Understanding and eliminating health sector corruption impeding UHC at district level in Nigeria and Malawi: institutions, individuals and incentives

Abstract

Weak accountability and corruption (the abuse of entrusted power for private gain) threatens health in LMICs, especially among the poor. Evidence shows that corruption remains pervasive, harms health and access to care, and is a major barrier to achieving Universal Health Coverage. The health sector is consistently rated as among the most corrupt. Unaccountable and corrupt practice undermines the trust underpinning effective, equitable, and responsive health care and has a major impact on health outcomes. Corruption is often seen as an intractable problem-with limited evidence on successful strategies to address it.

Most approaches to weak accountability and corruption have seen these as a failure of management, a result of poorly governed and financed systems or reflecting social norms. Many interventions seek to improve law, policy, accountability and transparency. We argue that these can be more effectively addressed through a) understanding the main types of corruption manifest in the provision of care at district and local level (e.g.informal payments, absenteeism, leakage of health commodities, inappropriate referrals), b) the individual and organisational characteristics that drive it, and c) the underlying power structures. Thus, research must explore how formal structures (policy and its implementation) interplay with informal social, economic and political structures (local elites and kinship networks) to shape everyday practice within the health system. With this knowledge, it is possible to identify pragmatic strategies ('openings') to address corruption that takes into account their fit within the broader organisational and political distribution of power. Drawing on health systems research, anthropology, and political economy, our hypothesis is that measures based on a detailed understanding of the intersections between formal and informal structures, incentives and networks can inform the design of contextually appropriate interventions to tackle corruption in public health systems.

The study will take place in Nigeria and Malawi. Both have high levels of corruption and momentum-driven by political leaders and civil society-to tackle corrupt practice. We ask: how do health systems structures and practices, and informal socio-political and economic structures incentivise corruption at district level and how can these be overcome?

Our choice of methods reflects our intention to explore incidents of corruption in real time within frontline exchanges between provider and patients in district management structures and local community. We will develop novel and ethically robust approaches and methods: content analysis of policies and regulations, media (print and radio) relating to accountability/anti-corruption. Institutional ethnography in district health offices, primary, secondary and tertiary levels facilities, in-depth interviews with formal and informal political and health systems structures, focus group discussions and a household survey with service users, data from anonymous calls/ messages by individuals reporting corruption cases. The analysis will also draw on political economy, with analysis of actors, their power and their informal networks, on systems theory, especially complexity, and will involve co-production workshops and policy dialogues to interpret and validate findings. In Nigeria we will work in the Enugu state in the south and in the Kano state in the north and, and within each, urban and rural areas, and in Malawi we will select up to 4 districts. These will be selected to represent diverse populations, needs, outcomes, level of resources and institutional strength.

We will engage at all health system levels-with community organisations, districts/ state, as well as national authorities, to promote anti-corruption action. We will build a community of practice, share knowledge and support researchers and implementers in LMICs-linked to global anti-corruption initiatives.

Technical Summary

Weak accountability and corruption in public health systems (abuse of entrusted power for private gain) are widely acknowledged as impeding access to health care, yet empirical research on the drivers and potential solutions is limited. To design contextually appropriate interventions to tackle these, we will explore the most prevalent/harmful corruption practices at district and local level; individual and organisational characteristics that drive these, and critically, how formal structures (policies, enforcement) interplay with informal social, economic and political structures (local elites and kinship networks) to shape everyday practice within the health system. We will then identify pragmatic strategies ('openings') to address corruption within the broader organisational and political distribution of power.

The district will be the unit of analysis. In Nigeria research will be in 3 urban and 3 rural Local Government Authorities in Enugu(S) and Kano(N) States, and in Malawi, in 2 districts in the South, 2 in the Central region. We ask: how do health systems structures and practices, and informal socio-political and economic structures incentivise corruption at district level and how can these be overcome?

We will develop novel and ethically robust approaches and methods: content analysis of policies, regulations, media; institutional ethnography; interviews; a household survey with users (2 districts); crowdsourcing of corruption cases. Analysis will also draw on: political economy, analysing actors, their power and their informal networks; systems theory, especially complexity; and involves local and national co-production and policy engagement workshops to interpret and validate findings and formulate actions. Engaging at all levels of the health system we will promote anti-corruption action by building a community of practice, sharing knowledge and supporting researchers and implementers in LMICs-linked to new global accountability initiatives.

Planned Impact

This project builds on previous work to understand the nature and drivers of weak accountability and corruption in health systems and identify plausible strategies to address them. We have extensive experience with policy engagement, knowledge brokering, and the role of cognitive biases. Impact will be achieved through:

Changing mindsets. We will challenge the idea that corruption is inevitable. We will convey the message that greater accountability can tackle corruption, inspiring new ideas about what is possible. We will identify those who will benefit from anti-corruption measures and are ready to call for them, creating momentum for change, with charismatic community champions playing a key role. Some are already vocal on social media in Nigeria but we will seek to create new (virtual) networks. We will seek spaces at different levels of the health systems and community structures-allowing for conflicting views and innovative ideas applicable to particular contexts. We will emphasise openness, lack of blame, naming the real (often structural) causes of poor accountability and corruption, and novel (blue sky) solutions. Our aim is to impact on international debates and those in communities of practice (through co-production workshops), partnering with NGOs in this field; use virtual platforms & media to reach policy makers in LMICs.

