Psychosocial and nutritional predictors of child mental health: longitudinal study of shared and distinctive risk and protective factors in UK & India

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Institute of Psychology Health & Society

Abstract

Young children who frequently hit other people, who disobey rules and are disruptive in social and school settings, are much more likely than other children to show continued behaviour problems into adult life, including criminality, unstable relationships, poor work record, depression, substance use problems. They are more likely to expose their own children to maltreatment. The problems arise from a complicated mix of genetic and environmental influences, in which key factors probably include, prenatal stress, early infant emotionality, and harsh parenting as risks, and warm parenting as protective factors. There is now good evidence that individual variations and environmental exposures in early life contribute to risk for mental health problems in later childhood and beyond. However, previous research has been conducted almost exclusively in countries with Westernised standards of medical care and family arrangements, and where additional risks such as low birth weight and under-nutrition are rare. The aims of the proposed research are to study early risk and protective factors for childhood mental health problems, to identify prenatal and infancy risks that are common to Western and South Asian populations and those that are distinctive. Using a prospective longitudinal design we will recruit members of the new IMCR (Indian Council of Medical Research) funded South Indian PRAMM study (n= 650; Prospective Assessment of Maternal Mental Health study), currently being assessed at 3 timepoints during pregnancy to 8 weeks of age, into a new study of infant development with detailed assessment at 6 months, 12 months and 24 months. We will use common measurement (questionnaires, interviews, observations and developmental assessments) between an existing UK Medical Research Council funded cohort, the Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS), and the Indian cohort, to enable data analyses to be conducted of merged UK - Indian datasets. Robust methods designed to facilitate cross-cultural comparability of measurement will be employed. Aspects of the prenatal and early postnatal environment such as maternal mental health, nutrition and patterns of early caregiving likely to be distinctively relevant to the South Asian setting with be assessed, and examined alongside factors identified in previously in predominantly Western research. Evidence for gene-environment interplay will also be evaluated in the prediction of early emotional and behavioural problems in infancy. This joint Uk-Indian study, together with a planned series of training events, will contribute to capacity building in the Indian clinical research domain by facilitating the sharing of experience and expertise in conducting longitudinal cohort studies, sampling and retention, measurement issues, data management and state of the art statistical methods needed in longitudinal analysis of complex data sets. The study findings in the longer term will directly inform the refinement of existing early interventions for child mental health in both Asian and UK settings.

Technical Summary

The aims of the proposed research are to study early risk and protective factors for childhood mental health problems, to identify prenatal and infancy risks that are common to Western and South Asian populations and those that are distinctive. Using a prospective longitudinal design we will recruit members of the new ICMR funded South Indian PRAMM study (n= 650; Prospective Assessment of Maternal Mental Health study), currently being assessed at 3 time points during pregnancy to 8 weeks of age, into a study of infant development with assessment at 6 months, 12 months and 24 months. We will use common measurement between an existing MRC funded UK cohort, the Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS), and the Indian cohort, to enable data analyses to be conducted of merged UK - Indian datasets. Methods designed to facilitate cross-cultural comparability of measurement will be employed. Aspects of the prenatal and early postnatal environment such as maternal mental health, nutrition and patterns of early caregiving likely to be distinctively relevant to the South Asian setting with be assessed, and examined alongside factors identified in previously in predominantly Western research. Evidence for gene-environment interplay will also be evaluated in the prediction of early emotional and behavioural problems in infancy. We will aim to contribute to capacity building in the Indian clinical research domain sharing experience and expertise in conducting longitudinal cohort studies, sampling and retention, measurement, data management and state of the art statistical methods for analysis of longitudinal complex data sets. The study findings on psychosocial and nutritional predictors of child mental health will inform the refinement of existing early interventions for child mental health in both UK and South Asian settings in the longer term.

