Understanding the genes for Parkinson's disease

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Institute of Neurology

Abstract

We now know many of the genes which cause and predispose to Parkinson's disease but for many others, we only know their chromosomal position. In this grant we seek to find these genes and work out how the function of all the genes for the disease relate to each other. We already know that many of the genes for the disease are involved in two related processes: autophagy (how the cell removes damages cell components and proteins) and mitophagy (how the cell removes damaged mitochondria). We will assess whether these new genes are in the same pathways or if there are other relevant pathways involved in the disease Finally, we will develop cellular assays for these pathways so that we can work towards developing drugs which correct the defects we have identified.

Technical Summary

Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, affecting in access of 120,000 individuals in the United Kingdom, and is uniformly fatal with no disease course modifying therapy available. Genome wide association (GWA) studies have been outstandingly successful in identifying regions of the human genome that are associated with increased risk for a wide range of common human disorders. This is true for Parkinson's disease, where in excess of twenty risk loci have been identified. The major challenge for both academic and industrial researchers is to translate the identification of these genomic regions into biological insights into the molecular aetiology of Parkinson's, which in to turn can inform drug development efforts in this area. To achieve this, the causative variants responsible for the WG association - in most cases likely to be alterations in specific genes - need to be identified and characterized. In this proposal we will use gene expression and splicing analysis to assess the functional role of genes implicated by PD GWA studies, combined with cellular and in vivo studies, to take the key next steps required for evaluation of the role of implicated genes in the molecular pathogenesis of PD and their status as putative drug targets.

Planned Impact

The genetic and functional characterization of genetic loci implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease by genome wide association studies will have important implications and impact outside of an immediate academic audience.
With more than 120,000 people in the UK currently with Parkinson's, there is an urgent health and economic demand for new treatments. The impact of Parkinson's disease will increase over the coming decades as the UK population ages, emphasising the urgency of developing therapies for this disorder.
We will start by precisely identifying the genes for the disorder and their genetic mechanism through gene expression analysis in parallel with our work outside this proposal in which we are carrying out sequence analysis of PD cases. This genetic, gene expression and bioinformatic work will tell PD researchers including in the pharma industry the biochemical players in the pathways to disease and tell us whether, for each of the genes, we should consider gain or loss or change of function as the pathogenic mechanism.
From our and others previous work, we already know three pathways which are involved in the disorder: autophagy, mitophagy and endosomal pathways. We will continue to explore the role of the known PD genes and mutations on these pathways and seek to identify other molecular components of these pathways. This process will both be guided by the genetic analysis above and equally will guide the genetics as interactors identified in this work may be novel PD loci.
As we develop a deeper cellular understanding of the pathogenic biochemical networks we will develop assays which we will convert to medium throughput assays to enable screening for the compounds which perturb these networks. This information will feed into drug development programs in the academic and pharmaceutical sector, providing a bridge over the gap between the basic genetic insights into PD and translational efforts to produce novel therapies.
The development of disease modifying therapies based upon data generated by this study will have major ramifications for the pharmaceutical sector, the National Health Service and, most importantly, individuals with Parkinson's or at risk of developing the disease. While it is difficult to quantify the impact of a disorder such as Parkinson's on the nation, a recent study (Findley LJ, Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 13: S8-S12, 2007) provides an estimate of between £449 million and £3.3 billion to the UK economy. DiLuca and Olesen (Neuron 82: 1205-1208) estimate the cost of Parkinson's to the European economy as being close to £10 billion (with £5 billion being in direct health care costs), and so it is clear that a disease modifying therapy slowing the disease course or delaying the age of onset would have a major impact on the health and wealth of the United Kingdom. The major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry in the field of neurodegeneration with regarding to developing such a therapy has been to identify clear drug targets, a contrast with the field of cancer biology where a genetic approach has yielded a number of tractable targets. In PD, the number of clear disease modifying drug targets has been limited to a handful, including three (SNCA, LRRK2, and GBA) that have had their status reinforced by their identification by GWA studies for PD. To proceed from a list of circa 20 disease associated loci to a tractable and rationally stratified list of potential drug targets, a critical and required step is the thorough characterization of these loci. This proposal provides a structured and detailed series of work packages to directly address this need.

