Human infection challenge vaccine (HIC-vac) network

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: National Heart and Lung Institute

Abstract

Although vaccines save millions of lives around the globe every year, there are many infectious diseases that still kill large numbers of people that are still not preventable by vaccination. This is especially true in low and middle income countries (LMIC) where even basic hospital treatment is unavailable, and the only realistic option is to prevent infectious diseases by finding new and economically viable vaccines. For several hundred years the UK has led the world in making original scientific discoveries by human experimentation. Although there are clearly risks in infecting people with pathogens, these risks need to be balanced against the great advantage of being able to test vaccines experimentally without waiting for people to acquire infections naturally. Central to our network is a close collaboration with scientists in these LMIC to advocate for the value of these studies with regulators, policy makers and the public and then to support scientists to perform the studies.

Developing a new vaccine typically takes 20 years and costs over £1bn. Using experimental challenge studies, definitive results can be obtained showing that a vaccine works or does not work with only a few volunteers - perhaps 10 to 100. Conducting challenge studies in this way allows proof in principle of vaccine efficacy. By contrast, field studies that are needed to prove that a vaccine works can be vast, usually involving thousands of individuals and costing many times more than a human challenge study.

Ethically, the benefits of human challenge need to be weighed carefully against the intention to cause disease. This narrows the range of infections that can be tested to those where the disease is relatively mild or predictable and self-limiting, or diseases that can be easily and reliably treated by existing drugs or supportive care. Examples of human infection studies that are on-going in the United Kingdom include influenza, RSV, rhinovirus, typhoid, malaria, bacterial pneumona and whooping cough. Although there are problems to be overcome, vaccine development for emerging viruses such as Zika, dengue and MERS would be greatly accelerated if human challenge could be performed.

The field of vaccines is entering a very exciting stage in that many immunological concepts that have emerged from studies in animals are now ready for testing in man. At present the groups around the UK, in London, Oxford, Liverpool, York, Nottingham and Southampton, face the ethical and regulatory challenges to mounting such studies without a structure to provide mutual support. We have a great deal to learn from one another regarding not only experimental techniques but also how to overcome the large but necessary burden of regulation and safe working practices. There are groups working on similar infections but not sharing reagents, tested pathogens or other resources between them. Our proposed network will bring together all of this expertise, build on the support that we have from the public in replacing animal experimentation with informative and well controlled human studies, bringing a unified voice from the human infection volunteer network and regulatory/ethical networks to reinforce the UK's position as the most permissive and supportive environment for vaccine development.

We will do this by uniting our efforts: holding regular meetings by phone, face to face and providing one another with practical support. We will form consortia within the Network to apply for funding to provide core materials and resources. In addition to accelerating vaccine development, HIC-Vac will collaborate to address fundamental scientific questions about human infection that can only be obtained from challenge studies both within the UK and internationally. All of this work is relevant to diseases that afflict LMIC; if funded, our proposed network will therefore contribute very substantially to improving global health.

Technical Summary

Vaccines are amongst the most practical and cost-effective ways of mitigating the impact of infectious disease, especially in LMIC/resource-poor settings. Although they already prevent an enormous number of serious and lethal infections, new or improved vaccines are needed. Animal studies can be misleading and human field trials are both expensive and prone to failure. Human infection challenge (HIC) is an excellent way to expedite vaccine development, enabling vaccines to be tested at reduced cost while providing abundant information about disease pathogenesis and mechanisms of protection. Going back to the time of Edward Jenner, the UK has had a strong tradition of HIC and continues to have a relatively supportive legal, regulatory, ethical and reputational environment. Our network will draw upon the extensive HIC experience of the UK's many research groups using pathogens such as RSV, influenza, rhinovirus, typhoid/paratyphoid, malaria, Neisseria, pertussis, pneumococcus, BCG, leishmania and hookworm. It will draw together our collective experience and share best practice, supporting the development of new research initiatives in testing vaccine safety and efficacy. The network will bring in new investigators and will provide resources to promote the ethical, legally compliant and safe use of HIC. By distributing pump-priming funds, we will catalyse areas of study that extend the use of HIC, enabling substantial grant applications to be made. Most importantly, it will allow comparison of vaccine effects in UK volunteers with those in LMIC such as Malawi, India, Vietnam and Kenya. The network will work with commercial partners to promote the development and use of HIC in vaccine development, communicating the advantages of HIC to regulators, policy-makers and the public. Our network will thereby keep the UK at the forefront of global vaccine research.