Changing policies. Lasting impact will require changes to legal and regulatory frameworks, understanding how existing rules and procedures can impede rather than facilitate responses to weak accountability and corruption. We will position anti-corruption efforts centrally within discourses on health systems strengthening and governance, building on existing initiatives on whistleblowing, audits, and reporting, now officially mandated by the governments in Nigeria, and Malawi. We will engage with diverse stakeholders through formal policy dialogues but also informal discussions and fora (including during fieldwork). Impact will be at State level (in Nigeria) and district level (Malawi) but will also engage policy-making processes nationally. We will focus first on the districts where we work but gradually involving key actors from other districts.

Changing practice. The process of changing everyday practice begins through an understanding the structural, social, and cultural political drivers of poor accountability and corruption, identifying practical ways they can be addressed. We will focus at district level, working with key actors (health system leaders, managers and civil society representatives) to co-create pragmatic, locally-relevant solutions that attract support from key stakeholders and can be implemented at district level. We will focus on corrupt practices that can be addressed with existing institutional/ social resources, capacities, and power structures. We will seek to influence policy and programmatic efforts by governments, international agencies and donors-in study countries and across LMIC where an impetus for improving governance is emerging.

Creating and supporting networks and collectives. In Nigeria and Malawi we will link with national initiatives to tackle corruption and promote accountability, working with health systems leaders, civil society and communities. We will move beyond creating 'talk shops' to understand the relative strengths of each actor and the incentives they face as we support collaboration and action. We will involve actors that are influential within informal structures; many may not previously have participated in formal agenda setting. Recognizing context-specificities of the problems and policy, we will work at state/district and national level. Impact will be sought at the global level by engaging with initiatives such as the Global Network for Anti-Corruption, Transparency and Accountability in Health Systems and the Health Systems Governance Collaborative.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description Capacity building of partner institutions for research on corruption and anti-corruption - U4 course
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Researchers involved in the project, affiliated researchers from our partner institutions and affiliated partners with interests in corruption and anti-corruption participated in a three-week course on 'Corruption in the health sector' by U4 Anti-corruption Resource Centre. This was a unique course providing the participants with basic knowledge about corruption and anti-corruption in the health sector. The topics covered include typologies, manifestations and consequences of corruption in the health sector; drivers and enablers of health sector corruption; assessing risks at system, programme or project level; and developing strategies to counter health sector corruption. 27 participants from Nigeria, Malawi, and UK completed the course. Participants gained advanced knowledge of theory and practice on governance and corruption, improving their capacity to conduct research and analyses in these areas.
 
Description Embedding findings on governance, anti-corruption & resilience in the Health Systems module, MSc programme at the LSHTM
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://healthsystems.lshtm.ac.uk/teaching/health-systems-module/
 
Description Guidance Document on Community Engagement in Humanitarian Crises
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Contribution to new or improved professional practice
 
Description Influencing evaluation and development of strategic plans for Primary Health Care in Ethiopia
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Multidisciplinary training of partner institutions for research on accountability and anti-corruption
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact We ran training on using investigative journalism to research sensitive issues and develop in-depth accounts.. This consisted of two sessions and self-study assignments: addressing the role of journalism in society, journalism ethics and creative story telling in the digital era, following up stories, identifying novel data source, complying wiht legislation etc. The training was attended by 26 participants including researcher involved in the current award (from Nigeria and Malawi), but also from other projects (Philippines) and collaborators (the Overseas Development Institute).
 
Description Reviews and additions to the MPH/MSc Public Health curriculum at the Bayero University, Nigeria
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Successfully obtaining research funding: lessons from experience (a capacity building session)
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The session sought to enhance the ability of Nigerian researchers to develop strong funding proposals and strengthen their research portfolio and institution. This is currently not included in the research training on offer.
 
Description Support for postgraduate training on anti-corruption, good governance and accountability issues in Malawi and Nigeria
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Training in ethnographic research methods for health systems research in Nigeria and Malawi
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact We ran a course on ethnographic research for health systems research on corruption for our researcher and a wider group of researchers in partner institutions. The course consisted of 4 training sessions, an initial session with readings on how to write ethnographic notes, a set of assignments with daily notes, a review of daily notes in 3 interactive sessions to train in observation and writing these notes. We had 20 participants across three countries. Based on this we are writing teachings materials and a methodological paper.
 
Description Improving Practice in Ugandan drug shops: a holistic approach to regulation
Amount £136,587 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/X503010/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2022 
End 05/2024
 