Publications

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Bandres-Ciga S (2019) The endocytic membrane trafficking pathway plays a major role in the risk of Parkinson's disease. in Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society

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Blauwendraat C (2019) Parkinson's disease age at onset genome-wide association study: Defining heritability, genetic loci, and a-synuclein mechanisms. in Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society

 
Title protein interaction network online tool (PINOT) 
Description The PINOT web server takes, as input, a text file containing a simple list of HGNC approved symbols. The genes within the list are the "seeds" to extract protein-protein interactions (PPIs) from 7 databases within the IMEx consortium (Biogrid, Intact, Mint, InnateDB, bhf-UCL, MBinfo and Uniprot). PPIs are downloaded from PSICQUIC using an API protocol embedded within the R package "psicquic" [Shannon P (2018). PSICQUIC Common QUery InterfaCe. R package version 1.18.0.]. Downloaded files are then parsed in order to merge the information collected from different databases. Each annotation undergoes quality control steps to remove poor annotations. Each annotation is then scored based on the number of different publications and interaction detection methods used for the identification. PINOT output contains all scored interactions for the genes included in the input list. The text file is visualized on the webpage and can be downloaded, in addition the file can be emailed to the user if they consent to providing an email address. 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact PINOT is the development of the method called weighted protein-protein interaction network analysis (WPPINA) that has been published in: PMID:28004582 (Journal of Proteomics Research, 16:999-1013, 2017); PMID:29898659 (BMC genomics, 19:452, 2018) and used in the research presented in: PMID:29513927 (Proteomics, 18:e1700444, 2018); PMID:29794074 (Cancer Research, 78:3731-3739, 2018) and PMID:30283816 (Neurology Genetics, 4:e266, 2018). The website runs in a beta version and we foresee to release it to the general public upon publication in 2019. 
URL http://www.reading.ac.uk/bioinf/PINOT/PINOT_form.html
 
Description "Alpha-synuclein & Parkinson's disease Conference: lessons from the past 20 years" Barcelona 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited speaker to The University of Barcelona Medical School - Talk title: "Genetics of synucleinopathies"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description "Genomics in Neurodegenerative disease -- what are we up to" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture as HKUST IAS fellow, Hong Kong
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description "Neurogenetic Foundations of Movement Disorders - The Key to Cure?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Keynote Lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description "The Genetics of the Dementias" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited teaching lecture at Queen Square on MSc Human Genetics course 2018-19
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 2017 EMBO conference on "Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration" at the EMBL Advanced Training Centre (ATC) in Heidelberg 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk at EMO - Genomics of Neurodegeneration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 2018 Parkinson's UK conference York 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Keynote speaker
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 2nd Regional DBS meeting - 'Deep brain stimulation: New Horizons in Neurology and Psychiatry' Westin Zagreb hotel. Zagreb, Croatia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker - talk: Genomic analysis of neurological diseases and possible implications on society
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 2nd international Taiwanese Congress of Neurology and 2017 Annual meeting of Taiwan Neurological Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker - Talk title: Current Advance in Genetic Understanding of Parkinson's Disease
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Advances in Alzheimer's Disease 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited speaker - The 10th Xiangya International Symposium of the Clinical and Basic Research on Neurodegenerative Disorders, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis: what do we know and why have clinical trials failed 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Invited public lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Aß hypothesis, AD genetics" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited lecture - Wenner-Gren Center (Sveavägen 166), Stockholm, Sweden
symposium : "Amyloid diseases: from biochemistry to clinical applications"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Crispr Talk - John and Selina 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Lecture Royal London Hospital
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Department of Pharmacology, Mansfield Road, Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Pharmacology, Anatomical Neuropharmacology and Drug Discovery Seminars - Talk title: Genomics of neurodegenerative diseases
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Epidemiology of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Keynote speaker on teaching course at Bordeaux School of Neuroscience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland Vatnsmyrarvegur 16 101 Reykjavik - Iceland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Distinguished speakers series
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Fifth Alzheimer's Research UK Oxford Drug Discovery Institute Collaborators' Meeting. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talking at oxford DDI Collaborators meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Genetic analysis of late onset degenerative diseases implicates failures of damage response 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Speaker invitation and Announcement of The Brain Prize Awardee 2019 Copenhagen, Denmark
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Lecture - Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research (WIBR) mini-symposium - Sainsbury Wellcome Centre London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Invited Lecture Weston's meeting - 50th Year Anniversary Symposium, 33 Queen Square
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Wolfson final symposium - Institute of Child Health London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetics in neurodegenerative disease 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited lecture at 2019 International Conference of Korean Dementia Association, (IC-KDA 2019) Seoul
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetics in neurodegenerative diseases 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited teaching to PhD students on Biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases PhD course
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetics of Alzheimer's 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited lecture at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology ShenZhen branch
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetics of Alzheimer's and other neuro-degenerative disease 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture - China National Genebank - Jinsha Road, Dapeng New District, Shenzhen
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetics of Dementias 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Lecture XXIV World Congress of Neurology, Dubai - AE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetics of Neurodegeneration 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture at Lisbon AD/PD meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genomic analysis of neurodegenerative diseases 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited lecture Scientific Talk (to senior scientists) Odense University Hospital, Denmark
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genomic analysis of the mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease in Denmark to PhD students 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Teaching Lecture to PhD students in neuroscience at the NeuroGrad Winter School, Copenhagen
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://neurograd.ku.dk/neurograd-winter-school/
 
