Basal Conditions on Rutford Ice Stream: Bed Access, Monitoring and Ice Sheet History

Lead Research Organisation: British Antarctic Survey
Department Name: Physical Sciences

Abstract

The Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets play a major role in controlling Earth's sea level and climate, but our understanding of their history and motion is poor. At the moment, the biggest uncertainty in our ability to predict future sea level comes from these ice sheets. This is particularly important because sea level rise from ice sheets is increasing faster than expected, and because ice sheets have the potential to trigger irreversible sea level rise that would continue for many centuries. Reducing this uncertainty is currently one of the biggest challenges in glaciology. Our project aims to improve our understanding of two aspects of this uncertainty: first, the past behaviour of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), and second, the flow of the fast ice streams that drain it. By choosing the right location, we can address both these aims within one project. Rutford Ice Stream is one of the large, fast-flowing glaciers that drain WAIS and deliver the ice to the ocean. It has the advantage that a large amount of data have already been collected there from surface fieldwork, from aircraft, and from satellites. The next step is to access the ice stream bed directly, and the existing data mean we can identify the optimum locations for this. Using a hot-water drill we will make holes to the bed of the ice stream, through ice more than 2 km thick. Once the drill reaches the bed we will collect samples of sediment from beneath the ice. We will also collect sections of ice core from the ice column. Strings of instruments will be lowered down the holes to measure the pressure in the water system beneath the ice, the temperature profile in the ice and the way the ice deforms as it flows downstream. We will also insert probes into the bed that will measure how fast the ice is sliding, as well as the strength of the sediment in the bed itself. Borehole video cameras will record the nature of the ice, bed and water system, including how much sediment is frozen into the bottom of the ice. On the ice stream surface we will carry out a number of geophysical experiments designed to study the flow of the ice and to map the topography and the variations in basal water and sediment in the area around the drill holes. This will help us to interpret the measurements made in the drill holes. GPS receivers will track the motion of the ice surface; seismic surveys will map the softer and harder areas of bed sediment; radar surveys will show where water beneath the glacier is concentrated or distributed; and a seismometer array will detect the noise bursts emitted as the ice stream grinds over its bed. Project results will be analysed at the British Antarctic Survey, Swansea University and NERC-GEF. Other project partners at NASA-JPL, University College London and the University of Bristol will also contribute. When completed, the project will give information on: - An age for the most recent collapse of the ice sheet in this region - The water system beneath the ice - The thermal regime of the ice and bed - The partition of ice motion between the three different flow mechanisms - sliding, ice deformation and bed deformation The timing of the last ice sheet collapse will be extremely valuable because no other information yet exists in this region. It will help us to understand the way the ice sheet has changed as climate has warmed and cooled in the past. Our other results - characterising ice stream dynamics and how ice, water and the sedimentary bed interact - will help us understand the processes by which ice streams move, and how we should include these processes into models. The results will help to clarify previous work from ice streams elsewhere in Antarctica, which in some cases have been contradictory or inconclusive. Overall, these results will be big steps forward in our ability to understand the way ice sheets behaved in the past, what controls them today, and how they might evolve in the future.
 
Title "Song of the Ice" - new music, video and imagery. 
Description Musician Steve Garrett - composition of music video and imagery inspired by Antarctic science an incorporating sounds and science from research projects. "Song of the Ice" - Music and science brought together in a collaborative project to mark Earth Day 2020. New music, accompanied by video and imagery, in three parts reflecting the life of the ice sheet. Opening public performance scheduled for Earth Day 2020, AURORA Centre Cambridge. 
Type Of Art Composition/Score 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact Opening public performance scheduled for Earth Day 2020, AURORA Centre Cambridge. 
URL https://www.stevegarrettguitar.com/song-of-the-ice
 