Description A Thematic working group "Action on Accountability and Anti-corruption for achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (AAA-SDG)" 
Organisation Transparency International UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We developed a proposal to establish a new Thematic Working Group (TWG) - Action on Accountability and Anti-corruption for achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (AAA-SDG) within Health Systems Global, and this was approved after a competitive selection process. The TWG represents a community of practice affiliated with Health Systems Global and provides a focal point for those interested to work on this topic. We have already convened a Slack community on 'Anticorruption action to accelerate progress towards UHC' with 867 members and will invite these members to the TWG, thus allowing us to establish a consolidated community, stimulate dialogue, advocacy and further research and practical action. The TWG will increase understanding of the drivers of poor accountability and corruption within health systems and the systemic structures that allow it to thrive. It will document local strategies and lessons learned, crowdsource successful and novel initiatives to counter these practices, and empower action through collaborations and outreach with a wide range of actors across and beyond the health sector. We are particularly interested in the role of the community volunteers and advocates in this area (stemming from grant MRC MR/N004221/1). There is an urgent need for sustained dialogue and this TWG will build on and catalyse strong interest among its membership and constituencies. Our research team played a key role in the establishment and leadership of the TWG. Prof.Dina Balabanova, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine is the PI for the HSRI Accountability in Action project (Grant Ref: MR/T023589/1) and Prof.Obinna Onwujekwe (AiA Lead for Nigeria, same grant) are co-chairs together with David Clarke from WHO. We are supporting young researchers from our project to co-lead themes (on research, advocacy, crowdsourcing anti-corruption solutions).
Collaborator Contribution We have partnered with WHO, Transparency International UK, and a wide range of researchers, practitioners and activists from many countries worldwide, with particularly active participation from participants from low- and middle- income settings. We have multiple activities - related to crowdsourcing anti-corruption and good governance solutions, advocacy at national level, joint papers writing and dissemination.
Impact We will convene our TWG members and wider stakeholder community at the 7th Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Bogota (31 Oct-4 Nov.2022). We have a range of activities in process: crowdsourcing contest, webinars, podcasts and advocacy.
Start Year 2021
 
Description A Thematic working group "Action on Accountability and Anti-corruption for achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (AAA-SDG)" 
Organisation University of Nigeria
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We developed a proposal to establish a new Thematic Working Group (TWG) - Action on Accountability and Anti-corruption for achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (AAA-SDG) within Health Systems Global, and this was approved after a competitive selection process. The TWG represents a community of practice affiliated with Health Systems Global and provides a focal point for those interested to work on this topic. We have already convened a Slack community on 'Anticorruption action to accelerate progress towards UHC' with 867 members and will invite these members to the TWG, thus allowing us to establish a consolidated community, stimulate dialogue, advocacy and further research and practical action. The TWG will increase understanding of the drivers of poor accountability and corruption within health systems and the systemic structures that allow it to thrive. It will document local strategies and lessons learned, crowdsource successful and novel initiatives to counter these practices, and empower action through collaborations and outreach with a wide range of actors across and beyond the health sector. We are particularly interested in the role of the community volunteers and advocates in this area (stemming from grant MRC MR/N004221/1). There is an urgent need for sustained dialogue and this TWG will build on and catalyse strong interest among its membership and constituencies. Our research team played a key role in the establishment and leadership of the TWG. Prof.Dina Balabanova, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine is the PI for the HSRI Accountability in Action project (Grant Ref: MR/T023589/1) and Prof.Obinna Onwujekwe (AiA Lead for Nigeria, same grant) are co-chairs together with David Clarke from WHO. We are supporting young researchers from our project to co-lead themes (on research, advocacy, crowdsourcing anti-corruption solutions).
Collaborator Contribution We have partnered with WHO, Transparency International UK, and a wide range of researchers, practitioners and activists from many countries worldwide, with particularly active participation from participants from low- and middle- income settings. We have multiple activities - related to crowdsourcing anti-corruption and good governance solutions, advocacy at national level, joint papers writing and dissemination.
Impact We will convene our TWG members and wider stakeholder community at the 7th Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Bogota (31 Oct-4 Nov.2022). We have a range of activities in process: crowdsourcing contest, webinars, podcasts and advocacy.
Start Year 2021
 
