The T6SS toxins are powerful weapons for Pseudomonas' antibacterial strategy

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Life Sciences

Abstract

Bacteria have evolved plenty of strategies to thrive within harsh environments, to colonize hostile hosts and to compete with other microorganisms in a fierce race for goods and survival. Bacterial pathogens that infect humans can use various strategies. They develop acute infections, which turn fatal in a short period of time, but also establish chronic infections and persist within the host over a lifetime. That is the case for lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. At early stages of infection, diverse bacteria are present, e.g. Staphylococcus, Burkholderia or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At later stages in the patient life the sole microorganism left is P. aeruginosa, which is chronically established and will lead to patient death. The ability of P. aeruginosa to establish chronic infection is not exclusive to CF or pulmonary diseases but also results from contamination of medical devices used in clinical set up and on which P. aeruginosa establish a resilient biofilm barely sensitive to antibiotic treatments. From there it disseminates in the human body and causes high level of morbidity and mortality.
There are multiple reasons for which P. aeruginosa is such a successful colonizer and pathogenic organism. However, one recent discovery pointed to its ability to use a molecular weapon, which facilitates the elimination of bacterial competitors such as in the CF lung colonization. This weapon is the type VI secretion system (T6SS) and has the design of a puncturing device perforating the envelope of target organisms in order to allow injection of lethal toxins. To protect itself from T6SS toxins the bacterium produces an antidote, or immunity, thus preventing self-killing and only aiming at non-self organisms lacking these immunities.
The repertoire of T6SS toxins is currently undervalued and it will be invaluable to decipher the complete T6SS toxin armoury for several reasons. In the first place what makes the T6SS a potent weapon is not the gun but the toxin bullets it fires. How many and how distinct these toxins are will define how potent and efficient in colonization the bacterium is. We will use a completely randomized approach (TraDIS) to identify all T6SS toxin/immunity pairs. Using this knowledge we will be in a position to determine the T6SS profile of any clinical isolates and thus gain knowledge and understanding on why specific isolates may be worse than another. The cartography of the T6SS landscape could be an indicator of the context and severity of the infection. Secondly, the identification of toxins of unknown function could result in the development of new drugs that we desperately need considering the exhaustion of the antibiotic pipeline. In other words a T6SS toxin that kill bacteria by aiming at a yet unexplored target will provide pharmaceutical companies with a novel venue to explore and the possibility for drug design. Since P. aeruginosa possesses three distinct T6SSs, each potentially firing dozens of distinct toxins, the potential for new discoveries is huge and exciting.
In summary, not only this project aims at unraveling the repertoire of T6SS toxin/immunity pairs available to P. aeruginosa, but it also aims (i) at understanding whether these toxins are fired at once and simultaneously by all three T6SS machines, (ii) at visualizing how the T6SS docks onto prey cells and how toxins travels through it, (iii) at visualising the transport of the toxins using super resolution fluorescence microscopy, (iv) at applying this knowledge to clinical isolates from CF patients in monitoring a correlation between high T6SS potency and high capability of host colonisation and persistence. Basic knowledge about the T6SS mechanism is crucial since one can foresee the possibility to elaborate live innocuous organisms for human kind, which could be equipped with a specific T6SS weaponry able to eliminate bacterial pathogens, and this will only be possible by having such in depth understanding.

Technical Summary

The T6SS kills bacteria and manipulates microbial populations. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen colonizing the CF lungs where it establishes chronically after eliminating competitors. The P. aeruginosa T6SS delivers toxins of which 2 classes are characterized, peptidoglycan hydrolases, phospholipases. The strain producing the toxin (Tse) also makes immunity (Tsi). The ability to outcompete others in a T6SS-dependent manner relies on the diversity of these toxins. Hypothesis-driven approaches identified 6 toxins (Tse1-Tse6) but a larger reservoir exists. We use TraDIS to systematically identify immunity genes as Tn insertion in such genes is possible in a T6SS inactive but not active strain. We confirmed the identity of Tsi1-6 and pointed 4 new potential toxin/immunity pairs. One of 3 T6SSs has been studied extensively in P. aeruginosa, H1-T6SS, since induced in a retS mutant. We showed that H1-, H2- and H3-T6SS are induced in a rsmA mutant and will use this background in a TraDIS approach to characterize the full toxin repertoire. With this knowledge we can map the T6SS toxins content in P. aeruginosa clinical isolates and assess whether the T6SS landscape is a hallmark of infection strategy/disease severity. The TraDIS approach pointed that in a T6SS positive strain some genes are hit with higher frequency. These genes encode membrane proteins, which suggests they may be T6SS receptors. In their absence the strain is less sensitive to T6SS action. This is ignored in the field and source of novel concepts. Using super-resolution fluorescence microscopy we observed GFP-tagged T6SS inducing blebs in membranes suggesting puncturing. Using distinct fluorescent proteins we aim at visualising all 3 T6SSs simultaneously in one cell, imaging docking onto receptors of preys, following T6SS toxin translocation. Our proposal shall provide a global vision of the P. aeruginosa's antimicrobial strategy which could be mimicked in treatment of resistant bacteria.

