Optimising Innate Host Defence to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: MRC Centre for Inflammation Research

Abstract

The treatment of bacterial infection is complicated by antibiotic resistance. The body's defence against bacteria relies on the immune system and requires blood cells, called macrophages and neutrophils that eat and kill bacteria. Despite being frequently exposed to bacteria that cause serious infections most people rarely become ill due to these bacteria. We can learn from how the immune system protects most people and develop medicines to re-engage this system if it fails. This approach is currently limited by incomplete understanding of the precise mechanisms that kill bacteria in immune cells but our consortium has made great strides to address this. We now wish to refine our understanding of mechanisms that we have already identified and supplement this with further experiments to identify the best approaches with which to modulate these responses in patients.

In the body macrophages are the first line of defence against bacteria. We will use techniques that manipulate all the macrophage's genes individually and identify which are most important in regulating bacterial killing. We have also identified that when macrophages commit cell-suicide it helps clear bacteria and we will look for genes that regulate this process. When macrophages are overwhelmed by bacteria neutrophils are important to remove bacteria. For neutrophils we cannot manipulate the cell's genes but we will use an approach that uses antibodies to target all the proteins in the cell and will perform a similar screen to identify factors influencing bacterial killing. We also have some candidates we have already identified which regulate this process. We will then study how important the mechanisms we find are in models of infection where immune cells interact with other cell types. In particular we want to ensure we not only enhance bacterial killing but also minimize the capacity of neutrophil-derived immune factors to cause bystander damage to the body's tissues.

Next we will screen panels of chemical structures to enhance the selected mechanisms of bacteria killing. We will work with industry partners to adapt these structures for medical use. In particular we will test how well these target the specific location in the cell where the killing factors are produced using new approaches, termed super-resolution microscopy (SRM), that allow us to measure their production and location in the cell with great precision. We will modify the chemical structures to ensure our medicines target the right mechanism and location in the macrophage or neutrophil. These compounds will then be tested in our models of bacterial infection, including models of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics.

We will also test how the bacteria respond to attempts by the immune system to kill them. This will also inform understanding of how bacteria escape immune responses and spread between species to establish reservoirs of infection in animals that contribute to human disease with antibiotic resistant bacteria.

To confirm our findings are relevant to patients and to test potential medicines that we develop we will study macrophages and neutrophils from healthy volunteers or patients at risk of bacterial infection. Our approach will be significantly enhanced by our ability to image the interaction of bacteria with macrophages and neutrophils, and specifically the factors that regulate or mediate bacterial killing, in the lung of patients. This involves new developments with unique chemical probes and fibre optical imaging. We can potentially translate our findings rapidly to patients because many of the agents we will use to manipulate the innate response are drugs licensed for other medical indications. Our approach will reduce reliance on antibiotics and provide an alternative approach based on modifying the body's immune response that will be active against a range of bacteria, irrespective of their sensitivity to antibiotics.

Technical Summary

The SHIELD consortium will combat antimicrobial resistance by enhancing phagocyte microbicidal responses. We will investigate microbicidal mechanisms and host responses in macrophages and neutrophils in response to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and validate key findings with antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

Automated genetic screens (e.g. CRISPR) will be performed in macrophages to identify microbicidal mechanisms. A reverse phase proteomic array (RPPA) of core neutrophil transduction responses to bacteria will be followed by screening the effects of pathway inhibition on bacterial killing and regulation of inflammation. Screen 'hits' will be supplemented with candidate regulators we have already identified. Mechanisms will be validated in phagocytes and in genetically modified mice and zebrafish models of infection. Compound libraries will be screened in phagocytes and zebrafish to enhance microbicidal responses that maximize bacterial clearance and minimise inflammation. After lead optimization we will confirm efficacy using super-resolution microscopy and mouse models of bacterial infection.

Animal adapted strains of bacteria will be serially passaged in human phagocytes to identify bacterial mutations arising from selective pressure. Analysis of how mutations influence microbicidal function will further clarify mechanisms and we will explore if mutational 'hot-spots' can be neutralized with monoclonal antibodies to limit immune escape.

The physiological relevance of selected mechanisms and pharmacological 'hits' will be confirmed in primary tissue macrophages and neutrophils isolated from inflamed tissue in healthy adults and patients at risk of bacterial infection. We will use molecular optical imaging with SmartProbes to document key phagocyte microbicidal responses to bacteria in the alveolar space. We will also use this platform to perform initial micro-dosing of lead compounds and expedite delivery of future phase I trials.

Planned Impact

The development of novel host-based therapeutics to bacterial infections will have far reaching cross-sector consequences.

Academic sector: Refining understanding of the key mechanisms regulating antimicrobial killing and controlling inflammatory responses will be of broad interest to those developing new approaches to bacterial infection, investigating other forms of infection or inflammatory diseases for which inappropriate responses are harmful. The basic principles will extend to veterinary medicine and aid the 'One Health' initiative. The models developed will be shared with academic colleagues and the results of screens will be freely available on public databases (short term impact, 3-5 years).