Description A Thematic working group "Action on Accountability and Anti-corruption for achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (AAA-SDG)" 
Organisation World Health Organization (WHO)
Country Global 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We developed a proposal to establish a new Thematic Working Group (TWG) - Action on Accountability and Anti-corruption for achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (AAA-SDG) within Health Systems Global, and this was approved after a competitive selection process. The TWG represents a community of practice affiliated with Health Systems Global and provides a focal point for those interested to work on this topic. We have already convened a Slack community on 'Anticorruption action to accelerate progress towards UHC' with 867 members and will invite these members to the TWG, thus allowing us to establish a consolidated community, stimulate dialogue, advocacy and further research and practical action. The TWG will increase understanding of the drivers of poor accountability and corruption within health systems and the systemic structures that allow it to thrive. It will document local strategies and lessons learned, crowdsource successful and novel initiatives to counter these practices, and empower action through collaborations and outreach with a wide range of actors across and beyond the health sector. We are particularly interested in the role of the community volunteers and advocates in this area (stemming from grant MRC MR/N004221/1). There is an urgent need for sustained dialogue and this TWG will build on and catalyse strong interest among its membership and constituencies. Our research team played a key role in the establishment and leadership of the TWG. Prof.Dina Balabanova, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine is the PI for the HSRI Accountability in Action project (Grant Ref: MR/T023589/1) and Prof.Obinna Onwujekwe (AiA Lead for Nigeria, same grant) are co-chairs together with David Clarke from WHO. We are supporting young researchers from our project to co-lead themes (on research, advocacy, crowdsourcing anti-corruption solutions).
Collaborator Contribution We have partnered with WHO, Transparency International UK, and a wide range of researchers, practitioners and activists from many countries worldwide, with particularly active participation from participants from low- and middle- income settings. We have multiple activities - related to crowdsourcing anti-corruption and good governance solutions, advocacy at national level, joint papers writing and dissemination.
Impact We will convene our TWG members and wider stakeholder community at the 7th Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Bogota (31 Oct-4 Nov.2022). We have a range of activities in process: crowdsourcing contest, webinars, podcasts and advocacy.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Memorandum of understanding with CARE Malawi 
Organisation Care
Department Care, Malawi
Country Malawi 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Dr Eric Umar, an AiA lead for Malawi, led the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between Kamuzu University of Health Sciences (KUHeS) and CARE Malawi. This collaboration will allow CARE to share data with the AiA team. The data is collected within the Citizen Data Hub, and submitted by community groups, and includes reports on corrupt activities. Our AiA team will conduct data analysis and produce publications jointly with CARE.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners will provide technical support for data analysis and writing papers.
Impact Outputs are forthcoming in 2023-24.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Partnership on exploring corruption in the administration of COVAX Vaccines 
Organisation University of Toronto
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The LSHTM team is providing technical support to all aspects of the study: design, analysis and publications.
Collaborator Contribution The University of Nigeria team (part of the AiA project) received funds from University of Toronto (with funding from Transparency International) to conduct a case study on administration of COVAX Vaccines and develop publications. This is closely linked to the AiA project objectives and themes, and adds considerable value as it is an underexplored area.
Impact The outputs are in progress - the papers will be submitted in 2023.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Proposing a community of practice - Action on Accountability and Anti-corruption for achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (AAA-SDG) 
Organisation Health Systems Global
Country Georgia 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We submitted a proposal in February 2021 to establish a new Thematic Working Group (TWG) - Action on Accountability and Anti-corruption for achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (AAA-SDG). This will be a community of practice affiliated with Health Systems Global and will provide a focal point for those interested to work on this topic. We have already convened a Slack community on Anticorruption action to accelerate progress towards UHC with 767 members but the TWG will allow to bring this and other group, initiate dialogue, advocacy and further research. This proposed TWG builds on this interest. It will increase understanding of the drivers of poor accountability and corruption within health systems and the systemic structures that allow it to thrive. It will document local strategies and lessons learned, crowdsource successful and novel initiatives to counter these practices, and empower action through collaborations and outreach with a wide range of actors across and beyond the health sector. There is an urgent need for sustained dialogue and this TWG will build on and catalyse strong interest among its membership and constituencies.
Collaborator Contribution Our research team played a key role in proposal development. We are supporting young researchers to co-lead themes (on research, advocacy, crowdsourcing anti-corruption solutions). The proposed chairs are Prof.Obinna Onwujekwe (Lead for Nigeria for the project) and Prof.Dina Balabanova, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, PI.
Impact None yet. The proposed TWG is under consideration by HSG.
Start Year 2020
 
Description The Lancet Nigeria Commission: investing in health and the future of the nation 
Organisation Bayero University Kano
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Support for our partners Prof.Obinna Onwujekwe of University of Nigeria and Dr Muktar Ahmed Gadanya of Bayero University in Kano who were commissioners on the Lancet Nigeria Commission's was provided by London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. This was specifically in relation to our project Accountability in Action (AiA) and its findings on corruption, anti-corruption and governance as relevant to Nigeria.
Collaborator Contribution The Accountability in Action (AiA) team members Prof.Obinna Onwujekwe of University of Nigeria and Dr Muktar Ahmed Gadanya of Bayero University in Kano provided analytical and empirical contributions to The Lancet Nigeria Commission: investing in health and the future of the nation (led by UCL). This work brought to fore issues regarding corruption in the Nigeria's health system and the impact on its performance. The issue gained attention among the other Lancet commissioners and among policy makers.
Impact The Lancet Nigeria Commission: investing in health and the future of the nation, https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(21)02488-0/fulltext All materials: https://www.thelancet.com/commissions/health-in-nigeria
Start Year 2020
 
Description The Lancet Nigeria Commission: investing in health and the future of the nation 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Support for our partners Prof.Obinna Onwujekwe of University of Nigeria and Dr Muktar Ahmed Gadanya of Bayero University in Kano who were commissioners on the Lancet Nigeria Commission's was provided by London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. This was specifically in relation to our project Accountability in Action (AiA) and its findings on corruption, anti-corruption and governance as relevant to Nigeria.
Collaborator Contribution The Accountability in Action (AiA) team members Prof.Obinna Onwujekwe of University of Nigeria and Dr Muktar Ahmed Gadanya of Bayero University in Kano provided analytical and empirical contributions to The Lancet Nigeria Commission: investing in health and the future of the nation (led by UCL). This work brought to fore issues regarding corruption in the Nigeria's health system and the impact on its performance. The issue gained attention among the other Lancet commissioners and among policy makers.
Impact The Lancet Nigeria Commission: investing in health and the future of the nation, https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(21)02488-0/fulltext All materials: https://www.thelancet.com/commissions/health-in-nigeria
Start Year 2020
 