Planned Impact

We anticipate impact in three areas: 1) Advancement of the field of developmental psychopathology, 2) Capacity building of Indian researchers, and 3) Public health and policy. (See also Pathways to Impact statement). The findings will advance our understanding of how individual, family and environmental factors interact to effect multiple child outcomes, including physical, cognitive, socio-emotional and behavioural development. The research will lead to the development of common measures that can be used for future epidemiological and interventional studies in the South Asian and UK settings. The findings are likely to inform early interventions that can help prevent mental health problems in later childhood and adolescence, including substance misuse. The project will lead to the development of capacity in Indian researchers to conduct complex studies of this nature. Our close collaboration with a number of academic groups (see academic beneficiaries) have the potential to inform integrated interventions that holistically target physical, cognitive and socioemotional development.

We plan to achieve maximum impact by actively engaging non-academic beneficiaries (families, the wider community, the voluntary sector and the media) through our existing links with such bodies, thereby raising public awareness and understanding of the development of childhood emotional, behavioural and developmental problems and achieving clinical and policy change.

Scalable integrated interventions that address parental mental health, infant stimulation and nutrition have great potential to improve the developmental potential, physical and mental health of the children of India. Rahman, with his global expertise in early interventions, will work with Indian researchers to refine existing interventions to make them more effective and tailored to the Indian context. We plan to apply for further collaborative grants to develop, implement and evaluate interventions.

Publications

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Description Psychological, social & biological predictors of child mental health and development: shared and distinctive risk and protective factors in UK & India
Amount £2,298,129 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/S036466/1) 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2019 
End 06/2024
 
Title Development of Anchoring Vignettes for Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in English and Kannada languages 
Description Anchoring Vignettes are a method used for determining systematic differences in questionnaire item responses between populations. To our knowledge they have not yet been used in the filed of mental health, ours is the first such study. We developed anchoring vignettes that assessed participant responses to descriptions of symptoms of depression with a response scale similar to the EPDS. The anchoring vignettes were administered in India and will be administered in the UK at a later date to parents at a similar stage in the postnatal period. Comparison of response patterns across the scales will enable cross-cultural interpretation of the original EPDS questionnaire responses in the two populations and joint analysis of datasets. The vignettes will be suitable for use in future studies using this scale in India and the UK. This is a method of determining differential item functioning across cultures. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact More work needs to be done following this first stage of Anchoring vignette development. We have plans in place to complete more work on this to build on the work completed during the period of the grant that includes a submission for further MRC funding. 
 
Title Development of Anchoring Vignettes for the preschool Child Behaviour Checklist in English and Kannada languages 
Description Anchoring Vignettes are a method used for determining systematic differences in questionnaire item responses between populations. To our knowledge they have not yet been used in the filed of mental health, ours is the first such study. We developed anchoring vignettes that assessed participant responses to descriptions of symptoms of child behaviour and emotional responses with a response scale similar to the preschool Child Behaviour Checklist. The anchoring vignettes were administered in India and will be administered in the UK at a later date to parents at a similar stage of infant development. Comparison of response patterns across the scales will enable cross-cultural interpretation of the original CBCL (child mental health) questionnaire responses in the two populations and joint analysis of datasets. The vignettes will be suitable for use in future studies using this scale in India and the UK. This is a method of determining differential item functioning across cultures. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact More work needs to be done following this first stage of Anchoring vignette development. We have plans in place to complete more work on this to build on the work completed during the period of the grant that includes a submission for further MRC funding. 
 
Title Gender Preference Interview 
Description The Gender Preference Interview was developed by the team to enable us to assess behaviours that may indicate parent or family preference concerning the gender newborn infant. In the Indian culture, although gender preference for male infants is a widely recognised phenomenon, it is not openly endorsed, therefore attempts to assess it through direct questions typically yield responses that appear to be influenced by social desirability effects. This interview was developed by the whole research team, using the skills of the UK team in psychometric measure development and the cultural knowledge of the Indian team, to overcome these difficulties by asking direct questions about behaviours that members of the community have indicated represent early implicit signs of gender preference following the birth of the baby. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The development of this research tool 'The Gender Preference Interview' will allow researchers to investigate a phenomenon that is not been successfully investigated before though directly interviewing mothers. We plan to publish on the development of the measure once data collection is complete. 
 
