DIRECT MEASUREMENT & SAMPLING OF SUBGLACIAL LAKE ELLSWORTH: A multidisciplinary investigation of life in extreme environments & ice sheet history

Lead Research Organisation: University of Aberdeen
Department Name: School of Geosciences

Abstract

This project has two fundamental scientific aims: (1) to determine whether, and in what form, microbial life exists in Antarctic subglacial lakes, and (2) to determine the history of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. To meet these aims, we will undertake the direct measurement and sampling of water and sediment within Subglacial Lake Ellsworth in West Antarctica. For over a decade, scientists have regarded subglacial lakes to be extreme yet viable habitats for microbial life. Additionally, sedimentary palaeoenvironment records are thought to exist on the floors of subglacial lakes, which would provide critical insights into the glacial history of Antarctica. Of the >150 known subglacial lakes, Lake Ellsworth stands out as an ideal candidate for exploration. Through a NERC-AFI award, glaciologists have shown the lake, beneath 3 km of ice, to be 10 km long, 2-3 km wide and 160 m deep, confirming it as an ideal deep-water lake for exploration. The deployment of heavy equipment has been shown to be possible at this location, based on several deep-field reconnaissance studies. This project will build, test and deploy all the equipment necessary to complete the experiment in a clean and environmentally responsible manner. Samples will be analysed and split at laboratories in the field and at Rothera Station, and then distributed to laboratories across the UK. This project, which has been in a planning stage for four years, will be a benchmark exercise in the exploration of Antarctica, will make profound scientific discoveries regarding life in extreme environments and West Antarctic Ice Sheet history, and will be of genuine interest to the public and media.

Publications

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Makinson K (2016) Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling. in Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences

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Mowlem M (2016) Probe technologies for clean sampling and measurement of subglacial lakes. in Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences

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Parnell J (2016) Physical and chemical controls on habitats for life in the deep subsurface beneath continents and ice. in Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences

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Pearce DA (2016) Microbiology: lessons from a first attempt at Lake Ellsworth. in Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences

 
Description Developed protocol for analysis of organic compounds in water, for eventual deployment on Ellsworth samples
Exploitation Route analysis of environmental samples
Sectors Environment