life exposure levels can alter fetal liver development and function, potentially affecting post-natal health and development.

A secondary outcome of the project will be to establish whether the placenta is a reliable read-out of fetal exposures and, thereby, indicative of an increased chance of ill-health and dysregulated liver development.

Planned Impact

Beneficiaries of the project include research and healthcare professionals, pregnant women and their offspring, women intending to fall pregnant, research and regulatory organisations, the NHS, government and the tobacco/alcohol industries. These will benefit through generic knowledge of the recreational drug burden on the human fetus and the likely risks posed to the development and health of the exposed individuals, especially with respect to disease spectra such as metabolic syndrome.

Healthcare professionals benefiting include clinical practitioners, their professional bodies (RCOG, RCPCH and RCGP), and others, such as midwives, fertility clinics, reproductive health and pre-pregnancy counselling services and NHS health promotion organisations. They will benefit from knowledge of the risk of significant fetal drug exposure during development, potential post-natal health consequences and ways to minimise the risk (e.g. lifestyle changes to avoid drug use intake). Health professionals in general will benefit from the potential to screen neonates for recreational drug exposures via measurement drug metabolites in the term placenta, a readily available tissue after birth. The project will inform on the Barker hypothesis, linking fetal antecedents of disease, with relation to drug exposures. Pregnant women and intending mothers will benefit from knowledge allowing minimisation of fetal exposures. Knowledge will become available in tranches, the 120 liver drug metabolite data and the RNA-seq and proteomics data late in the first half of the project, the validation and stem cell findings in the second half and the data on liver:placenta agreement for drug metabolite data late in the project lifespan. We do not expect that there will be significant delay before the project begins to impact on stakeholders. The involvement of Dr Huestis in the project allows direct introduction of our findings into the NIH, a massive federal research body in the USA.

Research and regulatory organisations benefiting will include the NHS, Department of Health and policy makers and regulators, e.g. the EC. Data generated by this project will provide comprehensive knowledge upon which policies concerning drug transfer to the fetus and mechanisms of exposure reduction can be formulated. These data will also fulfil the immediate requirements for developing better screening protocols in order to detect at risk neonates. They will also inform on design and implementation of regulations concerning recreational drug use. There may be some delay before the data from this project will be used to inform policy, but, if effective knowledge exchange pathways are used, this should be medium term.

The subsequent commercial potential of the project may be significant if placental burdens of single and combined exposures (e.g. smoking AND drinking during pregnancy) are can be characterised reliably in comparison with the fetal liver (and confirmed in the term placenta subsequently). If wide-scale neonatal screening, using the placenta, for potential drug exposure were available it would benefit the individual and the health service. By indicating the potential likelihood of a neonate developing health problems, such as metabolic syndrome, in the future these tests would interest a commercial healthcare partner and would allow the development of more preventative strategies.

Overall, outcomes from this project are likely to have impact on a range of beneficiaries and, within a long-term timescale, would be expected to lead to improvement in specific aspects of the nation's health.

Publications

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Banh S. (2018) The effects of maternal smoking and BMI on the first and second trimester human fetal kidney in BJOG-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY

 
Description 2. Member, EFSA FAF (Food Additives and Flavourings) Panel, 2018-2021
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact The Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings (FAF)* evaluates the safety of chemical substances added to food and consumer exposure to them. The Panel's work mainly concerns substances evaluated by EFSA before their use can be authorised in the EU. FAF Panel Members are scientists from across Europe with expertise in: Chemical risk assessment and safety assessment of food additives and flavouring substances Toxicology (mammalian): sub-chronic and chronic toxicity (repeated dose studies), genotoxicity and mutagenicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity, allergenicity and immunotoxicity Toxicity testing in experimental animals and alternative toxicity testing Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics (ADME - absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) of substances Chemistry (organic, inorganic, analytical and synthetic chemistry), especially for the chemical identification and specification of chemical substances Exposure assessment and consumption surveys Food technology (manufacturing processes and use of food additives) *The FAF Panel continues the work in most of the areas previously covered by the former Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food (ANS). In addition, it has taken over responsibility for the evaluation of flavourings from the former CEF Panel while handing over responsibility for the evaluation of nutrient sources to the NDA Panel.
URL https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/panels/faf
 