Title Recalled Gender Discrimination Scale 
Description A set of questionnaire items comprising 'The Recalled Gender Discrimination Scale' were developed to be administered separately or as an extension the Parental Bonding Instrument (a well known measure used to assess adult's recollection of caregiving in childhood). These items were added to assess participants' recollection of gender discrimination during their early caregiving in childhood by their mother and their father. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The Recalled Gender Discrimination Scale items allow researchers to assess an adult's recollection of gender discrimination during their own childhood. This is particularly important in socio-cultural contexts, such as the Indian one, where discrimination toward females (and preference for male infants) in families during childhood might have a great impact on their mental well-being. We aim to publish on this questionnaire once the study is complete and results known. 
 
Title Shared Caregiving Checklist 
Description The Shared Caregiving Checklist has been developed by our research team to assess the contribution to the care of children by other members of the family during the first two years of life. In societies where the parental responsibilities are shared with the extended family, being able to assess the impact that other relatives have on the children's lives is of extreme importance. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The use of the Shared Caregiving checklist allows researchers to characterise the caregiving environment of the infant more accurately. The researchers can identify key other main caregivers and the activities that they carry out in the care of the infant. The focus is on caregiving during the first two years of life. 
 
Description Invited participation in Childhood Trauma Network - Global Challenges Research Fund application 
Organisation University of Bath
Department Department of Psychology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Bangalore Child Health and Development Study Chief Investigators (Professor Helen Sharp and Professor Prabha Chandra) were invited by Academics in University of Cape Town and University of Bath to join in a Global Challenges Research Fund bid to facilitate collaborative data sharing with an International Childhood Trauma Network. This bid was funded by the Academy of Medical Sciences and will run from march 2018 to march 2019.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborators are working on childhood trauma in multiple cultural settings, including Uk and South Africa. We aim to share available data where possible to replicate findings across LMIC settings and conduct joint analyses of datasets to ask key questions about child trauma that cannot be easily addressed in one study alone. Each collaborator in the network is similarly involved.
Impact No outputs yet. Only formed in late 2017.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Invited participation in Childhood Trauma Network - Global Challenges Research Fund application 
Organisation University of Cape Town
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Bangalore Child Health and Development Study Chief Investigators (Professor Helen Sharp and Professor Prabha Chandra) were invited by Academics in University of Cape Town and University of Bath to join in a Global Challenges Research Fund bid to facilitate collaborative data sharing with an International Childhood Trauma Network. This bid was funded by the Academy of Medical Sciences and will run from march 2018 to march 2019.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborators are working on childhood trauma in multiple cultural settings, including Uk and South Africa. We aim to share available data where possible to replicate findings across LMIC settings and conduct joint analyses of datasets to ask key questions about child trauma that cannot be easily addressed in one study alone. Each collaborator in the network is similarly involved.
Impact No outputs yet. Only formed in late 2017.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic conference preentation: Perinatal maternal mental health and neurocognitive outcomes in children. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Academic Conference Presentation:

Chandra, P., & Duncan, M. (2019). Perinatal maternal mental health and neurocognitive outcomes in children. Presentation, 62nd All India Congress of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Bangalore, India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Academic conference presentation at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to psychiatrists, psychologists, biostatisticians and other researchers in mental health and neuroscience titled: "Using Anchoring vignettes to enhance cross-cultural validity". Overview of the anchoring vignette theory and summary of how the methodology is being used in the Bangalore Child Health and Development Study
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Academic conference presentation: Impact of perinatal psychosocial risk and protective factors on breastfeeding practice among low-income women from an urban community in India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given at International conference Supraja T A., Jangam, K., Desai G., Satyanarayana V., Venkatram L., & Chandra, P. (2019). Impact of perinatal psychosocial risk and protective factors on breastfeeding practice among low-income women from an urban community in India. Presentation, 23rd World Congress of Social Psychiatry, Bucharest, Romania.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Academic conference presentation: Suicidality and attempted suicide from pregnancy to one year of childbirth - findings from the Bangalore Child Health and Development Study 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given at International conference