Planned Impact

The beneficiaries of this research are as follows:

1) The UK academic community with interests in molecular microbiology and infection. The insights gained will be of use to academic researchers interested in developing and applying the general principles of bacterial secretion systems to understanding how they contribute to the molecular basis of human infections. Furthermore the diversity and distribution of T6SS toxins in a wide range of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates will be of benefit to evolutionary biologists by providing a clear example of lateral gene transfer and diversification.

2) Pharmaceutical industries and Biotech will also benefit form this research as it will potentially provide novel insight to develop antimicrobial strategies. The T6SS system is conserved within a number of human pathogens and the mechanistic information produced in the research will be applicable to other human pathogens in addition to P. aeruginosa. The identification of novel bacterial toxins with novel targets can obviously result in the development of new drugs. The identification of novel bacterial toxins and the way they are transported by the T6SS directly into bacterial targets to kill them may also form the basis for the development of live innocuous bacteria which may be used as competitor for human pathogens. Within the infected host such bacteria may serve as kind of "probiotics" contributing to improve human health. The potential development and manufacture of novel anti-infective strategies by European (Sanofi-Aventis) and UK-based Pharma or Biotech based on T6SS-dependent toxin delivery will be of direct benefit to the European and UK economy as such therapeutics if successful would have a world-wide market.

3) Public sector health care professionals will benefit from the research in terms of an improved knowledge about the cause of P. aeruginosa infections and possible new treatment plans. P. aeruginosa is the 3rd most commonly-isolated nosocomial pathogen accounting for 10% of hospital-acquired infections, with 10,000 cases each year in UK. The development of novel therapeutic approaches would improve quality of life and health in the UK. Specialist health care workers treating cystic fibrosis patients (e.g. our collaborators Profs Jane Davies and Eric Alton at the Royal Brompton Hospital) would particularly benefit from the work as in late stage CF, the sole microorganism left in CF patient lungs is P. aeruginosa, which is firmly and chronically established and will lead to the patient death.

4) The UK knowledge-based economy will benefit from the interdisciplinary training of the PDRA working in on the research project. Such trained RA (and associated PhD, masters and undergraduate students) are likely to benefit the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, as well as the academic base in the UK. We therefore anticipate medium term economic benefits arising from a well-trained UK and international research base, reflected in maintaining internationally competitive research intensive universities and associated industries.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description MRC PhD Stiudentship to Sophie Howard
Amount £79,500 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2019
 
Description MRC PhD studentship to Selina Fecht
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 10/2021
 
Description Personalised Approach to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAPA) - CF Trust SRC
Amount £750,000 (GBP)
Funding ID SRC 014 
Organisation Cystic Fibrosis Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 09/2021
 
Description Pseudomonal infection in CF: better detection, better understanding, better treatment
Amount £745,708 (GBP)
Funding ID SRC001 
Organisation Cystic Fibrosis Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description The T6SS as a search engine for naturally validated antibacterial targets
Amount £531,938 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/S02316X/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2022
 
Title Collection of antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa T6SS componenets 
Description Generated several antibodies against purified proteins of the T6SS machine from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Type Of Material Antibody 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Systematic detection of assembly and activity of the T6SS in Pseudomoans aeruginosa 
 