Title The Song of The Ice, Event, Cambridge 2022 
Description Public presentation of Song of the Ice in Cambridge. Event also included three related talks from scientists involved in the project talking about the science behind it and their personal reflections on being involved. Intention was to reach a combination of British Antarctic Survey staff, Cambridge University staff and students (including Scott Polar Research Institute) and the local general public. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2022 
Impact One significant outcome was the invitation for the artist involved to repeat the event at the subsequent UK Antarctic Science and the International Glaciological Society meetings in Edinburgh 
URL https://stevegarrettguitar.com/the-song-of-the-ice
 
Title The Song of the Ice 
Description Music and video public premiere, presentation launched on Earth Day, 22 April 2020. Launched by live stream video on YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8r3xdrp5GGI) Was to have been a live performance in Cambridge, changed to an online event due to covid lockdown Includes sounds of icequakes generated as the ice moves and flows Includes record of atmospheric CO2 over the last ~1Ma, converted to sound and music 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact Widely acclaimed in the field. Led to a number of other events and outputs 
URL https://stevegarrettguitar.bandcamp.com/album/the-song-of-the-ice
 
Title The Song of the Ice, Performance, Edinburgh 2022 
Description Public presentation of The Song of the Ice at University of Edinburgh Centre for Carbon Innovation (ECCI). Primary audience (>100) was attendees of both the UK Antarctic Science Conference and the International Glaciological Society, British Branch Meeting. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2022 
Impact Subsequent further interest from academics interested in using the audio material to help with public awareness and appreciation of environmental research 
URL https://stevegarrettguitar.com/the-song-of-the-ice
 
Description New ice drill capable of reaching the bottom of the Antarctic Ice Sheet A new design of ice drill that can penetrate more than 2 km of ice has been developed and shipped to Antarctica. A bespoke, sledge-mounted drum, containing 2400 m of thermoplastic hose, was designed and built by the British Antarctic Survey and Able Engineering, a Kings Lynn engineering company. This new equipment will be used to drill to the bottom of Rutford Ice Stream, one of the huge, fast-moving glaciers that flow out of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The drill was shipped to Antarctica on board the RRS Ernest Shackleton where it was successfully offloaded at remote location on the Ronne Ice Shelf. The subglacial environment is one of the least explored places left on Earth. When the drill reaches the bed of the ice stream, samples of the glacier bed will be collected and a series of instruments installed into the bed and within the ice. The results will tell us about any disintegration of the ice sheet in the past and about how the glacier is flowing in the present day. Up-to-date technology allowed compromises inherent in earlier designs to be overcome in the new drill. The first was being able to use a single, continuous length of hose; the second was the ability to drive the hose drum correctly using electric motors. The drill was designed to mount integrally onto a standard polar cargo sledge meaning, it can be moved around the ice sheet easily by tractor, despite its nearly 7 tonne weight. This will make it easy to redeploy to other sites elsewhere in Antarctica in the future.

MARCH 2019. Field team have just returned from successfully drilling to the bed of a fast-flowing Antarctic glacier, three times, using the newly-developed deep hot-water drill. The ice is more than 2.1 km (nearly 1.5 miles) thick. These are the deepest subglacial access holes ever drilled using th hot-water technique. Results from the instruments installed in the holes are still very preliminary but, so far show that there is an active, high-pressure water system under the ice; the water pressure is so high that the ice is effectively "floating" on the bed, rather like an iceberg floats on the sea. We expect this will be a major factor in explaining why the ice is flowing so quickly.

MARCH 2020. Final fieldwork activity has been completed. Team of four visited the field site and recovered data that had been logging continuously in the boreholes and at the glacier surface; these data sets are now complete. Final geophysical surveys completed. Samples analysis and processing is under way. Post-doctoral researcher Sofia Kufner has been recruited and has begun processing and analysing the geophysical data. Analysis of the preliminary borehole data (from the drilling activity last year) is in progress and initial results have been presented at conferences. These are exciting data from a unique environment and we currently see much external interest.