Description The Lancet Nigeria Commission: investing in health and the future of the nation 
Organisation University of Nigeria
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Support for our partners Prof.Obinna Onwujekwe of University of Nigeria and Dr Muktar Ahmed Gadanya of Bayero University in Kano who were commissioners on the Lancet Nigeria Commission's was provided by London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. This was specifically in relation to our project Accountability in Action (AiA) and its findings on corruption, anti-corruption and governance as relevant to Nigeria.
Collaborator Contribution The Accountability in Action (AiA) team members Prof.Obinna Onwujekwe of University of Nigeria and Dr Muktar Ahmed Gadanya of Bayero University in Kano provided analytical and empirical contributions to The Lancet Nigeria Commission: investing in health and the future of the nation (led by UCL). This work brought to fore issues regarding corruption in the Nigeria's health system and the impact on its performance. The issue gained attention among the other Lancet commissioners and among policy makers.
Impact The Lancet Nigeria Commission: investing in health and the future of the nation, https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(21)02488-0/fulltext All materials: https://www.thelancet.com/commissions/health-in-nigeria
Start Year 2020
 
Description 'Primary health care and the inclusion in Nigeria's political agenda' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Twitter Spaces discussion organised by @ThePolicyRound1 on 'Primary healthcare and the inclusion in Nigeria's political agenda'. Prof Obinna Onwujekwe, our project lead for Nigeria was a speaker.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description 'Researching and acting on illicit practices in health systems' at the Global Symposium on Health Systems Research, HSG 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We conducted a virtual capacity building session - 'Researching and acting on illicit and hidden practices in health systems: innovative approaches and pragmatism' (2 hours) at The Seventh Global Symposium on Health Systems Research (HSR2022) organised by Health Systems Global. The session sought to enable the participants to:
1. Gain an in-depth understanding of key approaches to investigating illicit and hidden practices in health systems - as applied to different cases (poor governance/corruption, violence against women and illicit practices by tobacco and gambling industries).
2. Improve their ability to critically review and apply (a mix of) research methods and approaches, assess their appropriateness to particular cases and contexts, and overcome the limitations.
3. Acquire competencies in ensuring that research approaches and methods are employed (or commissioned) in ways that foster changes in policy and practice - changes that are tangible to many actors, particularly to end-users.
The session was well attended, with proactive debate and identified as novel by many of those participating.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description BMGF India Health Systems Development seminar: Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on. What makes an effective health system? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact In this talk, Prof. Dina Balabanova revisited Good Health at Low Cost seminar work (2010-1) and considered it in the context of new debates and initiatives in the area of health system governance, accountability and transparency efforts. This included efforts to engage grassroots populations and community based providers in strengthening health systems governance. Prof. Martin McKee talked about the responses to Covid-19 as a litmus test for health system resilience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.dropbox.com/sh/4zbu0u6ody9zgsa/AABm0WT0nrRNtSBSAGGGw-Wza?dl=0&preview=HSD+Webinar+Series...
 
Description Blog on Policy Forum in Nigeria 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A blog on: "Corruption in the health sector is stealing from the sick": Policy Forum for insights and action on accountability and corruption in health, by By Prince Agwu, Obinna Onwujekwe, Dina Balabanova and the Accountability in Action Research Team.
The blog reflected key issues discussed at the Nigerian national Policy Forum that convened a wide range of stakeholders to discuss anti-corruption and accountability issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://hprgunn.com/corruption-in-the-health-sector-is-stealing-from-the-sick-policy-forum-for-insig...
 
Description Consultation on Malawi health sector corruption (multi-actor) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The College of Medicine and the Accountability in Action (AiA) project hosted a webinar, with participation of the Anti-Corruption Bureau, FCDO, NGOs and other key stakeholders. The meeting debated key areas in corruption/ant-corruption research in Malawi, identified priorities and potential alliances. Particular attention was paid on how the AiA project can enhance the work of the Anti-Corruption Bureau and major policy development processes on good governance, anti-corruption and accountability in Malawi. Based on this, actions were planned.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Consultations and dialogues with Kano State Government representatives, Nigeria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Accountability in Action (AiA) team members from Bayero University hosted researchers from University of Nigeria in Enugu state and jointly conducted a series of consultations in Kano State. This included a consultative meeting to discuss the AiA project approach with the Honourable Commissioner for Health Kano State and 12 policy makers in the State Ministry of Health. The meeting engaged with priorities around good governance and accountability, and corruption, and novel ideas being developed in Kano. The Commissioner expressed support for the project and discussed synergies of the research with his priorities.
The AiA teams also had focused dialogues with Health Facility Committees and Ward Development Committees working in facilities included in the AiA study Local Government Area in Kano. This meeting revealed structures that were effective in ensuring that health centres are accountable with good drug supplies and work attendance. Empowered community actors served as guardians to DRFs and put pressure on the health workers. Responsible management of insurance schemes was also noticed to drive improved health service delivery in Kano State.
The consultations created awareness and buy in for the AiA project and strategies for strengthening accountability and transparency in PHCs and structures that are effective in Kano in this respect.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Consultations with the Anti-Corruption Bureau, Malawi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The College of Medicine Malawi (Dr Eric Umar) and the Accountability in Action (AiA) project conducted a series of meetings with key personnel at the Anti-Corruption Bureau, which is becoming increasingly interested in anti-corruption evidence gathering in the health sector of Malawi. Plans were made for collaboration in knowledge generation, work on cross-sectoral anti-corruption approaches, and for continued involvement in the Policy Forum on governance, accountability and anti-corruption.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Consultations with the Ombudsman in Malawi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The College of Medicine Malawi (Dr Eric Umar) held consultations with key officers in the Ombudsman's office, the major anti-corruption institution in the country. These sought to review the latest evidence on anti-corruption action in Malawi and identify gaps in knowledge and practice that needs to be addressed to inform policy development, including by the Accountability in Action project.
A collaboration between the College of Medicine and the Ombudsman's office was established. Concrete plans for joint action were made. Thus, the Accountability in Action project will be working with the Ombudsman to enhance awareness of the toll free service to report cases of corruption in health facilities which is a project activity. The Ombudsman office has hospital ombudsman who will benefit from this service.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Dialogue with Local Government Area chairman (Igbo-Etiti, Enugu State) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The dialogue with the Local Government Area chairman of Igbo-Etiti, Enugu State, a key decision maker in terms of recognising and sanctioning corruption, and his officers, focused on the value of corruption-related research. The chairman recognised the importance of the research and expressed keen interest in the research findings and their practical implications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Engagement meeting: Consultation with FCDO in Malawi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact A (virtual) consultative meeting between the Accountability in Action (AiA) project and the FCDO sought to establish the major research gaps in the area of health systems corruption in Malawi, the promising ideas for further investigation, and emerging solutions. It also discussed the policy landscape; the anti-corruption policies and actions that could gain traction and benefit from support by diverse stakeholders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Fighting health sector corruption and Covid-19 in Nigeria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The webinar launched the project, with participation of prominent public figures such as Prof. Tomori working at the national level of the health system. It provided a forum for exploring key themes in the contemporary debate on corruption, traced the history of key legislative and regulatory acts, and propositions for solutions that can be tried. The webinar was led by Prof. Obinna Onwujekwe, with the participation of Prof. Dina Balabanova and Prof. Martin McKee.