Planned Impact

In order to develop the best next generation vaccines, we need to understand more about how pathogens are controlled by the human immune response and human challenge is a key component of this understanding. Broadening interactions between individuals performing challenge studies affects multiple beneficiaries.

Who will benefit from this research?
1. Academic communities studying vaccinology and the pathogenesis of disease, and designing countermeasures, will benefit from this work.
2. Private sector vaccine developers. Vaccines, in order to be developed and produced commercially, have to be supported by private sector companies, both SME and larger pharmaceutical companies. Improved understanding about how the human immune response controls infections is critical for these organisations to develop effective vaccines.
3. Policy-makers. Through the effective use of human vaccine and challenge studies, it may be possible to assess the efficacy of vaccines, without recourse to phase III studies. This is of particular benefit when the infectious agent has a low strike rate in communities or when it is a pandemic agent that only occurs sporadically.
4. LMIC. The network will synergise the expertise and disease knowledge of LMIC partners with the experience of the network HIC studies to develop platforms to ensure vaccine success in LMIC settings.
5. Volunteers. Due to the nature of the studies, the public are a key constituency, altruistically taking part in the studies for no immediate benefits to themselves. Unified ethical and regulatory frameworks will ensure their continued safety.

How will they benefit from this research?
The Catalyst co-ordinator will have responsibility for external activities across the Network. They would assist the HIC-Vac PIs with industrial liaison and (together with the Network Manager), co-ordinate a series of "Ask the Experts" documents on logistics, ethics, regulatory, safety and legal aspects of conducting human challenge studies, culminating in a series of SOPs and Best Practice articles for external use.

1. Academic Community. By bringing together multiple partners with expertise with individual pathogens, synergies and overlaps will be highlighted.
2. Private sector. Developing solutions to complex problems requires a multidisciplinary approach, through links with industry, both large Pharma (e.g. GSK, Janssen, Medimmune-AZ) and SME (Mucosis, Humabs Biomed), the HIC-Vac network will accelerate work from the laboratory into actual products.
3. Policy makers. The drawing together of human challenge experts into this network will create an advocacy body to support the use of challenge to license vaccines.
4. LMIC. Cross fertilisation between scientists in LMIC and the UK will be supported benefit UK scientists by sharing disease expertise and LMIC scientists in cutting edge techniques in HIC.
5. Volunteers. The research will contribute to increase public awareness of scientific and clinical research. It will contribute to interactions between researchers and the public with an aim to increase public participation in clinical research.
Timescales for the benefits to be realised
The training, networking and advocacy benefits will be immediately realised from the initiation of the project. The impact on the private sector will take a bit longer as the information feeds into their clinical assessment strategies.
What research and professional skills will staff working on the project develop which they could apply in all employment sectors?
The lead applicants have many years of successful internationally renowned experience in the field of vaccines and challenge studies. This project will add to the continuation of their expertise as well as maintaining their training and development. The HIC-Vac network will provide an important experience for the wider community of academic staff associated with it, including students, postdoctoral scientists, and clinicical fellows.

Organisations

 
Description Developing ethical frameworks for human challenge studies
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Foundations for regulatory guidelines for challenge agent manufacture
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description President of the British Society for Immunology
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact I am President of the British Society for Immunology (BSI), a leading UK membership organisation, working with scientists and clinicians from academia and industry to promote immunological research and application around the world. Our friendly, accessible community consists of over 3,500 immunologists, giving us a powerful voice to immunological science, for health and societal benefit. Based in Holborn, London, our staff of 14 work with our Trustees and members to achieve the organisation's aims. The BSI's mission is to promote excellence in immunological research, scholarship and clinical practice in order to improve human and animal health. We do this by: • Working with our members to support current and future generations of immunologists • Sharing our passion for immunology through meetings, publications and the media • Building up an understanding of our work by engaging with the public and those working in the research and health environments • Working with partners in pursuit of our mission, building on common interests.
URL https://www.immunology.org/
 
Title Due diligence 
Description Due diligence processes initiated and implemented in accordance to GCRF's demands. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Due diligence processes in place and tested by audit by UKRI for future network awards. 
 
Title Finance systems to support pump-priming and training awards 
Description Template contracts, financial statements, and training award letters developed and approved by JRO. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Mechanisms established for awarding pump-priming awards from Imperial College's systems. 
 