MARCH 2021. UPDATE:
Results published on:
- water pressure and water system under the ice shown to be very high, sufficient to be supporting almost all of the ice load (i.e. the ice is almost afloat, even though it is a long way inland from the sea)
- high quantities of sediment detected in the ice, ~2 km below the surface
- a catalogue of more than 230,000 icequakes (very small earthquakes generated as the glacier slides over its bed has been produced and is now in press. This shows where friction at the ice bed is concentrated.
MARCH 2022 UPDATE:
Results published on:
- subglacial processes interpreted from micro-earthquake events.
- subglacial processes and landscapes interpreted from radar reflectivity.
- ice properties and rheology interpreted from novel new technique (Distributed Acoustic Sensing).
- analysis of subglacial sediments shows that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in this region retreated from the last glacial maximum, to a location further inland from its current position, then in the last few thousand years, re-advanced to the present-day configuration.

UPDATE FOR MARCH 2023
Results published on:
- ice fabric from phase-sensitive radar measurements
- firn anisotropy from novel new Distributed Acoustic Sensing technique
Five datasets published
PhD Student - successful completion of thesis and viva; awarded PhD
Papers submitted on
- ice fabric derived natural-source seismicity
- subglacial bedform formation mechanisms
- quantification of subglacial slip and friction
Sediment sample age analyses continuing (via external laboratories)
Four PDRA projects completed: Cian Mcguire, Rebecca Schlegel, Sofia-Katerina Kufner, Thomas Hudson
Exploitation Route The results published so far relate to understanding the flow of the ice sheet so will be primarily of interest to other researchers.
The icequakes have already helped to inspire, and been incorporated into a musical score and audio-visual, with public performances and spin-off written articles.
Relevance to other areas has yet to be developed.
Sectors Environment

 
Description Recordings of "icequakes", the noise made by ice as it slides over the bed, have been used in a musical score and audio-visual performance by guitarist Steve Garrett, which also inspired articles and other comparable performances. See The Song of the Ice at eg: https://www.stevegarrettguitar.com/the-song-of-the-ice https://stevegarrettguitar.bandcamp.com/album/the-song-of-the-ice https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/Geoscientist/Archive/August-2020/People-news
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description High-resolution subglacial landscape research
Amount £61,900 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2021 
End 03/2022
 
Description Investigating the internal structure of the Rutford Ice Stream using Distributed Acoustic Sensors (DAS)
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Funding ID CASS-166 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2019 
End 01/2020
 
Title Downhole distributed acoustic seismic profiles at SkyTrain Ice Rise, West Antarctica, January 2020 
Description A distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) experiment was undertaken at SkyTrain Ice Rise in the Weddell Sea Sector of West Antarctica. The aim was to evaluate the use of DAS technology using existing infrastructure and for delineating the englacial fabric to improve our understanding of ice sheet history in the region. Three walkaway profiles were acquired at 45 degree intervals using a hammer and plate source. Both direct and reflected P- and S-wave energy, as well as surface wave energy, are observed using a range of source offsets recorded using fibre optic cable. Significant noise results from the cable hanging untethered in the borehole. At greater depth, where drilling fluid is present, signal strength is sufficient to measure seismic interval velocities and attenuation. Fieldwork was part of the BEAMISH Project (NERC AFI award numbers NE/G014159/1 and NE/G013187/1). John Michael Kendall was supported by additional funding from NERC award No. CASS-166. The Skytrain borehole and fibre optic cable are part of the University of Cambridge WACSWAIN Project (EU Horizon 2020 agreement No. 742224). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not applicable. 
URL https://data.bas.ac.uk/full-record.php?id=GB/NERC/BAS/PDC/01458
 