NHS: Costs related to severe infection and in particular to antimicrobial resistance are high. New approaches to lessen the burden of these infections will decrease financial costs and save lives (long-term impact, >10 years). They will help restore confidence in the health service by users worried of the burden of antimicrobial resistance. The specific results will inform clinical trials of new therapies to combat bacterial infection by antimicrobial resistant micro-organisms (medium term impact, 5-10 years).

Industry: The identification of novel targets to combat antimicrobial resistance will be a major stimulus to the pharmaceutical industry. The development of new anti-infective agents will contribute to the replenishment of a pipeline, which is depleted. The anti-infective market is a major part of the pharmaceutical industry with global reach and this would have significant impact on the industry (medium term impact, 5-10 years). There would also be indirect effects on industry, including the need to develop better diagnostic tests of early infection or of severe inflammation, which could inform use of the new treatments. A key aspect of our proposal is a strong validation platform (short-term impact, 3-5 years), including the analysis of responses in the most relevant tissue phagocytes. An exciting component is the development of our imaging methodologies, including super-resolution microscopy to define precise localisation of targeting not possible previously. Molecular optical imaging with SmartProbes, will lead to confirmation of efficacy and appropriate targeting in the alveolar space of patients for the first time. This can expedite human translation and the selection of targets for phase I studies and will be an invaluable platform for use by industry (medium term impact).

Policy makers: National and international clinical guidelines will need to be reappraised in the light of alternative strategies to enhance host defence during infection (long-term impact, > 10 years). Therapeutics targeting the host could be administered as targeted prophylaxis to high-risk groups, be administered during the early stages of infection or most likely during established infection. The use of host response modulation would represent a paradigm shift in the approach to infection and how existing agents such as antimicrobials are used. They would require personalised stratification of risk and of severe complications of infection, which would impact management (medium term impact, 5-10 years). In addition they would lead to less reliance on antimicrobial agents (long term impact). The importance of infection would mean these policies would have a global perspective (long term impact).

Society: New approaches to combat infection would reduce health costs, morbidity and mortality (long term impact, > 10 years). Increased understanding of the management of infection and of antimicrobial stewardship, facilitated by publicising this research, would remove some of the inappropriate demand for antimicrobials and encourage greater engagement between the public, health care professionals and industry to tackle infection related problems with a responsible approach (short term impact, 3-5 years).

Publications

10 25 50
publication icon
Bewley MA (2018) Opsonic Phagocytosis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Is Enhanced by Nrf2 Agonists. in American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine

publication icon
Bewley MA (2017) Impaired Mitochondrial Microbicidal Responses in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Macrophages. in American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine

publication icon
Buchan KD (2019) Staphylococcus aureus: setting its sights on the human innate immune system. in Microbiology (Reading, England)

publication icon
Collini PJ (2018) HIV gp120 in the Lungs of Antiretroviral Therapy-treated Individuals Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Responses to Pneumococci. in American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine

publication icon
Prajsnar TK (2018) Use of Larval Zebrafish Model to Study Within-Host Infection Dynamics. in Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)

 
Description Discussions with Chief Medical Officer by MRF group including a clinician scientist from our group, who highlighted frrom his clinical experience need to capture data on AMR on death certificates. Subsequently highlighted by CMO who had similar ideas to commons HSC select committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/sep/04/rise-in-antibiotic-resistance-must-be-tackled-says-t...
 
Description Involvement as co-editor in treatment guidelines for opportunistic infections (BHIVA)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Antibiotic Research UK
Amount £4,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ANTSRG 03/2018 
Organisation Antibiotic Research UK 
Start 09/2018 
End 03/2020
 
Description MRC Clinical Fellowship
Amount £240,724 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/P001599/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2016 
End 08/2019
 
Description Sir Halley Stewart Trust
Amount £30,510 (GBP)
Organisation Sir Halley Stewart Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 07/2021
 
Title Development of a zebrafish model of pneumococcal infection 
Description Investigation of pneumococcal infection has largely relied on mammalian models mainly in rodents. We have been working in the first year of our awrd to develop a zebrafish model in one of our consortium members lab. Prof Steve Renshaw and a PDRA in the consortium Tomasz Prazjar to develop a zebrafish model. A model of bacteremia in which we can deplete key myeloid cell populations and genetically modulate key factors has been established and a mannuscript is being prepared. this will be shared throughout our consortium with others and can help the 3Rs by reducing mouse use. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Reduction in mouse use 
 
