Development of HV-CMOS sensor technology for the next generation of particle physics experiments

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

Over the last 25 years, silicon sensor technology has become a critical ingredient in the success of the most challenging experiments in fundamental physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), most notably, would not have been possible without the very fine grained sensors which sit at the heart of the CERN detectors to measure (track) the trajectories of thousands of particles produced tens of millions of times per second. The next generation of experiments, being planned today, relies on a step-change in the performance of tracking sensor technologies. Scientists seek detectors that provide micron scale position accuracy and better than one nanosecond timing resolution, while being substantially thinner than a sheet of paper and requiring little cooling. To date it has not been possible to combine all of them in a single device.

In this research, I propose to develop novel Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) to achieve these parameters in a single device using industry standard, and therefore cost-effective, High Voltage-Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (HV-CMOS) processes. DMAPS have already been adopted as the chosen sensor technology for the Mu3e experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, for which I work on the construction of the first DMAPS pixel tracker that will come online in 2020. DMAPS are also developed for the planned phase-II upgrade of ATLAS at the LHC, for which the final technology decision is expected in 2019. Within the particle physics instrumentation community, there is now a wide consensus that DMAPS will replace traditional tracking sensor technologies in the next generation of particle physics experiments.

In spite of the major improvements already demonstrated by DMAPS, the enormous challenges set by future particle physics experiments demand further research to achieve yet more performant sensors. The main goal of this research is to develop highly performant DMAPS, targeting in the first place the reduction of the pixel area, the improvement of the time resolution and the increase of the radiation tolerance. I will also develop full-size DMAPS detectors with optimised performance and pursue the deployment of these devices for particle physics experiments and beyond. These new detectors can have a massive impact in experiments such as a planned upgrade of Mu3e and future upgrades at the High Luminosity-LHC (HL-LHC), but also in the medical and commercial fields as the low cost typical of HV-CMOS processes will make DMAPS tracking detectors available to many.

Planned Impact

This research aims to push the performance limits of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) detectors to maximise the potential of the next generation of experiments in particle physics. Whilst the immediate, obvious application is in particle physics, the project has potential to go beyond the laboratory and make significant and lasting impacts in other fields of science, improve daily life for people through healthcare and train new researchers and professionals. I will split the impact of my research into: 1) technology and industry, and 2) skills development.

1) Impact through technology and industry. The goal is the advancement of society through technology developed for particle physics with engagement of UK industry to impact economy.

Ideas to deliver on the timescale of the fellowship include:

a) The department has a contract in place with Proton Partners International Ltd. (PPI), a commercial company developing a number of proton therapy centres for cancer treatment across the UK, including an on-campus facility at Liverpool. The Department of Physics will provide beam instrumentation that improves outcomes for patients particularly in paediatric cases. The DMAPS developed in this fellowship, with much improved performance, will be evaluated to establish their performance in this environment, and compare the results to traditional silicon detectors and today's state-of-the-art DMAPS.

b) Satellite applications: The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a satellite-based particle physics experiment that was launched in 2015 to study high-energy gamma-ray astronomy and search for dark matter. Motivated by the success of DAMPE, the astro-particle physics community proposed the next generation of the experiment, referred to as DAMPE-II as the priority from 2019-2030. In collaboration with the astro-particle physics research centre Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) in China, DMAPS developed in this fellowship will be used to study the replacement of the traditional silicon detectors of DAMPE-III.

c) Precision mass spectrometry: Fast and precise mass spectrometry has a wide range of applications including the detection of explosives and narcotics, medical diagnostics and process control in industry and agriculture. DMAPS developed in this fellowship with much improved granularity will be used to study the feasibility of using this sensor technology to characterise its ability to detect low energy ions over a range of ion masses. A successful demonstration would open the door to using DMAPS as a high granularity detector in mass spectrometry, thus enhancing substantially the mass separation resolution and potentially achieving single ion sensitivity.

d) Photon, X-ray and gamma ray applications: Core R&D work in this fellowship is strongly focused on the detection of charged particles, however the exceptional timing resolution of DMAPS offers interesting applications also if sensitivity to photons across the electromagnetic spectrum can be demonstrated. DMAPS developed in this fellowship with much improved time resolution will be used to analyse the response of this sensor technology in the detection of photons, X-rays and gamma rays. Such a demonstration would open the door to applications in a multitude of new areas including fast imaging, imaging in extreme radiation environments, and gamma and x-ray cameras.

2) Impact through skills development. The goal is the recruitment and training of our young researchers and professionals.