Description Biochemistry and Microscopy of the Pseudomonas T6SS - Despoina Mavridou 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Life Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution - We have engineeered the constrcuts to overexpress tagX-tssA and tagJ-tssA from P. putida and P. aeruginosa, respectively - We have engineered constructs in which the T6SS and TagX (renamed TagB) or TagJ are tagged with GFP and visualized by fluorescence microscopy.
Collaborator Contribution - Despoina Mavridou has performed biochemical analysis of the TagX-TssA and TagX-TssA complexes by co-purification approaches and electron microscopy analysis. - Despoina Mavridou together with Chris Furniss ahve imaged the speed of contarction of the T6SS sheeth in presence absence of TagB which revealed a crucial role for TagB in the T6SS dynamics. This was particulary successful using P. putida as a model.
Impact A paper describing the role in T6SS dynamics is under review at Nature Communications.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration David Albesa-Jove (University of the Basque country) 
Organisation University of the Basque Country
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided electron microscopy data of the baseplate component of the T6SS, TssA We identified Tse8 as a GatA homologue and a Pseudomonas aeruginosa T6SS toxin
Collaborator Contribution Based on sequence data and EM images they designed a model for the 3D structure of TssA (Dodecameric rings) Based on the sequence of Tse8 and the 3D structure of GatA, we identified key residues which could explain the difference of functionality between Tse8 and GatA.
Impact We have a paper in revision at EMBO J describing the TssA structure
Start Year 2015
 
Description Cryo-EM of the Hcp-T6SS toxins complexes - Tiago Costa 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Life Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have enginereed plasmids to express and purified the T6SS Hcp-Toxins complexes
Collaborator Contribution Tiago Costa is involved in perfomeing EM and Cryo-EM as well as processing the images
Impact None yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Cryo-electron tomography ot the T6SS - Martin Pilhofer 
Organisation ETH Zurich
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Martin Pilhofer will visualize in situ by cryo-electron tomography, le localization and structure of the T6SS notable the contractile sheath TssBC, and the asscoaited baseplate
Collaborator Contribution We provide T6SS mutants or T6SS-overexpressing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains
Impact We have obtained the fisrt images of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa sheath by Cryo-electron tomography showing it spans the cytoplasm and and can also be visualized as bundle of sheath suggesting that more than on machine can assemble at any one place. This was also made pôssible by engineering a P. aeruginosa meB mutants which generates thinner cells more adapted for Cryo-Tomo.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Fluorescence microscopy -FILM at Imperial 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Visualisation of T6SS dynamic using bacteria expressing fluorescently tagged T6SS.
Collaborator Contribution Visualisation of T6SS dynamic using bacteria expressing fluorescently tagged T6SS
Impact Microscopy images have been included in the Planamente et al, 2016, EMBO Journal
Start Year 2014
 
Description Implementation of the Photocrosslinking methodology - Geneviève Ball and Romé Voulhoux 
Organisation Aix-Marseille University
Department INSTITUTE FOR MICROBIOLOGY, BIOENERGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY - IM2B
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Hosted Geneviève Ball in my laboratory in February 2019 (2 weeks) to train my staff in the Photocrosslinking methodology.
Collaborator Contribution Romé Voulhoucx sent his technician in my laboratory to train my staff in the Photocrosslinking methodology
Impact None yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Spatipotemporal localization of T6SS active bacteria in biofilms -Knut Drescher and Robert Endres 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing engineered strains with different fluorophores and different T6SS background. Distribution of cells could then assessed in biofilm and contribution of T6SS and T6SS toxins to the separation of the different lineages investigated.
Collaborator Contribution Knut Drescher, at the Max Planck Institute of Terrestrial Microbiology in Marburg, has developed sophisticated methods to trace bacterial lineages within mixed population of bacteria embedded within a biofilm.
Impact Marta Rudzite currently a master student and starting a PhD in our group in October 2019, will go for a two weeks placement to acquire expertise in image acquisition in Knut Drescher laboratory. Marta is co-supervised by Robert Enders at Imperial College London, who is contributing to image analysis and mathematical modelling.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Statistical analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of the T6SS in bacteria 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Engineering bacterial strains with fluorescently labelled T6SS components and recording videos
Collaborator Contribution Mathematical and statistical analysis of the T6SS foci distribution in bacterial cells and bacterial populations.
Impact Hiring a Wellcome Trust PhD student, Scott Ward, who is hosted by Niall Adams in the Department of Mathematics
Start Year 2017
 