Title Microseismic icequake catalogue, Rutford Ice Stream (West Antarctica), November 2018 to February 2019 
Description This dataset contains ASCII files with hypocenter information, event times and magnitudes for 227029 micro-earthquakes with a magnitude range from -2.0 to -0.3 recorded from a 35-station seismic network located ~40 km upstream of the grounding line of Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica. For 87910 of these events, earthquake focal mechanisms (strike/dip/rake) are available. The seismic network, which recordings are the base for the event catalogue, broadly formed a rectangle with 1 km station spacing. Details on the station locations, instrument types and operation periods are included in these data files. The event catalogue encloses the geographic region between 084.142 to 083.760 degrees West and 78.204 to 78.113 degrees South. Events are located between 1.553 and 2.416 km depth. Recording took place between 20th November 2018 and 16th February 2019. The spatio-temporal arrangement of these micro-earthquakes can be used to characterize frictional properties at the ice-bed interface of Rutford Ice Stream. This work was funded within the BEAMISH project by NERC AFI award numbers NE/G014159/1 and NE/G013187/1. Seismic instruments were provided by NERC SEIS-UK (Loan 1017) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) through the PASSCAL Instrument Center at New Mexico Tech. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not applicable. 
URL https://data.bas.ac.uk/full-record.php?id=GB/NERC/BAS/PDC/01432
 
Title Radar characterization of ice crystal orientation fabric and anisotropic rheology within Rutford Ice Stream, 2017-2019 
Description We use polarimetric radar sounding to investigate variation in ice crystal orientation fabric within the near-surface (top 40-300 m) of Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica. To assess the influence of the fabric on ice flow, we use an analytical model to derive anisotropic enhancements of the flow law from the fabric measurements. In the shallowest ice (40-100 m) the azimuthal fabric orientation is consistent with flow-induced development and correlates with the surface strain field. Notably, toward the ice-stream margins, both the horizontal compression angle and fabric orientation tend toward 45 degrees relative to ice flow. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions of flow-induced fabric under simple shear, but to our knowledge has never been observed. The fabric orientation in deeper ice (100-300 m) is significantly misaligned with shallower ice in some locations, and therefore inconsistent with the local surface strain field. This result represents a new challenge for ice flow models which typically infer basal properties from the surface conditions assuming simplified vertical variation of ice flow. Our technique retrieves azimuthal variations in fabric but is insensitive to vertical variation, and we therefore constrain the fabric and rheology within two end-members: a vertical girdle or a horizontal pole. Our hypotheses are that fabric near the center of the ice-stream tends to a vertical girdle that enhances horizontal compression, and near the ice-stream margins tends to a horizontal pole that enhances lateral shear. ApRES radar data were collected as part of the BEAMISH Project (NERC AFI award numbers NE/G014159/1 and NE/G013187/1). Tom Jordan would like to acknowledge support from EU Horizon 2020 grant 747336-BRISRES-H2020-MSCA-IF-2016. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://data.bas.ac.uk/full-record.php?id=GB/NERC/BAS/PDC/01428
 
Title Radar-derived bed reflectivity of Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica, December 2016 to January 2017 
Description The dataset presented here contains a csv-file including the coordinates, received power of the bed reflection and the two-way travel time of the bed reflection. The X and Y coordinates are projected in EPSG:3031 - WGS 84 / Antarctic Polar Stereographic coordinate system. Data presented here have been frequency filtered and 2D migrated (using a finite difference approach and migration velocity of 0.168 m ns-1), followed by the picking of the bed reflection using ReflexW software (Sandmeier Scientific Software). The received power is calculated within a 280 ns time window centred on, and encompassing, the bed reflection (Gades et al., 2000). This work was funded within the BEAMISH project by NERC AFI award numbers NE/G014159/1 and NE/G013187/1. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not applicable. 
URL https://data.bas.ac.uk/full-record.php?id=GB/NERC/BAS/PDC/01438
 