Title System for robust investigator decision-making for pump-priming awards established at board level, linking with university research infrastructure 
Description The NMB and ISAB were responsible for completing the application review process, following a process defined by the HIC-Vac management office. The Network Manager and the Comms Lead performed initial eligibility checks on applications received, which covered: • whether lead applicants and co-applicants were HIC-Vac members (if not they were asked to become members, which boosted membership numbers in this period); • whether the £100,000 limit had been breached, • funding duration no more than 12 months; • at least two different institutions per application • assessment of conflict of interest for reviewers. The Network Manager and Comms Lead allocated 3 reviewers from the NMB and ISAB to each application, avoiding both personal and institutional conflict of interest and attempting an even burden of reviews per reviewer. These allocations were reviewed by the Network Director and Deputy Director. All reviewers were sent all applications received for context, though they only had to complete reviews for their nominated applications. Scoresheets were completed with marks out of 30 for: • Scientific merit (10 marks), • track record (5 marks), • facilitating cross-network collaborations (5 marks), • strategic impact for the network (5 marks) • route to further funding (5 marks). Outliers were assessed by Ops group but concluded that with only 3 reviewers per application, adjusting for generous or harsh marking made not material difference to final rankings. A maximum of 3 strategic points per application were awarded by the Director as follows: • LMIC (1 mark) • Lead = Early Career Researcher (1 mark) • Equality and Diversity (1 mark) Each application were ranked firstly by Mean Average Score and secondly by Mean Average plus Strategic score. NMB did not wish to re-rank or review the scores. They agreed to fund the top 9 as per Average+StrategicRank. NMB and funders were happy that the review procedure used was robust. The Director summarised reviewer comments from scoresheets which was included as constructive feedback for applicants on notification emails. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Guidelines are periodically published on the HIC-Vac website and templates available by request to the Network Manager for any other research groups wishing to set up a similar awarding process 
URL https://www.hic-vac.org/funding/pump-priming-funding
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Central University of Rajasthan
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Christian Medical College, Vellore
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Kathmandu University
Country Nepal 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Kenyan Institute for Medical Research (KEMRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Leiden University Medical Center
Country Netherlands 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC Unit, The Gambia
Country Gambia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department Medical Research Council (MRC), MRC/UVRI Unit, Uganda
Country Uganda 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation North Bristol NHS Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Public Health England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation St George's University of London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Translational Health Science And Technology Institute
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Tribhuvan University of Nepal
Country Nepal 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Uganda Virus Research Institute
Country Uganda 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation University of Kent
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation University of Leicester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation University of Melbourne
Department Murdoch Children's Research Centre
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford University Clinical Research Unit Vietnam (OUCRU)
Country Viet Nam 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Wellcome Trust
Department Mahidol University-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Programme
Country Thailand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Academic partnerships through funding 
Organisation Wellcome Trust
Department Malawi-Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme
Country Malawi 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We have made financial contributions to these academic/publicly funded organisations via competitive applications for pump-priming or training funding awards, and a vaccine hesitancy project.
Collaborator Contribution Academic and publicly funded organisations have brought research expertise to the the partnership, to allow us to achieve our goal of supporting and boosting HIC studies globally.
Impact 9 pump-priming grants have been awarded and reported 6 month financial statements and progress against milestones. 5 pump-priming grants are in the final stages of signing contractual agreements. 4 early career researchers/students from LMICs were funded to attend the IVVN vaccinology course. 9 training grants have been awarded with 3 having reported outcomes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Industry partnerships 
Organisation Antigen Discovery Inc
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Partnerships with Antigen Discovery Inc and SGS Life Sciences are a direct funding relationship - both are collaborators on pump-priming grants. The other industry partners have attended HIC-Vac meetings (Kick-off meeting, innovation sandpit and first annual general meeting) contributing expertise and exploring potential new collaborations.
Collaborator Contribution Industry expertise in collaboration with academic partners to achieve research outputs as defined in the pump-priming applications. Collaborators on further grants (ReSViTRAIN, GSK)
Impact 2 pump priming awards, 1 further award resulting from Network activities.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Industry partnerships 
Organisation GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Partnerships with Antigen Discovery Inc and SGS Life Sciences are a direct funding relationship - both are collaborators on pump-priming grants. The other industry partners have attended HIC-Vac meetings (Kick-off meeting, innovation sandpit and first annual general meeting) contributing expertise and exploring potential new collaborations.
Collaborator Contribution Industry expertise in collaboration with academic partners to achieve research outputs as defined in the pump-priming applications. Collaborators on further grants (ReSViTRAIN, GSK)
Impact 2 pump priming awards, 1 further award resulting from Network activities.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Industry partnerships 
Organisation HUMABs Biomed, Bellinzona,Switzerland
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Partnerships with Antigen Discovery Inc and SGS Life Sciences are a direct funding relationship - both are collaborators on pump-priming grants. The other industry partners have attended HIC-Vac meetings (Kick-off meeting, innovation sandpit and first annual general meeting) contributing expertise and exploring potential new collaborations.
Collaborator Contribution Industry expertise in collaboration with academic partners to achieve research outputs as defined in the pump-priming applications. Collaborators on further grants (ReSViTRAIN, GSK)