The presentation of the project approach and lens to exploring corruption challenged established orthodoxies around the role of accountability & transparency as major means to address corruption and instead argued to addressing systemic and structural factors. Many participants reported change in views and interest to follow up on these ideas as the project develops.

The event was recorded and the video was uploaded on YouTube.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0uvRTtYvb0&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Integrity Action: "Addressing absenteeism: taking into account local structures and power relationships is key. Insights from Bangladesh and Nigeria" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact An online meeting 'Resolving citizens' complaints: what makes it happen? Who owns the process?' led by Integrity Action included a talk by Prof. Dina Balabanova: "Addressing absenteeism: taking into account local structures and power relationships is key. Insights from Bangladesh and Nigeria". This included propositions that feasible mechanisms for redress need to fit with the health systems governance structures, address structural causes rather than sanction individuals, address informality and social dimensions
and manage the political drivers of absenteeism.
The session was attended by over 150 participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/x/196031675017/
 
Description Knowledge synthesis workshop in Nigeria (policy makers and practitioners) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Knowledge synthesis workshop to discuss the early findings from the ethnography conducted under the Accountability in Action (AiA) project was held in Enugu. Participants included 16 healthcare stakeholders comprising policy makers and frontline staff who met with the project team from University of Nigeria. The healthcare managers comprising 4 Head of departments, over 7 Officers In Charge, and the Executive Secretary/representatives from the Enugu State Primary Healthcare Development Agency (ENSPHCDA). The workshop participants discussed accountability issues and the implications of the research for policy and practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description LSE Workshop talk: Addressing absenteeism: towards a novel framing and problem solving 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Dina Balabanova (AiA PI) gave a talk on 'Addressing absenteeism: towards a novel framing and problem solving', at the New Ideas in Anti-corruption Policy workshop at the London School of Economics, 12-13 December 2022. It drew on the findings of our project. The workshop was attended by academics, practitioners, government officials and others.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Media article on Nigeria's Health Sector in the Presidential Candidates' Manifestos 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An article in the Republic on What is the Future of Nigeria's Health Sector? A Look at the Presidential Candidates' Manifestos exploring specifically issues around corruption and accountability, drawing on themes from the AiA research project. It was co-authored by the Health Policy Research Group, AiA project partner, and the Health Sector Reform Coalition, a civil society organisation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2023
URL https://republic.com.ng/nigeria/the-future-of-nigerias-health-sector/
 
Description Meeting of the Global Network for Anti-Corruption, Transparency & Accountability in Health Systems (GNACTA), Geneva 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our team supported the development of the Global Network for Anti-Corruption, Transparency & Accountability in Health Systems (GNACTA) hosted by WHO and including major donors such as UNDP, World Bank and others, attending a meeting in December 2022. Balabanova (PI) gave a keynote speech and all team members present (9 attending, out of whom 6 from LMICs) gave talks, facilitated sessions. We also lead the production on film on anti-corruption strategies piloted worldwide. This led to changing views of what is possible in the anti-corruption sphere, influencing how the network will operated in future and led to plan for further collaboration (on a Lancet commission on anti-corruption).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://indico.un.org/event/1003226/
 
Description National Policy Forum on accountability and anti-corruption - Malawi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This is regular national Policy Forum convened by our AiA team. It takes place virtually, and is the main space for discussing issues around anti-corruption and accountability in Malawi. It brings together a diverse range of key stakeholders including representatives of the Anti-corruption Bureau, government and donor agencies and others. It involves sharing cutting edge research, promoting debates, and generating new ideas for research and policy development. The topic of this Forum was on procurement fraud, especially during the responses to Covid-19.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://onedrive.live.com/?authkey=%21AMCHbJ%5Fqx4laicY&cid=8E1E03064FC7BF6C&id=8E1E03064FC7BF6C%211...
 