Description Medical Research Foundation National PhD Training Programme in Antimicrobial Resistance MRF-145-0004-TPG-AVISO 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department Medical Research Foundation
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I along with other AMR consortium leads have worked wiht the MRF to develop a doctoral training programme for AMR. I along with Prof Chris dowson worked closely with Mathew Avison who is the lead for the programme to develop the application and we were the members of the team who were interviewed by the MRF and worked with the MRF and oher consortia leads to develop the programme. I am on the leadership committee for the programme and have reviewed the applications for the first round of students.
Collaborator Contribution Along with my consortia colleagues we selected multidisciplinary projects, worked with the leadership of the DTP to ensure we offered a range of multidisciplinary studentships (six in total) across diffeent Unversities and have now recruited our first students into the SHIELD consortium.
Impact Recruitment of a national cohort of students (including two into the SHIELD consortium) to start in Autumn 2018.
Start Year 2018
 
Description NIHR Global Health Research Unit on Respiratory Health (RESPIRE) 
Organisation National Institute for Health Research
Department Global Health Research Unit on Global Surgery
PI Contribution I and other mebers of my consortia have established links with this network and contributed to its application for funding or have contributed to other bids it is supporting.
Collaborator Contribution Providing expertise on host pathogen interactions in the airway and there role in chronic airway diseases. By working to help develop new diagnostic approaches based on host responses to airway disease
Impact Initiation of atraining programme in lung health in four Asian countries (Malaysia, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Start Year 2017
 
Description "In vivo Dynamics of Canonical and Non-Canonical Anti-Staphylococcus aureus Autophagy in Larval Zebrafish" - Oral presentation at Zebrafish Disease Models (ZDM11) Conference in Leiden, NL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation by PDRA in Shield Tomek Prajsnar on how zebrafish models have informed understanding of the role of autophagy in limiting intracellular persistence of S. aureus
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description "Use of zebrafish to study immunity and infection" Plenary Lecture at 3rd Polish Zebrafish Society (PTZ) Workshop in Olsztyn 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk by SHIELD PDRA T. Prajsnar on zebrafish models and how SHIELD consortium is utilising these to assess key aspects of host defence and how they are being developed for new infection models .g. those we have developed against S. pneumoniae
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Antimicrobial Resistance Cross-Council Initiative Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Discussed needs to develop novel approaches to imaging to comabt AMR in atalk entitled "Multidisciplinary approaches to imaging host-pathogen interactions"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Cheltenham science festival, 5-8 June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Theme: Hidden Armies, topics covered including: Seeing the enemy: using different types of microscopes (Light, atomic force and electron microscopy). Fighting the enemy: using light microscopes to observe fixed slides of bacteria contained in immune cells. Discussion on how microscopy approaches help us better evaluate immune defense against bacteria
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://issuu.com/cheltenhamfestivals/docs/final_proof_cf_science_brochure_201
 
Description Florey Institute public engagement event: "How clean are your hands?" - Winter Gardens, Sheffield, 16-17th Sept 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion on issues pertaining to bacteria carried in the environment and by public and how these can acquire antimicrobial resistance with health consequences. Broader discussion on need for antimicrobial stewardship adn infection control in health care settings
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.floreyinstitute.com/clean.html
 
Description Imagine discover stem outreach, 28 July 2018, Sheffield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Imagine discover stem outreach, 28 July 2018, Introducing different microscopy techniques (EM, AFM, Light microscopy), and how we use these techniques for our research in Imagine/ University of Sheffield . PhD student yin Ho supported by our consrtium and their PI Lynne prince performed the STEM activity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description MRC Science Showcase on Human Health and Disease 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact MRC UKRI Showcase of research on human health and disease in Scotland to Members of the Scottish Parliament. MSPs attending included Minister for Further Education, Higher Education and Science Richard Lochead and Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport Jeane freeman. A team of three led by Prof. Dockrell met with and presented the background to research on AMR, the health need and progress by the SHIELD consortium to develop host based therapy, as well as the contribution to training researchers in the area and alignment to the MRF national student cohort.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.parliament.scot/visitandlearn/104642.aspx
 
Description Media interviews for Nature Ecol evol paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talking to various media including print and radio regarding our Nature Ecology and Evolution publication
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description School visit (KIngsland primary) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Outreach activity at local primary school
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Scince Insights 23-28th August 2018, QMRI University of Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact STEM activity to host students in our lab as part of the QMRI STEM activity. We hosted groups of students in our lab who came to see about our work on modulating the host response to AMR. They discussed the background to the SHIELD project with the lead David Dockrell and learnt about some of the laboratory techniques we use to evaluate immune cells including microscopy and flow cytometry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/medicine-vet-medicine/outreach/science-insights
 
Description The drugs dont work -Public Engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of a two day workshop with academic audience with national and international speakers we ran a public engagement activity in Sheffieldin the Winter Gardens to highlight antimicrobial resistance and new approaches to combat it.researchers non-clinical and clinical were on hand to explain issues to the public and school children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017