Impact 2 pump priming awards, 1 further award resulting from Network activities.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Industry partnerships 
Organisation Hvivo PLC
PI Contribution Partnerships with Antigen Discovery Inc and SGS Life Sciences are a direct funding relationship - both are collaborators on pump-priming grants. The other industry partners have attended HIC-Vac meetings (Kick-off meeting, innovation sandpit and first annual general meeting) contributing expertise and exploring potential new collaborations.
Collaborator Contribution Industry expertise in collaboration with academic partners to achieve research outputs as defined in the pump-priming applications. Collaborators on further grants (ReSViTRAIN, GSK)
Impact 2 pump priming awards, 1 further award resulting from Network activities.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Industry partnerships 
Organisation Janssen Pharmaceutica NV
Country Belgium 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Partnerships with Antigen Discovery Inc and SGS Life Sciences are a direct funding relationship - both are collaborators on pump-priming grants. The other industry partners have attended HIC-Vac meetings (Kick-off meeting, innovation sandpit and first annual general meeting) contributing expertise and exploring potential new collaborations.
Collaborator Contribution Industry expertise in collaboration with academic partners to achieve research outputs as defined in the pump-priming applications. Collaborators on further grants (ReSViTRAIN, GSK)
Impact 2 pump priming awards, 1 further award resulting from Network activities.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Industry partnerships 
Organisation Sanofi
Department Sanofi Research Division
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Partnerships with Antigen Discovery Inc and SGS Life Sciences are a direct funding relationship - both are collaborators on pump-priming grants. The other industry partners have attended HIC-Vac meetings (Kick-off meeting, innovation sandpit and first annual general meeting) contributing expertise and exploring potential new collaborations.
Collaborator Contribution Industry expertise in collaboration with academic partners to achieve research outputs as defined in the pump-priming applications. Collaborators on further grants (ReSViTRAIN, GSK)
Impact 2 pump priming awards, 1 further award resulting from Network activities.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LMIC partnerships 
Organisation Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia
PI Contribution Provided funding via pump-priming or training awards.
Collaborator Contribution Capacity-building, early career training, and sharing expertise via pump-priming collaborations.
Impact 5 training awards 10 pump-priming awards either led by or involving an LMIC researcher.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LMIC partnerships 
Organisation Christian Medical College, Vellore
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided funding via pump-priming or training awards.
Collaborator Contribution Capacity-building, early career training, and sharing expertise via pump-priming collaborations.
Impact 5 training awards 10 pump-priming awards either led by or involving an LMIC researcher.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LMIC partnerships 
Organisation Kenyan Institute for Medical Research (KEMRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provided funding via pump-priming or training awards.
Collaborator Contribution Capacity-building, early career training, and sharing expertise via pump-priming collaborations.
Impact 5 training awards 10 pump-priming awards either led by or involving an LMIC researcher.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LMIC partnerships 
Organisation Mahidol University
Country Thailand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided funding via pump-priming or training awards.
Collaborator Contribution Capacity-building, early career training, and sharing expertise via pump-priming collaborations.
Impact 5 training awards 10 pump-priming awards either led by or involving an LMIC researcher.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LMIC partnerships 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC Unit, The Gambia
Country Gambia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provided funding via pump-priming or training awards.
Collaborator Contribution Capacity-building, early career training, and sharing expertise via pump-priming collaborations.
Impact 5 training awards 10 pump-priming awards either led by or involving an LMIC researcher.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LMIC partnerships 
Organisation Translational Health Science And Technology Institute
PI Contribution Provided funding via pump-priming or training awards.
Collaborator Contribution Capacity-building, early career training, and sharing expertise via pump-priming collaborations.
Impact 5 training awards 10 pump-priming awards either led by or involving an LMIC researcher.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LMIC partnerships 
Organisation Uganda Virus Research Institute
Country Uganda 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provided funding via pump-priming or training awards.
Collaborator Contribution Capacity-building, early career training, and sharing expertise via pump-priming collaborations.
Impact 5 training awards 10 pump-priming awards either led by or involving an LMIC researcher.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LMIC partnerships 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford University Clinical Research Unit Vietnam (OUCRU)
Country Viet Nam 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided funding via pump-priming or training awards.
Collaborator Contribution Capacity-building, early career training, and sharing expertise via pump-priming collaborations.
Impact 5 training awards 10 pump-priming awards either led by or involving an LMIC researcher.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LMIC partnerships 
Organisation Wellcome Trust
Department Malawi-Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme
Country Malawi 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Provided funding via pump-priming or training awards.
Collaborator Contribution Capacity-building, early career training, and sharing expertise via pump-priming collaborations.
Impact 5 training awards 10 pump-priming awards either led by or involving an LMIC researcher.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Feature in the FT 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A feature in the FT discussing the ethics of human challenge studies. Article behind a paywall https://www.ft.com/content/1f8ad850-037b-11e9-99df-6183d3002ee1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description HIC-Vac Independent Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact - Established the HIC-Vac ISAB, with formal Terms of Reference.
- Membership is Fred Hayden (US, Chair), Camille LOCHT (France) and Richard Moxon (UK).
- ISAB members participated in scoring process for first pump-priming awards round and will meet by teleconference on 1st April, subsequently producing a short report for MRC on scientific and management progress of the HIC-Vac Network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.hic-vac.org/members/network-management-board/scientific-advisory-board
 