Title Shear wave splitting catalogue, Rutford Ice Stream (West Antarctica), November 2018 to February 2019 
Description This dataset contains an ASCII file with shear wave splitting results for 202,652 station-event pairs from glacial micro-seismicity, recorded from a 35-station seismic network located ~40 km upstream of the grounding line of Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Microseismicity is located at the base of the ice stream at ~2.2 km depth (relative to the ice surface). Seismic waveform data, which was used to calculate shear wave splitting parameters is provided in miniseed format. Event hypocenter information, event times and coordinates of receiving stations are listed in the ASCII file. Shear wave splitting was calculated using the software MFAST. Shear wave splitting parameters can be used to determine seismic anisotropy along the ray path, which helps to characterise ice fabric. This work was funded within the BEAMISH project by NERC AFI award numbers NE/G014159/1 and NE/G013187/1. Seismic instruments were provided by NERC SEIS-UK (Loan 1017) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) through the PASSCAL Instrument Center at New Mexico Tech. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not applicable 
URL https://data.bas.ac.uk/full-record.php?id=GB/NERC/BAS/PDC/01645
 
Description Collaboration with NASA-JPL ended 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The original BEAMISH Proposal included a collaboration with NASA-JPL in the US, specifically with Dr Alberto Behar, who was scheduled to take part in the BEAMISH fieldwork
Collaborator Contribution Dr Behar was scheduled to contribute borehole video equipment to the project
Impact N/A
Start Year 2013
 
Description New collaboration established with Penn State University, USA 
Organisation Penn State University
Department Department of Geosciences
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Prof Sridhar Anandakrishnan will be incorporated into the field team.
Collaborator Contribution Penn State will contribute a large array of portable passive seismic recorders to the geophysical monitoring part of the data acquisition. Prof Anandakrishnan has successfully applied for funding from the US NSF to support his role in this collaboration.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2016
 
Description New collaboration established with University of California, Berkeley, USA 
Organisation University of California, Berkeley
Department Department of Physics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Proposed new borehole dust logging instrument will be deployed in the field to log the boreholes we drill through the ice stream.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Ryan Bay and his team will develop and build a new autonomous borehole dust logging instrument, suitable for operating in our BEAMISH Project boreholes, and provide it to the field campaign. A funding application has been submitted to the US NSF ("Dust-Bot: US-UK development of an autonomous dust logger") to fund this work.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2017
 
Description New collaboration started with University of Leeds 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Fully funded PhD student and project resources. Data set for student. Lead the students supervision.
Collaborator Contribution Support student by supervision and guidance. Host for periods at the university for this supervision and guidance.
Impact Paper published in Journal of Geophysical Research (Schlegel, et al, 2021, doii 10.1029/2021jf006349). Successful completion of PhD by student Rebecca Schlegel
Start Year 2017
 
Description New collaboration started with University of Liverpool 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provide unique subglacial samples for analysis
Collaborator Contribution Analysis of sediment samples
Impact Still in progress
Start Year 2021
 
Description New collaboration started with University of Madison-Wisconsin 
Organisation University of Wisconsin-Madison
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided unique subglacial sediment samples for analysis and testing
Collaborator Contribution Analysis and testing of subglacial sediment samples
Impact Still in progress
Start Year 2021
 
Description New collaboration started with the University of Oxford 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Worked jointly with collaborator to deploy a novel new fibre-optic technique for seismic acquisition in ice sheets and glacier environments
Collaborator Contribution Worked jointly with project team to deploy a novel new fibre-optic technique for seismic acquisition in ice sheets and glacier environments. Links with industry partner secured the loan of essential equipment. Also provided other necessary equipment and expertise.
Impact Successful field deployment of new acquisition technique. Initial data sets are currently being evaluated.
Start Year 2019
 
Title Down-hole optical and sonic logging tool 
Description A new logging tool was developed in-house to log hot-water drilled access holes in ice, either during the drilling process or after the drilling is completed. The tool includes downwards- and sideways-looking cameras (with light sources) to study the internal structure of the ice and the material at the bed; sonic transducers measure the borehole diameter and cross-section profile, with depth 
Type Of Technology Detection Devices 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact First successful deployments were completed during the main BEAMISH Project field campaign in January and February 2019. Further developments continue. 
 