Description Member, EFSA CEF (Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids) Panel, 2014-2017
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
Impact EFSA's work in the area of regulated food ingredients and packaging is carried out by two separate scientific Panels. The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food (ANS) deals with questions of safety in the use of food additives, nutrient sources and other substances deliberately added to food, excluding flavourings and enzymes. The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) deals with questions on the safety of use of materials in contact with food, enzymes, flavourings and processing aids, and also with questions related to the safety of processes. Both Panels are supported by the Food Ingredients and Packaging Unit (FIP). On 10 July 2008, the Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) was replaced by the ANS Panel and the CEF Panel. Previous output from AFC's risk assessment work is still accessible from the food packaging and ingredients section.
URL http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/panels/fip.htm
 
Description Arthritis Research UK Invited Research Award
Amount £327,874 (GBP)
Funding ID 21800 
Organisation Versus Arthritis 
Start 06/2018 
End 05/2021
 
Description BBSRC EASTBIO DTP PhD
Amount £97,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description CLDF grant
Amount £4,930 (GBP)
Organisation Children's Liver Disease Foundation (CLDF) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 02/2017
 
Description Can the human fetal plasma proteome be used to monitor "exposure" to increased maternal body mass index during fetal life and predict resulting childhood diseases?
Amount £11,935 (GBP)
Funding ID 17/034 
Organisation NHS Grampian 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description Early Career Grant to Dr P Filis
Amount £9,870 (GBP)
Organisation Society for Endocrinology 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Description Endowment Research Grants
Amount £11,587 (GBP)
Funding ID 16/11/056 
Organisation NHS Grampian 
Department NHS Grampian Endowment Fund
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Endowment Research Grants
Amount £11,935 (GBP)
Funding ID 17/034 
Organisation NHS Grampian 
Department NHS Grampian Endowment Fund
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description Female Reproductive toxicity of Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs): a human evidence-based screening and Identification Approach (FREIA)
Amount € 5,216,904 (EUR)
Funding ID 825100 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2023
 
Description International Exchanges Scheme
Amount £6,000 (GBP)
Funding ID IE150561 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2015 
End 11/2016
 
Description MRC DTP
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation MRC Doctoral Training Program 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 05/2018
 
Description MSCA-ITN
Amount € 3,974,595 (EUR)
Funding ID 722634 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2021
 
Description Mining the placental proteome for biomarkers of adverse effects of maternal lifestyle: smoking and obesity.
Amount £11,700 (GBP)
Funding ID 18/14 
Organisation NHS Grampian 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 03/2020
 
Description NHS Grampian Endowments
Amount £28,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EA5009 
Organisation NHS Grampian 
Department NHS Grampian Endowment Fund
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 04/2019
 
Description NHS Grampian Endowments
Amount £11,933 (GBP)
Funding ID 15/1/010 
Organisation NHS Grampian 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Description PhD studentship
Amount £59,988 (GBP)
Funding ID YRSS/PHD/2016/05 
Organisation Glasgow Children's Hospital Charity 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description Project Grant
Amount £636,511 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/P011535/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Title Establishment of the 10-year SAFeR (Scottish Advanced Fetal Research) study 
Description This was an aim of MRC MR/L010011/1 award. The collection of human fetal material has been approved by the NHS North of Scotland Research Ethics Committee (REC 15/NS/0123 "Normal development of the human fetus and the influences and mechanisms by which that development occurs and is perturbed") which includes the collection of an extensive range of fetal tissues and maternal data. Women seeking elective terminations of normal pregnancy between 7 and 20 weeks of gestation aree recruited with full written informed consent by clinical staff working independently at hospitals at both Aberdeen and Glasgow. Permission has been granted for collection of up to 1,600 fetuses over 10 years and this will represent an unprecedented step change in the power of studies of the human fetus. One cautionary note is that Glasgow NHS R&D have insisted on a separate ethics application resulting in ongoing delays so that collection in Glasgow has not started yet. In Aberdeen the ethics application started in January 2015 with final approval obtained in December 2015. Aberdeen collection started in May 2016 once governance and sponsorship processes were completed. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact In Aberdeen, as of March 2018, 180 fetuses and their placentae have been collected. First contribution of this collection to publication was: The human fetal adrenal produces cortisol but no detectable aldosterone throughout the second trimester. Johnston ZC, Bellingham M, Filis P, Soffientini U, Hough D, Bhattacharya S, Simard M, Hammond GL, King P, O'Shaughnessy PJ, Fowler PA. BMC Med. 2018 Feb 12;16(1):23. The study has contributed to 3 grant applications (to Wellcome Trust, Wellbeing of Women and Kidney Research UK) and funded Arthritis Research UK, BBSRC EASTBIO DTP and MSCA-ITN projects. 
 