Chandra, P., Supraja, T.A., Bajaj, A., Thennarasu, K., Pickles, A., Hill, J., & Sharp, H. (2019). Suicidality and attempted suicide from pregnancy to one year of childbirth - findings from the Bangalore Child Health and Development Study. Presentation, 8th World Congress of IAWMH, Paris, France.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Academic conference presentation: What is the feasibility and acceptability of recording videos of mother-infant interaction in home settings in low-and-middle-income countries? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given at International conference Holla C., Bozicevic L., Supraja T.A., Desai G., Sharp H., & Chandra, P. (2019). What is the feasibility and acceptability of recording videos of mother-infant interaction in home settings in low-and-middle-income countries? Presentation, 23rd World Congress of Social Psychiatry, Bucharest, Romania.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Lecture: Suicidality in the perinatal period - Need for newer ways of assessment and prevention. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited lecture: Chandra, P (2019). Suicidality in the perinatal period - Need for newer ways of assessment and prevention. Invited lecture from the Faculty of Perinatal Psychiatry, Royal College of Psychiatrists, UK to speak at their Annual conference. Prof Chandra gave a global perspective on the relative levels of suicidality in women and men across cultures and countries, highlighting that in particular LMIC settings rates are as high in women as they are in men and are the leading cause of maternal death. India is a case in point. She reported findings from BCHADS outlining preliminary results on the predictors of suicidality in the perinatal period. BCHADS is very rare, worldwide, in its systematic and repeated measurement of suicidality in the perinatal period.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Lecture: Suicide and suicidality in the perinatal period. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited lecture: Chandra, P (2018). Suicide and suicidality in the perinatal period. Invited Lecture, Gold Perinatal Online Conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Speaker for Psychometrics Course at Kings College, London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Matthew Bluett-Duncan (PhD student) provided video recording of presentation titled: Anchoring Vignettes in India: Practical Challenges. Overview of the practical challenges faced when developing and administering anchoring vignettes in Bangalore, India to facilitate valid cross-cultural comparisons between India and UK. The audience was biostatisticians.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Speaker for Psychometrics Course at Kings College, London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Matthew Bluett-Duncan (PhD student) gave presentation titled: "Anchoring Vignettes: Navigating the challenges of cross-cultural research in Bangalore, India". Overview of the anchoring vignette theory and practical challenges faced when developing and administering tool in Bangalore, India to facilitate valid cross-cultural comparisons between India and UK.
Participants gave feedback that presentation addressed many of the concerns raised earlier in the course regarding issues relating to measurement invariance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited Symposium at the International Marce Biennial conference at NIMHANS, Bangalore in September 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our team led a symposium on 'Cross cultural issues in mother infant caregiving - findings from the Indo UK collaborative Bangalore child health development study' presenting some preliminary results from the Bangalore Child Health and Development Study. Three papers were presented followed by some lively discussion with the international audience of clinicians and academics.

1. Maternal anxiety mediates the link between partner psychological abuse and infant anger prone temperament in the Bangalore Child Health and Development Study.
Chandra, P., Bozicevic, L., Desai, G., Hill, J., Sharp, H.

2. Similarities and differences in early infant care in UK and India: A psychometric comparison using the Parent-Infant Caregiving touch Scale.
Pickles, A., Hodsoll, J., Chandra, P., Desai, G., Hill, J., Sharp, H.

3. Conceptualising cross cultural differences in early caregiving: comparative levels of instruction and mind-mindedness in UK and Indian samples.
Bozicevic L., Omirou A., Holla C., Sharp H., Chandra P., Hill, J.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/psychology-health-and-society/departments/psychological-sciences/researc...
 