Description National Policy Forum on accountability and anti-corruption - Nigeria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Policy Forum brought together high levels policy makers and other key stakeholders from: (a) anticorruption agencies (b) anticorruption academic institutions (c) Nigeria Academy of Science (d) anticorruption-focused media (e) anticorruption-focused civil societies (f) health insurance agency. It was convened by our project team in Enugu state, by chaired by Prof. Obinna Onwujekwe. Our findings were presented, which led to questions and debates, as well as change of opinions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://hprgunn.com/corruption-in-the-health-sector-is-stealing-from-the-sick-policy-forum-for-insig...
 
Description OECD Global Anti-Corruption and Integrity Forum 2021. Harnessing the intangible: enhancing integrity during crises 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The COVID pandemic has brought to light the urgent need to safeguard precious resources during an emergency response. Addressing a health crisis means, among other things, that health systems' basic functions, such as the procurement of medicines and equipment and organising the delivery of health interventions (e.g. mass vaccinations), must be adjusted to account for factors such as drastically shorter decision-making time frames and high stress levels amongst the individuals responsible for implementation.
A wealth of research has demonstrated that humans do not always make decisions on the basis of objective criteria. Instead, even under normal circumstances, people have been shown to make decisions based on heuristics, biases, social pressures and other 'non-rational' or intuitive tendencies. Thus, during a crisis, health workers and administrators are subject to intense social pressures to ignore official rules and official guidance. These pressures are likely to be systematic because they are rooted in social norms: shared understandings about actions that are appropriate in society. Such norms provide the unwritten rules of behaviour and in times of crisis the regulatory role and pressure to follow them can sharpen - overriding not just formal rules but even personal attitudes and beliefs.

The question this panel addressed was: how can behavioural insights be harnessed to strengthen integrity during an emergency response to counter recurrent social norms and informal practices? In the panel, Prof. Dina Balabanova and Dr Eleanor Hutchinson of LSHTM presented results from research on how formal and informal structures and practices in health systems interact with the socio-political context to undermine accountability with a case study on the social drivers of absenteeism in the Nigerian health sector. Blog post and links: https://baselgovernance.org/blog/how-enhance-integrity-during-crises-lessons-behavioural-science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ffVS76k4qNg
 
Description Policy Forum: Anti-corruption research and action in Malawi: emerging themes and opportunities for collaboration 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Policy Forum was the first opportunity for a nation-wide dialogue including diverse groups of stakeholders, to engage and discuss emerging themes on accountability, governance and anti-corruption. The participants decided to institute the Policy Forum as an ongoing forum for debate on accountability and anti-corruption between diverse actors (policy makers, researchers, NGOs etc.) and for fostering action.

The Forum included 2 presentations followed by policy dialogue. The first presentation was on 'Assessing gaps in the legal framework addressing corruption in Malawi health systems and collaborative practices' and the second on 'Building bridges and breaking walls: Results of a pilot study to mentor and strengthen Health Centre Advisory Committees in three districts in Malawi'. The dialogue focused on synergies, research-to-policy evidence translation and remaining gaps.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Policy Forum: Engaging citizens to improve access to quality services and strengthen accountability in Malawi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The College of Medicine Malawi (Dr Eric Umar), in collaboration with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (Prof. Dina Balabanova) and Options (Wina Sangala) who are project partners, hosted a policy dialogue. This was a part of the new Policy Forum which is an ongoing forum for debate on governance, accountability and anti-corruption between diverse actors (policy makers, researchers, NGOs etc.).
The dialogue involved key organizations working on governance and accountability in Malawi: the national Anti-Corruption Bureau, National Civic Education Office, Ministry of Health, Oxfam, Care and others. The discussion focused: 1) community accountability mechanisms, 2) hospital ombudsman functionality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Policy forum on Anti-corruption research and action in Malawi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact We webinar was hosted by the College of Medicine, and led by Dr Eric Umar and Dr Wiseman Chirwa with participation by colleagues from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Anti-Corruption Commission in Malawi, the FCDO, NGOs and many researchers conducting research in the area. Participants brainstormed idea about current status of corruption/anti-corruption research in Malawi, the key priorities and gaps.

The event generated significant interest, and plans were made for establishing a regular policy forum, and entering potential alliances - particularly a link of the project with the Anti-Corruption Commission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Poster at The Seventh Global Symposium on Health Systems Research, Bogotá 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A poster 'Complaints mechanisms in the Malawi health care system: What are They and Why are They Underused?' by Maryam Chilumpha and the Accountability in Action team, was presented at The Seventh Global Symposium on Health Systems Research (HSR2022) convened by Health Systems Global held in Bogotá, Colombia, Oct-Nov.2022.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://healthsystemsresearch.org/hsr2022/
 