This fellowship will offer me an excellent opportunity to attract and engage individuals from our current generation of students and train them with expertise in high-tech hardware, firmware and software skills in the environment of national and international projects. At the same time, I will engage in activities to promote this research and attract more women to Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths and Medicine (STEMM).

Publications

10 25 50
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Agostini P (2021) The Large Hadron-Electron Collider at the HL-LHC in Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics

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André K (2022) An experiment for electron-hadron scattering at the LHC in The European Physical Journal C

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Arndt K (2021) Technical design of the phase I Mu3e experiment in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

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Franks M (2021) E-TCT characterization of a thinned, backside biased, irradiated HV-CMOS pixel test structure in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

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Hammerich J (2022) Towards MightyPix, an HV-MAPS for the LHCb Mighty Tracker upgrade in Journal of Instrumentation

 
Description Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) in commercially available High Voltage-CMOS (HV-CMOS) processes are extremely attractive position sensitive silicon sensors for experiments in particle physics. Given their huge potential, these sensors have been adopted for the pixel tracker for the Mu3e experiment and are under consideration for several Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. To meet the extreme requirements of future experiments, however, DMAPS require further research to achieve a step change improvement to their performance especially in terms of granularity, time resolution and radiation tolerance.
In this grant, we are going to address these three issues. We have have developed solutions that yield important improvements in simulations. To corroborate these predictions in a real device, we have designed new prototypes (UKRI-MPW0, RD50-MPW3) that implement the proposed solutions. In parallel we are actively proposing the use of DMAPS sensors in new physics experiments, the Mighty Tracker detector for the LHCb Upgrade Ib and II and proton Electric Dipole Moment (pEDM) searches at COSY.
Exploitation Route Other groups might incorporate the techniques we have developed to improve DMAPS sensors.
Sectors Education,Electronics,Healthcare,Other

 
Description This grant and its findings are allowing us to develop a wide range of new skills to train the next generation of researchers and professionals to address the skills shortage in STEM.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Education
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Particle Physics: Towards a UK Technology R&D Roadmap for Accelerators, Detectors, and Software and Computing
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a guidance/advisory committee
URL https://www.ukri.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/STFC-220822-ParticlePhysicsTowardsUKTechnologyRDRoad...
 
Description (AIDAinnova) - Advancement and Innovation for Detectors at Accelerators
Amount € 12,677,813 (EUR)
Funding ID 101004761 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 04/2021 
End 03/2025
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation Carleton University
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation Fondazione Bruno Kessler
Country Italy 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation Institute Josef Stefan
Country Slovenia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation Institute of High Energy Physics
Country Austria 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation Institute of Physics of Cantabria
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation Lancaster University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation National Institute for Subatomic Physics Nikhef
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation National Institute of Materials Physics Magurele-Bucharest
Country Romania 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation Ruder Boskovic Institute
Country Croatia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation University of Barcelona
Department Faculty of Physics
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation University of Bonn
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Organisation University of Seville
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I initiated and lead the CMOS Working Group of the CERN-RD50 collaboration, which currently involves more than 40 people from 17 institutes in 11 countries worldwide. I have led the simulation, design and submission of the RD50 CMOS detector prototypes developed so far (RD50-MPW1 in 2017, RD50-MPW2 in 2019, and RD50-MPW3 in 2021). We are currently active in: -) TCAD simulations: the University of Liverpool has done and continuous doing extensive Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations to anticipate the performance of the sensor before its fabrication. -) Sensor design: the University of Liverpool has co-designed all the RD50-MPW prototypes. In particular we have designed the latest prototype (RD50-MPW3) together with other RD50 member institutes, which are CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, University of Barcelona, University of Bonn and University of Seville. -) DAQ development: HEPHY, IFIC and the University of Liverpool have developed the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by this working group. The DAQ is based on Caribou. In particular, Liverpool has played a crucial role in producing the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and reviewing the design of the printed circuit boards and firmware. -) Performance evaluation: all the institutes involved contribute to the measurement programme. JSI irradiates the samples at their facilities in the TRIGA reactor.
Collaborator Contribution -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, Barcelona, Bonn and Seville have co-designed RD50-MPW3. -) HEPHY and IFIC have developed the printed circuit boards and firmware to read out the CMOS detector prototypes designed by the collaboration. -) JSI have irradiated the samples to study their behaviour after irradiation. They have contributed to the measurement programme. -) We have measured prototypes at the ion beam facility at IRB. -) CPPM, HEPHY, IFAE, IFIC, NIKHEF, Lancaster and Seville have contributed to the measurement programme as well.
Impact -) CMOS detector prototypes -) DAQs for these prototypes
Start Year 2017
 