Description Invited symposium on Mental Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact UK PI and Indian PI led a symposium on Mental Health featuring methods developed and findings from the Bangalore Child Health and Development Study. Talks included the scale of mental health problems in India, our findings on (1) prevalence of suicidal ideation, behaviours and actions in the perinatal period in mothers (2) Conceptualising cross-cultural differences in early caregiving: comparative levels of instructions and mind-mindedness in Uk and Indian Samples, The use of Anchoring Vignette methodologies in cross-cultural comparisons of data collected, and the prediction of early breastfeeding cessation in rural Bangalore.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Longitudinal Developmental Science from Birkenhead to Bangalore: sex differences and pathways from pregnancy to child and adolescent mental health problems 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This conference was intended both as a capacity building event for our collaborators in India and as a way to share research experience with colleagues from all over the world. An open discussion was held at the end of the two day event about challenges faced when conducting longitudinal research both in Western and non-Western countries and sex differences in child and adolescent psychopathology. The content of the two days was filmed and we are planning to make this available for access in India to interested clinicians and academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/psychology-health-and-society/events/longitudinal-event/
 
Description Longitudinal analysis of complex developmental datasets 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Andrew Pickles ran a training in the principles and approaches to longitudinal data analysis whilst the team was visiting NIMHANS, India to a mixed audience of academics and clinicians.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Perinatal and child health in India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The purpose of the series of talks organised for this event was to present: a) aim and progress of the Bangalore Child Heath and Development Study, which is a cross-cultural longitudinal study on psycho-social risks in pregnancy and the postnatal period for child development; b) cross-cultural issues in maternal mental health research emerged from the Bangalore Prospective Assessment of Maternal Mental Health Study; c) results from a formative study conducted in India and Bangladesh aimed to reduce second-hand smoke during pregnancy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Pre-conference workshop on Longitudinal Analysis of Cohort Data: The special challenge of development from infancy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Andrew Pickles (Co-I) ran this half-day pre conference workshop at the Marce Society International Meeting in Bangalore, India to an international audience of professionals including academics and clinicians who are research active. The conference is aimed at those who are interested in childbearing and early child development. The workshop was vibrant leading to lots of discussion on the application of statistical methods to developmental data. All available places on the course were full.

Longitudinal analysis of cohort data: the special challenge of development from infancy:
Development and the challenges of taking measurements on children combine to present numerous problems to someone wanting to describe, analyse and test hypotheses using longitudinal data. In the first session we consider the unexpectedly mischievous impact of measurement error and of unintended selective observation, using examples of the growth of ability, change in autism symptoms, maternal sensitivity in distress, stress response, and the development and regression of language. In the second session, we examine the complication for characterizing development of switching among age-appropriate instruments/measures as cohort members get older, using examples of autism symptoms and language development, and of the challenge of resolving causal direction. The methods illustrated include a variety of methods for multivariate analysis including growth curve, trajectory and survival analysis.
Prof Andrew Pickles, statistician in BHI, with special interest in developmental studies.
From an early background in natural sciences, urban planning and geography Andrew joined the MRC Child Psychiatry Unit as statistician in 1986, moved to the Dept of Biostatistics in Manchester in 1998, returning to the IoPPN in 2010.
His principal interests have been in multivariate longitudinal data, with most applications being in what is now called life-course analysis. These studies have involved genomic, physiological, psychological and social measures and processes and have spanned neonates to geriatrics. A good part of this work has focussed on autism, with recent work highlighting intervention studies and longer term outcomes.
Equally rewarding have been the impact on statistical modelling and software (e.g. structural equation modelling in Stata) and the clinical impact on patient care (e.g. NICE guidelines).
https://kclpure.kcl.ac.uk/portal/andrew.pickles.html
Venue - Department of Bio Statistics - Govinswamy Building, Ground Floor, NIMHANS, Bengaluru 560029
Time : 09:00 AM TO 01.00 PM
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.marce2018.com/preconferenceworkshop.php
 
Description Press release: Improving mental health outcomes for children in India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was issued on the University of Liverpool website on the Longitudinal science conference held as a capacity building event for the study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://news.liverpool.ac.uk/2017/10/19/improving-mental-health-outcomes-children-india/
 