Description HIC-Vac Twitter channel 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Creation of a Twitter feed to share information including funding calls and publications with our Network. Now 410 followers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://twitter.com/hic_vac
 
Description HIC-Vac member conferences and events 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Three events have taken place to engage HIC-Vac members and encourage networking and collaborations: the Kickoff meeting (Nov 2017), the Innovation Sandpit (June 2018), the Annual General Meeting (Nov 2018).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description HIC-Vac website creation and development 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Creation and development of an independent HIC-Vac website. Audience is primarily researchers, but also inclusive of a section for public information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.hic-vac.org/
 
Description Imperial Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact HIC-Vac ran a stall at the Imperial Science Festival to discuss human infection studies with the public and run some engagement activities. Also an activity about vaccines for children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description MRC press release to announce HIC-Vac first funding round 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The MRC (our primary funder) wrote a press release describing our activities and our first round of funding announcement. The story was covered by the Telegraph https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2018/07/02/volunteers-infected-deadly-strain-flu-make-vaccine-better/ and Daily Mail https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-5913445/Would-flu-science-10-volunteers-given-deadly-H3N2-strain-summer.html.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://mrc.ukri.org/news/browse/funding-boost-for-volunteer-infection-studies-to-help-combat-infect...
 
Description Network Management Board 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact HIC-Vac established a Network Management Board (NMB) of key Human Infection Challenge senior researchers which meets on a quarterly basis to review progress against objectives in the grant application to MRC. This enables these pivotal HIC principal investigators to discuss and resolve issues on a regular basis, keep up to date with scientific progress of the field and keep HIC-Vac high on mutual lists of priorities.

Board membership consists of:
Peter Openshaw
John Tregoning
Andy Pollard
Daniella Ferreira
Stephen Gordon
Meta Roestenberg
Cherry Tang
Robert Read
Martin Broadstock
Melissa Lennartz-Walker
Shobana Balasingam
Claire Puddephatt
Emma Smith

NMBs were held on:
NMB1 - 26 Sept 17
NMB2 - 24 Nov 17
NMB3 - 14 March 18
NMB4 - 18 June 18
NMB5 - cancelled
NMB6 - 12 Nov 18

Dates for future NMBs set as:
NMB7 - 19 March 19
NMB8 - 18 June 19
NMB9 - 19 Sept 19
NMB10 - 18 Nov 19
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL https://www.hic-vac.org/members/network-management-board
 
Description Participant videos 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Creation of short videos featuring volunteers who have taken part in human infection studies for the website and social media channels. The videos have also been shared by the institutes who ran the studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.hic-vac.org/public-information/participants-stories
 
Description Telegraph feature 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Feature in the Telegraph naming HIC-Vac and quotes from Co-Director Prof Pollard and member Dr Andrea Collins.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/0/students-paid-3500-catch-potentially-deadly-diseases-science/
 
Description The Global Health Network Platform 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Development of a platform to share resources, information and best practice linked to human challenge studies internationally, with a particular focus on supporting LMICs setting up new challenge studies. Site still being developed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://humaninfectionstudies.tghn.org/