Description TraDIS with Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute 
Organisation The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We constructed transposon mutant libraries to perform a TraDIS approach to identify T6SS toxin/immunity couple. In brief a library was performed in a T6SS positive strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while another was made in a strain defective for T6SS.
Collaborator Contribution The Illumina sequencing was performed at Sanger and identified the position of Tn insertion in the two libraries. Potential immunity genes were identified by looking at Tn present in genes from the T6SS-negative library and abset from the T6SS-positive library.
Impact By performing the screen we identified a new T6SS toxin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which we called Tse8. Tse8 is an analogue of the GatA transamidosome subunit but is not functional. We hypothesized that it interferes with the GatA activity and thus impairs protein synthesis which results in growth arrest. tse8 toxicity can be relived by expression of Tsi8 its cognate immunity.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Visiting Professor - Nanyang Technical University - SCELSE - Singapore 
Organisation Nanyang Technological University
Country Singapore 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Visiting Professor since 2018 and effective collaboration with the group of Prof Michael Givskov. Laura Nolan visited also the Centre in April 2018 to implement the TraDIS methodology. We have now engineered a collection of mutants affected in all known genes encoding enzymes making or breakinfg c-di-GMP
Collaborator Contribution Hosted Laura Nolan for supporting approaches using the TraDIS methodology. Our colaborator at SCELSE is now analysing the biofilm phenotype of all of our c-di-GMP related mutants using conofcal microsopy and biofilm grown in flow cells.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute - Bacterial genome sequencing 
Organisation The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We provide the PAK strain of P. aeruginosa in which all the muattaions for warA/B and other c-di-GMP related genes have been engineered.
Collaborator Contribution The PAK genome was seqeunced so that we can comapre with other P. aerugibosa laboratory strains and understand potential phenotypic difference s between isolates.
Impact The PAK genome sequence was published. Cain, A.K., Nolan, L.M., Whitchurch, C., Filloux, A.* and Parkhill, J. (2019) Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference strain PAK. Microbiology Resource Announcements 8. pii: e00865-19 *Corresponding author
Start Year 2019
 
Description A talk at NTU in Singapore by Prof Alain Filloux 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk by the PI Alain Filloux to PI, Postdoctoral fellows and PhD students from the SCELSE Institute at the NTU in Singapore.
Role of c--di-GMP in biofilm formation and immune evasion and hos it relates to the central regulatory network RsmA/SadC
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description A talk at the YMS conference in Dundee by Alain Filloux -2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk by Alain Filloux:
YMS 2016, Young Microbiologists Symposium on Microbe Signalling, Organisation and Pathogenesis. The bacterial Type VI Secretion System: Killing with moderation. University of Dundee, Dundee 29-30th June 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.lifesci.dundee.ac.uk/other/yms/
 
Description A talk on T6SS at the ASM Microbe 2016 by Alain Filloux 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk by Alain Filloux at:
ASM Microbe 2016. Type VI Secretion System and Bacterial Toxins: A Matter of Friends or Foes Boston. Boston, USA, June 16-20, 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description A weapon for bacterial warfare. Talk Patricia Bernal at the V International Symposium SRUK 2017, London, United Kingdom, July 7-9, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at the postgraduate community in London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Academia Sinica (IPMB), Taipei, Taiwan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact talk in the context of networking with our collaborator Erh-Min Lai
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bacterial Protein Export 2018 - Leuven 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a talk on the T6SS at the conference on protein export in Bacteria organized from September 30 to October 3 2018 in Leuven by Tassos Economou.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rega.kuleuven.be/bac/economou/bacterial-protein-export/programme
 
Description Co-cordination of the Imperial Festiva 2018 - Patricia Bernal 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Patricia has coordinated the section "Bug Zones" for the Imperial Festival 2018. This covered initiation to microbiology and microbial pathogens for school children. there were several boots installed on the ground floor of Flowers Building (South Kensington campus) and this involved also several other members of the laboratory (Panayiota Pissaridou, Laura Nolan, Kira Glatzel, Sophie Howard, Luke Allsopp). Patricia was also in the jury for the "Science Toy Award" 2018 during the festival.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description European Course on Microbial Evolution and Molecular Epidemiology, ENS Lyon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Course for for French Microbiologists at the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Imperial Festival - Super Bugs Zone - 27-29 April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Open Day odf the CMBI at the annula Impetrial Festival. Several stands at the Supoer Bugs Zone describing multiple aspects of bacterial pathogens.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Imperial Festival Outreach - Super Bugs Zone - Educating chirldren to the world of Microbiology 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Several members of the Filloux's group, Laura Nolan (PDRA), Patricia Bernal (PDRA), Lukke Allsopp (PDRA), Thomas Wood (PhD student), Panayiota Pissaridou (PhD student), Sophie Howard (PhD student) and Sara Planamente (PDRA), designed a stand in May 2017 for the Imperial festival. These were describing various aspects of Microbiology from recognizing a bacterium to detailed molecular mechanisms of an antibacterial weapon, the T6SS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Laura Nolan Workshop on Imaging in Cambridge 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Laura Nolan attended the following workshop:
Image Analysis for Biologists run by Cambridge University on December 12-14th 2016