Description JEDI collaboration 
Organisation Julich Research Centre
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have joined the JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations) collaboration. We are doing physics simulations towards a silicon based polarimeter for pEDM (proton Electric Dipole Moment) searches. We are evaluating the performance of such polarimeter in the laboratory and in test beams as well. We are seeking additional funding for this effort.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners in the JEDI collaboration have provided a knowledgeable insight to the current details of the experiment.
Impact Simulation models for the polarimeter and a pellet target. We have published the resulds and applied for dedicated funding.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Mighty Tracker 
Organisation Heidelberg University
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I co-chair the MightyPix Consortium of research institutes to develop a DMAPS pixel chip for the LHCb Mighty Tracker Uprade Ib and II. Liverpool and KIT are currently working together on the design of MightyPix1, the first DMAPS with an LHCb Data AcQuisition System (DAQ) compatible interface. Liverpool and KIT share one PhD student working in the design. We have another PhD student working on the performance evaluation of existing prototypes. Liverpool provides sensor design and expertise on the LHCb DAQ. I chair the MightyPix Sensor Design Meetings and I am an active member of the Mighty Tracker Coordination Team. Liverpool co-designs the mechanics for this detector.
Collaborator Contribution -) KIT provides sensor design; -) Bonn provides the DAQ; -) KIT, RAL, Bonn, Edinburgh, Heidelberg and Dortmund contribute with sensor performance evaluation; -) Manchester contributes with the mechanics design.
Impact MightyPix1 prototype delivered in January 2023.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Mighty Tracker 
Organisation Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I co-chair the MightyPix Consortium of research institutes to develop a DMAPS pixel chip for the LHCb Mighty Tracker Uprade Ib and II. Liverpool and KIT are currently working together on the design of MightyPix1, the first DMAPS with an LHCb Data AcQuisition System (DAQ) compatible interface. Liverpool and KIT share one PhD student working in the design. We have another PhD student working on the performance evaluation of existing prototypes. Liverpool provides sensor design and expertise on the LHCb DAQ. I chair the MightyPix Sensor Design Meetings and I am an active member of the Mighty Tracker Coordination Team. Liverpool co-designs the mechanics for this detector.
Collaborator Contribution -) KIT provides sensor design; -) Bonn provides the DAQ; -) KIT, RAL, Bonn, Edinburgh, Heidelberg and Dortmund contribute with sensor performance evaluation; -) Manchester contributes with the mechanics design.
Impact MightyPix1 prototype delivered in January 2023.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Mighty Tracker 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department Space Science and Technology Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I co-chair the MightyPix Consortium of research institutes to develop a DMAPS pixel chip for the LHCb Mighty Tracker Uprade Ib and II. Liverpool and KIT are currently working together on the design of MightyPix1, the first DMAPS with an LHCb Data AcQuisition System (DAQ) compatible interface. Liverpool and KIT share one PhD student working in the design. We have another PhD student working on the performance evaluation of existing prototypes. Liverpool provides sensor design and expertise on the LHCb DAQ. I chair the MightyPix Sensor Design Meetings and I am an active member of the Mighty Tracker Coordination Team. Liverpool co-designs the mechanics for this detector.
Collaborator Contribution -) KIT provides sensor design; -) Bonn provides the DAQ; -) KIT, RAL, Bonn, Edinburgh, Heidelberg and Dortmund contribute with sensor performance evaluation; -) Manchester contributes with the mechanics design.
Impact MightyPix1 prototype delivered in January 2023.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Mighty Tracker 
Organisation Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I co-chair the MightyPix Consortium of research institutes to develop a DMAPS pixel chip for the LHCb Mighty Tracker Uprade Ib and II. Liverpool and KIT are currently working together on the design of MightyPix1, the first DMAPS with an LHCb Data AcQuisition System (DAQ) compatible interface. Liverpool and KIT share one PhD student working in the design. We have another PhD student working on the performance evaluation of existing prototypes. Liverpool provides sensor design and expertise on the LHCb DAQ. I chair the MightyPix Sensor Design Meetings and I am an active member of the Mighty Tracker Coordination Team. Liverpool co-designs the mechanics for this detector.
Collaborator Contribution -) KIT provides sensor design; -) Bonn provides the DAQ; -) KIT, RAL, Bonn, Edinburgh, Heidelberg and Dortmund contribute with sensor performance evaluation; -) Manchester contributes with the mechanics design.
Impact MightyPix1 prototype delivered in January 2023.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Mighty Tracker 
Organisation Technical University of Dortmund
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I co-chair the MightyPix Consortium of research institutes to develop a DMAPS pixel chip for the LHCb Mighty Tracker Uprade Ib and II. Liverpool and KIT are currently working together on the design of MightyPix1, the first DMAPS with an LHCb Data AcQuisition System (DAQ) compatible interface. Liverpool and KIT share one PhD student working in the design. We have another PhD student working on the performance evaluation of existing prototypes. Liverpool provides sensor design and expertise on the LHCb DAQ. I chair the MightyPix Sensor Design Meetings and I am an active member of the Mighty Tracker Coordination Team. Liverpool co-designs the mechanics for this detector.