Title Database of proteins altered during human hepatoblast-hepatocyte transition in vitro. 
Description We have analysed the changing proteome of human liver stem cells during the process of transition from hepatioblast to hepatocyte using DIGE and have established a preliminary database of proteins showing statistically significant changes in expression during this process. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This database supports the MRC project MR/L010011/1. 
 
Title Human fetal liver and placenta collection 
Description As part of MRC MR/L010011/1 and added to during MRC MR/P011535/1, we have accumulated over 260 human fetal liver and placenta pairs. RNA, DNA, protein and steroid fractions have been extracted. This collection is growing as part of the SAFeR study. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The collection has been used to validate/extend MRC MR/L010011/1 findings and form part of the major publications in preparation. 
 
Title Human fetal plasma proteome 
Description MRC MR/L010011/1 and added to during MRC MR/P011535/1. Shot-gun proteomics data on 60 second trimester human fetal plasma samples, categorised according to fetal age, fetal sex and maternal smoking status. >300 proteins quantified. The data have been uploaded to PRIDE and will remain confidential until the major publication is in press. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Major publications from MRC MR/L010011/1 and MRC MR/P011535/1 are in progress 
URL https://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/
 
Title Liver 80 RNAseq 
Description RNA-seq data on 80 second trimester human fetal livers, categorised according to fetal age, fetal sex and maternal smoking status. 13,599 genes quantified. The data have been uploaded to ArrayExpress (E-MTAB-6103) and will remain confidential until the major publications from MRC MR/L010011/1 are in press. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The major publications from MRC MR/L010011/1 are in preparation. Data mining is also supporting an EASTBIO PhD studentship and MSCA-ITN research. Outputs so far are part of two abstract at PPTOX VI 2018 international conference https://www.greengate.fo/pptox-conference 
URL https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/experiments/E-MTAB-6103
 
Title Liver 80 proteomics 
Description Shot-gun proteomics data on 80 second trimester human fetal livers, categorised according to fetal age, fetal sex and maternal smoking status. 2,195 proteins quantified. The data have been uploaded to PRIDE and will remain confidential until the major publications from MRC MR/L010011/1 are in press. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The major publications from MRC MR/L010011/1 are in preparation. Data mining is also supporting other publications and projects. 
URL https://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/
 
Title Maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol use footprint in livers of 118 second trimester human fetuses 
Description In collaboration with Prof Marilyn Huestis (National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, USA) we have established measures of multiple metabolites and markers for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during gestation in the livers of 118 second trimester human fetuses electively terminated for social not clinical reasons. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This data has not yet been published and will be used to stratify fetuses according to lowest and highest exposure level to alcohol and cigarette chemicals. This database supports the MRC project MR/L010011/1. 
 
Title Pilot study of the human fetal hepatic proteome 
Description We have performed a pilot study of the human fetal liver proteome using DIGE. We compared fetuses from a tightly matched gestational age groups for the effects of fetal sex and maternal smoking on the expression of the more abundant hepatic proteins. 22 of 494 protein spots showed significant expression differences between one or more groups (fetal sex/maternal smoking) and 24 distinct proteins were identified. Their roles include post-translational protein processing and secretion (ERP29, PDIA3), stress responses and detoxification (HSP90AA1, HSBP1, ALDH7A1, CAT) and homeostasis (FLT, ECHS1, GLUD1, AFP, SDHA). Most proteins were effectors of the MAPK/ERK/Insulin or ß-estradiol and UBC pathways. While proteins involved in cell proliferation, and cellular homeostasis were affected in both sexes, metastatic pathway proteins were altered in females and phosphorylation/transport pathway proteins in males. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Published: Maternal Smoking Dysregulates Protein Expression in Second Trimester Human Fetal Livers in a Sex-Specific Manner. Filis P, Nagrath N, Fraser M, Hay DC, Iredale JP, O'Shaughnessy P, Fowler PA. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jun;100(6):E861-70.. This database supports the MRC project MR/L010011/1. 
 