Description Public event promoting the Bangalore Child Health and Development Study - to British Deputy High Commission and University Alumni in Bangalore 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Prof Sharp was invited to give a talk to University of Liverpool Alumni living in India including Bangalore and attended by the James Godber, Deputy Head of the India Science and Innovation Network at the British Deputy High Commission, Bengaluru. The purpose was to raise awareness of the work we are doing on mental health in our study and to engage alumni in supporting future work. The audience and James Godber were very excited about the partnership between myself at Liverpool University and Prof Chandra. The Bangalore Child Health and Development Study is the first birth cohort to focus on identifying early risk and protective factors for child mental health outcomes in India yet millions of children in India will have mental health problems. Following the meeting The University of Liverpool received an email from James Godber suggesting that he might help to build a platform to showcase the work and the partnership when I am next in India in 2020. The High Commission proposed running a science café type event, using the Deputy High Commissioner as a convener, to look at mental health / ageing and innovation and invite key people from across the city.

James Godber (he/his) | Deputy Head of the India Science and Innovation Network | British Deputy High Commission, Bengaluru
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Seminar on measurement of mother-infant Interaction 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The aim of the seminar was to illustrate different aspects of research on the detection of early psychosocial predictors of child mental health. In particular the themes were a) the importance of early caregiving behaviour as moderators of child mental health outcomes, b) the development of a new measure to assess shared caregiving of infants in Indian families, c) the code of maternal sensitivity using mother infant interaction videos, d) the assessment of gender discrimination towards the infant.This workshop was organised as part of a series of capacity-building events planned within the scope of the present grant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Training Indian Clinicians in the reliable rating of maternal mind-mindedness based on a Five-Minute Speech Sample 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We conducted an online training (using video link up) with individual follow-up to establish reliability for an Indian clinician in an observational measure for assessing the components of mind-mindedness expressed in maternal speech samples about their infants. The coding scheme used was developed by the UCLA family project, widely used in high quality research and clinical practice. Practitioners are then able to use this system in their clinical practice and for research with these populations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Training Indian Clinicians in the reliable rating of mother-infant interaction quality using NICHD coding system 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We conducted a two day online training (using video link up) with individual follow-up to establish reliability for 12 Indian clinicians in an observational measure for assessing quality of parent infant interaction quality. The system was the NICHD system, widely used in high quality research and clinical practice. Practitioners are then able to use this system in their clinical practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/psychology-health-and-society/departments/psychological-sciences/researc...
 
Description Training Indian Clinicians in the reliable rating of mother-infant interaction using the still-face paradigm 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A postgraduate researcher was trained under the observation of Professor Prabha S Chandra with individual follow-up in the assessment of mother-infant interaction using the still-face paradigm.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Two day training in "Advanced measurement and Latent Variable Models in Psychiatric Research" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Andrew Pickles ran a two day workshop training on Advanced Statistical methods at NIMHANS, Bangalore for biostatisticians. 29 Indian biostatisticians attended. This event was set up as part of our planned capacity building activities in India. The workshop was highly rated. This was the first advanced workshop of its kind to be run in NIMHANS which runs many courses. Professor Thennarasu (Co-I) at NIMHANs arranged the event and invited delegates from India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://drive.google.com/file/d/1QWftXW8eT76tGnh3xQy5ObfO9k83xcqJ/view
 
Description Workshop about Bayley Developmental Scales 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This event was held to review the administration of the Bayley scales in India where the research is conducted. A review of Indian videos and a question and answer session with Jeanette Appleton (who is a certified Bayley III trainer) was organised. A number of staff from the Indian team attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshop on Perinatal mental health 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Prabha S Chandra conducted a workshop on Perinatal mental health at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Bangalore, India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Workshop training in administration of Bayley Developmental Scales 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A 'Pearson Clinical Assessment Workshop' was conducted for training research staff (9 members) on the administration, scoring and interpretation of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition on the 5th of February, 2019 by Dr Thomas Kishore (Co-I) as part of capacity building activities locally in India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019