Collaborator Contribution -) KIT provides sensor design; -) Bonn provides the DAQ; -) KIT, RAL, Bonn, Edinburgh, Heidelberg and Dortmund contribute with sensor performance evaluation; -) Manchester contributes with the mechanics design.
Impact MightyPix1 prototype delivered in January 2023.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Mighty Tracker 
Organisation University of Bonn
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I co-chair the MightyPix Consortium of research institutes to develop a DMAPS pixel chip for the LHCb Mighty Tracker Uprade Ib and II. Liverpool and KIT are currently working together on the design of MightyPix1, the first DMAPS with an LHCb Data AcQuisition System (DAQ) compatible interface. Liverpool and KIT share one PhD student working in the design. We have another PhD student working on the performance evaluation of existing prototypes. Liverpool provides sensor design and expertise on the LHCb DAQ. I chair the MightyPix Sensor Design Meetings and I am an active member of the Mighty Tracker Coordination Team. Liverpool co-designs the mechanics for this detector.
Collaborator Contribution -) KIT provides sensor design; -) Bonn provides the DAQ; -) KIT, RAL, Bonn, Edinburgh, Heidelberg and Dortmund contribute with sensor performance evaluation; -) Manchester contributes with the mechanics design.
Impact MightyPix1 prototype delivered in January 2023.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Mighty Tracker 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I co-chair the MightyPix Consortium of research institutes to develop a DMAPS pixel chip for the LHCb Mighty Tracker Uprade Ib and II. Liverpool and KIT are currently working together on the design of MightyPix1, the first DMAPS with an LHCb Data AcQuisition System (DAQ) compatible interface. Liverpool and KIT share one PhD student working in the design. We have another PhD student working on the performance evaluation of existing prototypes. Liverpool provides sensor design and expertise on the LHCb DAQ. I chair the MightyPix Sensor Design Meetings and I am an active member of the Mighty Tracker Coordination Team. Liverpool co-designs the mechanics for this detector.
Collaborator Contribution -) KIT provides sensor design; -) Bonn provides the DAQ; -) KIT, RAL, Bonn, Edinburgh, Heidelberg and Dortmund contribute with sensor performance evaluation; -) Manchester contributes with the mechanics design.
Impact MightyPix1 prototype delivered in January 2023.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Mighty Tracker 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I co-chair the MightyPix Consortium of research institutes to develop a DMAPS pixel chip for the LHCb Mighty Tracker Uprade Ib and II. Liverpool and KIT are currently working together on the design of MightyPix1, the first DMAPS with an LHCb Data AcQuisition System (DAQ) compatible interface. Liverpool and KIT share one PhD student working in the design. We have another PhD student working on the performance evaluation of existing prototypes. Liverpool provides sensor design and expertise on the LHCb DAQ. I chair the MightyPix Sensor Design Meetings and I am an active member of the Mighty Tracker Coordination Team. Liverpool co-designs the mechanics for this detector.
Collaborator Contribution -) KIT provides sensor design; -) Bonn provides the DAQ; -) KIT, RAL, Bonn, Edinburgh, Heidelberg and Dortmund contribute with sensor performance evaluation; -) Manchester contributes with the mechanics design.
Impact MightyPix1 prototype delivered in January 2023.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Mighty Tracker 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I co-chair the MightyPix Consortium of research institutes to develop a DMAPS pixel chip for the LHCb Mighty Tracker Uprade Ib and II. Liverpool and KIT are currently working together on the design of MightyPix1, the first DMAPS with an LHCb Data AcQuisition System (DAQ) compatible interface. Liverpool and KIT share one PhD student working in the design. We have another PhD student working on the performance evaluation of existing prototypes. Liverpool provides sensor design and expertise on the LHCb DAQ. I chair the MightyPix Sensor Design Meetings and I am an active member of the Mighty Tracker Coordination Team. Liverpool co-designs the mechanics for this detector.
Collaborator Contribution -) KIT provides sensor design; -) Bonn provides the DAQ; -) KIT, RAL, Bonn, Edinburgh, Heidelberg and Dortmund contribute with sensor performance evaluation; -) Manchester contributes with the mechanics design.
Impact MightyPix1 prototype delivered in January 2023.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Mighty Tracker 
Organisation University of Zurich
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I co-chair the MightyPix Consortium of research institutes to develop a DMAPS pixel chip for the LHCb Mighty Tracker Uprade Ib and II. Liverpool and KIT are currently working together on the design of MightyPix1, the first DMAPS with an LHCb Data AcQuisition System (DAQ) compatible interface. Liverpool and KIT share one PhD student working in the design. We have another PhD student working on the performance evaluation of existing prototypes. Liverpool provides sensor design and expertise on the LHCb DAQ. I chair the MightyPix Sensor Design Meetings and I am an active member of the Mighty Tracker Coordination Team. Liverpool co-designs the mechanics for this detector.
Collaborator Contribution -) KIT provides sensor design; -) Bonn provides the DAQ; -) KIT, RAL, Bonn, Edinburgh, Heidelberg and Dortmund contribute with sensor performance evaluation; -) Manchester contributes with the mechanics design.
Impact MightyPix1 prototype delivered in January 2023.
Start Year 2020
 