Title Subglacial Plough 
Description An instrument to detect the physical strength of a sediment and the water pressure both at the ice-bed interface and at depths into the subglacial sediment is being developed and built. The instrument will be deployed via boreholes through >2km ice, beneath a fast-flowing glacier. 
Type Of Technology Detection Devices 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Instrument is still under development. Once completed and deployed it will detect physical properties of the subglacial environment not easily detectable by other means, giving critical information on the mechanisms of fast glacier flow. The plough was deployed for the first time during the main BEAMISH Project field campaign in January and February 2019. It was installed permanently into the ice stream bed beneath 2.1 km of fast-moving ice. It is successfully transmitting data on basal hydrology and subglacial sediment properties to data loggers at the ice surface. 
 
Description Article in Operations Engineering magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Featured article in industry magazine, including front-cover photograph
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.soe.org.uk/resources-home/publications.html
 
Description Article in Rockwatch Magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Article in Rockwatch Magazine, UK Nationwide Geology Club for Children.
https://www.rockwatch.org.uk/rockwatch-magazine-issue-86/
Inspired and prompted by The Song of the Ice, audio-visual and music score by Steve Garrett
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description EGU blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Blog on the EGU website toe coincide with the EGU General Assembly. Aimed at early-career researchers with general geoscience interest
Blog written by PDRA Sofia-Katerina Kufner
https://blogs.egu.eu/divisions/cr/2020/04/24/icequakes-the-little-brothers-of-earthquakes-what-do-they-tell-us-about-ice-flow/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description International Glaciological Society, Eartly-career Glaciologists Group (IGS-EGG) blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Blog to promote the newly-formed Early-career Glaciologists Group of the IGS.
Written by PhD student Rebecca Schlegel (who was also appointed chair if EGG)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description National Geographic - photographs and article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Photographs and article published on-line by National Geographic
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.nationalgeographic.co.uk/environment/2019/03/hunt-answers-beneath-antarcticas-ice
 
Description New Scientist Live 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk to the general public at the 2019 New Scientist Live science festival. Venue Excel Centre, London; 5-day international science festival, October 2019.
https://www.excel.london/whats-on/new-scientist-live-2019
Invited speaker on the Earth Science stage.
Live audience of 100-200; on-line audience is global
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.excel.london/whats-on/new-scientist-live-2019
 
Description Presentation to UKRI staff, Polaris House Swindon. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to funding council staff at Polaris House, Swindon. Primarily NERC, with some attendees from other UKRI councils
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Press release and subsequent media, and media-realted activities. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release issued at a key stage in the fieldwork campaign (January 2019). Attracted considerable interest, both UK and internationally. High number of interviews (>10) and other activities (printed media, web-based activities et)c delivered, and still on-going (taken by >150 media outlets so far, as of March 2019).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bas.ac.uk/media-post/scientists-drill-to-record-depths-in-west-antarctica/
 
Description Public lecture at Fort William Mountain Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk at Fort William Mountain Festival during the "Polar Evening" event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description The Song of The Ice, Cambridge 2022 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public presentation of Song of the Ice in Cambridge. Event also included three related talks from scientists involved in the project talking about the science behind it and their personal reflections on being involved.
Intention was to reach a combination of British Antarctic Survey staff, Cambridge University staff and students (including Scott Polar Research Institute) and the local general public.
One significant outcome was the invitation for the artist involved to repeat the event at the subsequent UK Antarctic Science and the International Glaciological Society meetings in Edinburgh
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://stevegarrettguitar.com/the-song-of-the-ice
 
Description Twitter feed established and regularly updated for the BEAMISH Project's main fieldwork campaign 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Twitter feed from the Antarctic fieldwork (#hotwateronice) proved highly effective. Responses very positive. Currently has more than 1300 followers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com/hotwateronice?lang=en