Description Genomic clues to neurodegenerative disease mechanisms 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Brain Prize Special Lecture/ keynote lecture at ECNP Congress in Copenhagen
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genomics of Neurodegeneration 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited lecture - 3rd Rijeka Forum on Neurodegenerative diseases, Croatia Rijeka
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genomics of neurodegenerative disease 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Keynote speaker FENS The Serbian Neuroscience Society. with the Neuroscience societies of Romania and Turkey.
Belgrade Serbia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Inaugural Baillieu Myer Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Inaugural Baillieu Myer Lecture, in honour of contribution to medical research, in particular dementia research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Round table public talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited public round table - Brain Prize Evening - Lundbeck - BNA Festival, The Convention Centre Dublin
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk to the Elderly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Invited speaker at Chinese Dementia Meeting at Community Elder Center at Hebei, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description James Parkinson Memorial, The London - Bearsted Lecture Theatre 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Genetics of Parkinsonism
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meet the Professors 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Round table public talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Neanderthals - talk for The National Trust 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture in response to a request to talk to a regional National Trust membership
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Opening lecture: Alzheimer's disease: a personal view on early diagnosis and treatment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture - XVIII Teófilo Hernando's International Summer School of Pharmacology
Frontier Biomarkers and Drug Discovery for the Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Pan-London regional teaching day for all the neurology registrars in London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Pan-London regional teaching day for all the neurology registrars in London - talk - Genomics and neurology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Parkinson's Disease Gordon Research Conference. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Parkinson's Disease Genetics and Systems Biology- Discussion Leader
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Progress in the genomic analysis of neurodegeneration 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture to the department of Neurodegenerative Disease as an update on work in progress
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Rethinking PD: From a Single Disease to Multiple Diseases:: Genetics, Epigenetics and Environmental Factors 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture by The Preuss Foundation Seminar on State of the Art Parkinson's Disease Research ~ La Jolla, California
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Second Duesseldorf-Juelich Symposium on Neurodegenerative Diseases 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Genomics and aetiology of Parkinson's Disease
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Session 4 - Panel discussion: 'The Future of Neuroscience' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture - UCL Neuroscience Symposium 10th Anniversary, UCL Institute of Education
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Skype 2 hour lecture to students 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Teaching Lecture to Masters Students
"Athens International Master's Programme in Neurosciences"
University of Athens
Department of Biology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Stanford University - Brain Rejuvenation Mini-symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker Stanford University - Brain Rejuvenation Mini-symposium
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at CITERSoc December Workshop Cardiff 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker - Talk title: "Tissue engineering to Combat Ageing Diseases"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The 12th World Congress on Controversies in Neurology (CONy), Warsaw, Poland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker - Talk title: PD associated with lysosome dysfunction and PD associated with mitochondrial dysfunction are different diseases.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The importance of genetics and molecular biology in neurodegenerative diseases 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited teaching UCL - Basic neuroscience and investigation of Nervous system - CLNE0009 Queen Square
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The importance of genetics and molecular biology in neurodegenerative diseases 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invitation to Lecture on MRes Translational Neuroscience programme - 7 Queen Square
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The role of genetics and genetic testing in PD 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Lecture at World Parkinson Coalition 2019 Kyoto, Japan
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description University Menéndez Pelayo, in the course XVI International School of Pharmacology <>. Understanding the Human Brain. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Teaching session - Understanding Brain Diseases - Alzheimer's Disease
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Visit to Columbia University New York 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Advances in Precision Medicine: Genetics - Dr Hardy focuses on the genetic analysis of complex traits related to neurological disease, and in population genetics to understand the underlying genetics of a disorder so he can work with those making cellular and animal models of the disease to help, both in the understanding of disease mechanisms and to help in the search for treatments
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description talk on Genetics at McGill University in Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019