Title Radiation-hard CMOS sensor 
Description The patent is about a dedicated pixel cross-section for High Voltage-CMOS (HV-CMOS) sensors with high radiation tolerance, optimised for backside biasing at very high voltages. We have designed a proof-of-concept prototype, UKRI-MPW0, and fabricated it with LFoundry S.r.l. Our performance evaluation programme has revealed that samples have a depletion depth of about 50 um after irradiation to 1E16 neq/cm^2. Further measurements are currently ongoing. The incorporation of the dedicated pixel cross-section into CMOS sensors offers the potential for: improved radiation hardness, improved performance in high radiation environments, effective operation at high voltage, combined light/radiation detection, cost effectiveness. 
IP Reference PCT/GB2023/050362 
Protection Patent / Patent application
Year Protection Granted 2022
Licensed No
Impact I have formed a formal partnership with LFoundry S.r.l. (the manufacturer) and I am doing a market survey with Qi3 to understand and identify market needs for my invention. I am working with the Liverpool IP Commercialisation Team to develop a business case. Our primary application of the UKRI-MPW pixel chip is particle detection in experiments for fundamental physics, such as future upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Other areas we are exploring are particle beam therapy, medical imaging, electron microscopy, nuclear facility monitoring and remote handling, space and military applications.
 
Title Graphical User Interface (GUI) to read out the CMOS detectors designed within the CERN-RD50 collaboration 
Description The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows users to interact with the Data AcQuisition system (DAQ) to read out the CMOS detectors developed within the CERN-RD50 collaboration in an easy and accessible way. 
Type Of Technology Systems, Materials & Instrumental Engineering 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact Further collaboration with other CERN-RD50 member institutes, especially with HEPHY - Vienna and IFIC - University of Valencia. 
 
Description Interview with Innovation News Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Reach general audience with my R&D programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.innovationnewsnetwork.com/hv-cmos-sensors-the-future-of-fundamental-physics-experiments/...
 
Description Media campaign to celebrate the International Women and Girls in Science day (11th February) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact To celebrate the International Women and Girls in Science day (11th February), I engaged in a media campaign run by the Department of Physics at Liverpool. This media campaign consisted of individual stories from female researchers of the department, including mine, and several tweets that were shared via the departmental Twitter channel. The campaign received many very positive comments and reached more than 30,000 individual accounts in Twitter on the same day. It was shared by STFC, Fermilab, etc. and received "likes" from the EU's Marie Curie Actions, FCC study at CERN and many others.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/physics/equality-diversity/women-in-science-2020/eva-vilella-figueras/
 
Description Media campaign to celebrate the International Women's day (8th of March) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact To celebrate the International Women's day (8th of March), I engaged in an outreach activity run by the LHCb collaboration. This outreach activity consisted on preparing a poster with pictures of women who work for LHCb (it has 115 pictures). The poster has been printed and it is on display at CERN. It was also shared via the LHCb Twitter channel.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://lhcb-media.web.cern.ch/lhcb-media/WomenInLHCb/WomenInLHCb_print.pdf