Description Presentation at the African Research Universities Alliance (ARUA) Conference: Financially profiting from free vaccines in primary healthcare facilities in Nigeria: What could happen with the Covid-19 vaccines? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation at the African Research Universities Alliance (ARUA) Conference organised at University of Pretoria on "Global Public Health Challenges: Facing Them in Africa".
The Accountability in Action (AiA) team from University of Nigeria in collaboration with London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine gave a presentation on : Financially profiting from free vaccines in primary healthcare facilities in Nigeria: What could happen with the Covid-19 vaccines?.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Presenting plans for the new Centre for Accountability Research in Health Systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to WHO & Ministry of Health on plans for the newly established Centre for Accountability Research in Health Systems. The concept of the Centre stems from our AiA project, specifically building on our capacity building efforts, and has preliminary approvals by relevant stakeholders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2023
 
Description Radio phone-in on accountability and quality of primary health care in Nigeria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio programme at Dream925fm radio station (Nigeria) including phone-in on the topic of "Primary Health Care and Accounting System in Nigeria". Led by Prince Agwu, Aloysius Odii and Charles Orjiakor from the Accountability in Action Nigeria team. The programme was part of our public engagement to gauge the relevance of our findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://twitter.com/AgwuP/status/1571124794174902274
 
Description Research during Covid-19: learning from practice 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This was a webinar on research practice (incl. methods, ethics issues when conducting research during Covid-19) organised by ODI jointly with LSHTM. It sought to raise awareness of methods that are needed to study sensitive issues during crises (e.g. our research experience starting to study corruption). A member of our project team, Charles Orjiakor, was a key speaker discussing our experience of researching sensitive issues such as health sector corruption during the pandemic, and how the process can be managed safely and in a responsive manner. Prof. Dina Balabanova gave comments, highlighting in particular the research agenda stemming from this experience.

The webinar was attended by 189 people from 36 countries, with talks followed by proactive Q&A session (18 questions plus raised).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.odi.org/events/17110-research-during-covid-19-learning-field
 
Description Session at the Africa Health Agenda International Conference (AHAIC): "Driving health sector accountability during COVID-19" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Esther Agbon, Options' health financing expert and team member at the current award, was a panellist at a session on "Driving health sector accountability during COVID-19" during the 2021 Africa Health International Conference Agenda (AHAIC) on 10th March 2021. The conference is an African-led biennial global health convening hosted by Amref Health Africa, and brings together diverse stakeholders to accelerate progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC).The session emphasised the importance of 'bottom up' or 'grassroot' accountability in the health sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://ahaic.org/
 
Description Session at the Canadian Global Health Conference: "The politics of pandemics: accountability for service continuity" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Marleen Vellekoop, Evidence for Action Project Director at Options and team member on the current award moderated a session on "The politics of pandemics: accountability for service continuity" during the Canadian Global Health Conference in October 2020. The session discussed shifting political landscapes during pandemics on health systems and impact of health sector accountability in Nigeria, Tanzania and Afghanistan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Support for community organisations in Kano, Nigeria 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Our team supported workshops and engaged in informal meetings with executives from the Ward Development Committees (WDCs) and their Association in Kano state in Nigeria, on accountability and transparency issues in the health sector. The Association includes a large number of committees across the State and the interaction may bring wider benefit. Our partners also participated in conversations with the WDCs Association and the Kano health commissioner. This helped to build trust and synergies with the work of the WDCs, and ensure our findings support their work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Support for the Ministry of Health, Malawi 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Meeting and informal dialogues with the Quality Management Directorate (QMD) in the Ministry of Health led by AiA team members Dr Eric Umar and Gertrude Chatha to inform MoH activities. This draws on the AiA project approach and findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description TWG AAA webinar: Researching poor governance and corruption: lessons for practice 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A webinar 'Researching poor governance and corruption: lessons for practice', organised by the Thematic Working Group on Action on Accountability and Anti-corruption for SDGs (TWG AAA) at Health Systems Global on 28 April 2022. It presented our AIA project approach and provoked proactive discussions. We had leading academics and practitioners commenting on these issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description TWG AAA webinar: The burden and costs of corruption in the healthcare sector in Uganda, and the policy options 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A webinar 'What is the cost? Exploring the burden and impact costs of corruption in the healthcare sector in Uganda, and the policy options to address it', organised by the Thematic Working Group on Action on Accountability and Anti-corruption for SDGs (TWG AAA) at Health Systems Global in June 2022. It was hosted by the AIA project (moderator D.Balabanova, PI), presented novel methodology on capturing the burden of corruption and led to active discussions, ideas and plans for future work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://healthsystemsglobal.org/event/what-is-the-cost-exploring-the-burden-and-impact-of-corruption...
 
Description Talk at the 6th Global Symposium of Health Systems Research - 'Re-energising efforts to address corruption' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This was a talk at a workshop at the 6th Global Symposium of Health Systems Research by Prof. D.Balabanova from LSHTM, entitled 'Re-energising efforts to address corruption'. It formed part of capacity building efforts for the Emerging Voices in Global Health affiliated with Health Systems Global. It covered manifestations of corruption, conceptual lens, approach and study design used in the current project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Workshops and dialogues with the Ward Development Committees (WDCs) in Kano, Nigeria on their role in fighting corruption 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact The Accountability in Action (AiA) team led by Dr Muktar Ahmed Gadanya of Bayero University in collaboration with Options and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine conducted 2 workshops and several dialogues with representatives of a wide range of Ward Development Committees (WDCs) in Kano, Nigeria. The exchanges were around the role of accountability and transparency in achieving UHC, and examining the experiences of WDCs (particularly their successes) of addressing corruption issues, with a view to using these in other contexts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021,2022