It will help better imaging the T6SS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Laura Nolan attended a Symposium on Microscopy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Laura Nolan attended the following symposium
YLS 2016 Symposium "Advanced Imaging with Light Microscopy: Capturing Tissues to Single Molecules" at Hammersmith Campus on 28th October, 2016

This will be very helpful to visulaize the T6SS in cellulo as well as moitoring the translocation of T6SS toxins between bacterial cells.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore Center for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering (SCELSE). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact talk in the context of Networking with future collaborators in Singapore on biofilm, c-di-GMP signalling and T6SS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description National Chung-Hsing University, Taiwan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Networking with our collaborator Erh-Min Lai in Taiwan
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description Poster presentation by Thomas Wood at the FEMS 2017 meeting on the T6SS effector VgrG2b 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact PhD student from the Filloyx's group presenting work on the T6SS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Poster presented by Sara Planamente, Panyiota Pissaridou and Sarah Wettstadt at the Pseudomonas conference in Liverpool - The T6SS machinery and its effectors 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of our work on the T6SS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Posters from Luke Allsopp, Thomas Wood and Sarah Wettsadt at the 5th Molecular Microbiology and 4th Midlands Molecular Microbiology Meeting in Birmingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact PDRA and PhD students from the Filloux lab, Luke Allsopp, Thomas Wood and Sarah Wettsadt, presented talks and poster on the T6SS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation Laura Nolan at "Adaptation and Communication of Bacterial Pathogens Conference" (Baeza, Spain, October 25th-28th, 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lura Nolan gave a short talk on "Uncovering the mechanism of membrane puncture and the full toxin repertoire of the Type VI secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Royal Institution Christmas Lectures 'Who Am I?' - Laura Nolan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Laura Nolan was a scientific contributor to the segment of the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures 'Who Am I?', December 2018 filmed for the BBC on diversity within our microbiome.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Royal Institution's 'I'm a Scientist' online event - LMaura Nolan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Laura Nolan was one of 15 invited experts on the Royal Institution's 'I'm a Scientist' online event with school kids, January 2019 - She participated in 20 hours of online chats answering questions about Microbiology and her research work in general.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Summer School on Biofilm - SCELSE Singapore 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a lecture on July 4, 2018 on the T6SS and how this might influence the composition of the microbiota at the Summer School on Biofilms organized by SCELSE in Singapore.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk Alain Filloux Academia Sinica in Taipei 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact From January 15th, 2017 to January 23rd 2017, Alain Filloux visited Erh-Min Lai laboratory and to further discuss the collaboration and give a talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at the International Microbiology Course from the Institut Pasteur 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a talk on September 6, 2018 on the mechanisms of the T6SS in bacteria and how this may influence the composition of the microbiota. The audience was mostly PhD students attending the International Course of Microbiology at the Institut Pasteur.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at the Universitry of Glasgow - Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a talk on January 18, 2018 at the University of Glasgow upon invitation by Daniel Wall, on the antibacterial activity of the T6SS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at the University of Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a seminar at the University of Cambridge on April 26, 2018 upon invitation by Richard hayward on the "Type VI secretion system,: a bacterial killing machine"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Twincore Symposium 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a talk on August 30, 2018 on the T6SS and its antibacterial activity at the Twincore Symposium 2018. I am also a SAB member for Twincore.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.twincore.de/de/veranstaltungen/twincore-symposium-2018/
 
Description talk at the SCELSE retreat (NTU Singapore) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Singapore Centre for Environemental Life Sciences Engineering (SCELSE) retreat was organized on November 2, 2018. I deliverd a keynote talk for the staff, and students of the centre.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018