Description successful BBSRC EASTBIO DTP PHD PROJECT PROPOSAL 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department MRC Centre for Inflammation Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Main PhD supervisor Project initiator
Collaborator Contribution PhD CoSupervisors at each MRC Institute project contributors
Impact Student will start her PhD on 01/10/2017
Start Year 2017
 
Description Androgens conference (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk to present current data. Led to discussion/organisation of future projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.precisionmedicines.com/androgens-2014.html
 
Description Effects of in-utero exposure to toxicants on the fetal gonad and liver. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar, BIOSIT, combined University of Rennes, CNRS & INSERM unit, 9 November 2015, Rennes, France.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Mothers Smoking During Pregnancy Affects Babys DNA : Scientific American 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed to comment on and provide information for a general science article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/mother-s-smoking-during-pregnancy-affects-baby-s-dna/
 
Description Overweight or smoking mums cause 'worrying changes' to unborn children's thyroid 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a University of Aberdeen press release that resulted some take up by on-line and traditional press.

e.g. Smoking in pregnancy linked to 'worrying' thyroid changes in unborn baby: https://www.heraldscotland.com/news/16998982.smoking-in-pregnancy-linked-to-worrying-thyroid-changes-in-unborn-baby/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.abdn.ac.uk/news/12358/
 
Description Premature babies' low blood pressure puzzle explained 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a University of Aberdeen press release that resulted some take up by on-line and traditional press. The University Social media unit also produced a very nice explainer : https://twitter.com/aberdeenuni/status/963697423167164422
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.abdn.ac.uk/news/11599/
 
Description Science Unwrapped: Fertility BBC Radio programme AND Naked Scientists podcast : Is modern life affecting fertility? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio interview and podcast : http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04vvspr and https://www.thenakedscientists.com/podcasts/naked-scientists/modern-life-reducing-our-fertility
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04vvspr
 
Description Scientists find that smoking harms livers of unborn babies: BBC interview and article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As a result of a new publication (Modelling foetal exposure to maternal smoking using hepatoblasts from pluripotent stem cells. Lucendo-Villarin B, Filis P, Swortwood MJ, Huestis MA, Meseguer-Ripolles J, Cameron K, Iredale JP, O'Shaughnessy PJ, Fowler PA, Hay DC. Arch Toxicol. 2017 Nov;91(11):3633-364) and press-releases Hay and Fowler were interviewed by the BBC which also carried online and radio reports. Other media also picked up on this.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-40084844
 
Description Sex, drugs, oestrogens and the human fetus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited public talk, Aberdeen Medico-Chirurgical Society, 1 October 2015, Aberdeen, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Signalling and cigarettes: the unusual case of the human fetus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, 29 June 2015, London, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Smoke gets in your genes: Further dangers of smoking while pregnant revealed by new study 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This was a University of Aberdeen press release that resulted in multiple take up by on-line, radio, TV and newspaper outlets as well as some radio and press interviews, e.g. Scottish Daily Express and Sunday herald.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.abdn.ac.uk/news/7280/
 
Description Smoking while pregnant affects the livers of boys and girls differently 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact University of Aberdeen press releasing leading to interviews, radio and on-line and conventional news (newspapers), including The Scotsman, Herald Scotland, The Herald, The Times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.abdn.ac.uk/news/7807/
 
Description THE CONVERSATION Move over testosterone, another hormone is also vital for making boys - and it doesn't come from the testes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Move over testosterone, another hormone is also vital for making boys - and it doesn't come from the testes" The Conversation 14/02/2019

between 14/02/.2019 and 13/03/2019 this article was read over 47,000 times
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://theconversation.com/move-over-testosterone-another-hormone-is-also-vital-for-making-boys-and...
 
Description The Truth About Fetal Tissue Research : Nature 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Interviewed about the use of fetal tissues in research. Aimed at a general audience and commissioned by Nature.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.nature.com/news/the-truth-about-fetal-tissue-research-1.18960
 
Description What makes a man? Testosterone only half the story, scientists say 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a University of Aberdeen press release that resulted some take up by on-line and traditional press.

Attention included other articles

e.g. https://theconversation.com/you-need-more-than-just-testes-to-make-a-penis-111625

Some with further interview - eg NOVA at PBS Org USA, El Mundo Spain

e.g. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/got-a-penis-you-might-have-moms-placenta-to-thank/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.abdn.ac.uk/news/12707/
 
Description presentation: The exposed proteome at Understanding biology and disease: the application of proteomics, University of Aberdeen Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A 20 minute presentation to the non-specialist as to how proteomics can be employed to investigate the effects of chemical exposures on the human and animal protein expression patterns. As part of a whole day proteomics workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014