Evolutionary dynamics of genome obesity

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew
Department Name: Jodrell Laboratory

Abstract

The central dogma in genetics is that 'DNA codes for RNA which makes proteins'. Why then do similar and closely related organisms often have widely different amounts of DNA in their nuclei? Even in organisms with a small amount of DNA, the fraction that comprises genes is frequently very small. What is the extra DNA doing and how did it get there? These are important questions because we know that organisms with large genomes are at greater risk of extinction, are less adaptable to living in polluted soils, and are less able to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Clearly the total amount of DNA has ecological consequences which shape the distribution and persistence of biodiversity. In fact an analysis of many thousands of species reveals that genome size varies enormously. In plants alone it can vary nearly 2000-fold. The non-genic component of DNA is usually composed of highly repeated sequences of two types, (i) dispersed repetitive sequences and (ii) tandem repeated sequences. Together these give the chromosomes a particular character, such as their size. Chromosome size is important in the evolution and diversification of all organisms because large chromosomes (or more accurately the total sum of all chromosomes = the genome) often come at a cost, including long generation times, slow development and restrictions on the type of habitat occupied by the organism. There may nevertheless be advantages to having large genomes in some circumstances because some organisms do have particularly large amounts of DNA. In the last 20 years there has been an enormous effort expended by the science community to increase our understanding of plant genomes for three main reasons: (i) to improve the efficiency, versatility and value of agriculture; (ii) to harness resources for medical research, and (iii) to stimulate new discoveries through fundamental research. To achieve this end several plants were selected to have their genomes completely sequenced, so that we could discover in detail the nature and occurrence of genic and non-genic DNA. This was an expensive and time-consuming task involving labs from around the world. To minimise the scale of the task, plants with small genomes, like the weed Arabidopsis thaliana and the crop rice, were selected for analysis. Our current thinking is that over many thousands or millions of years, DNA in the genome can expand through amplification of some repetitive DNA and shrink through small bite-like loses. Nevertheless, this fascinating view of the dynamic nature of plant genomic DNA is flawed because we only understand the dynamics of plants with small to medium-sized genomes, i.e. those genomes chosen for DNA sequencing. Is this picture of genome evolution true for organisms with large genomes? To address this we have selected the plant genus Fritillaria for analysis, since it includes species with truly giant genomes including the largest so far reported for any plant. The problem is how to tackle the Herculean task of determining the nature and evolution of so much DNA in Fritillaria. Fortunately a powerful new method to sequence huge amounts of DNA cost-effectively has been developed that enables us to get a handle on genome evolution in organisms with giant genomes. These methods use sophisticated DNA handling and analytical approaches for studying DNA. When coupled with microscopical studies of the chromosomes themselves, and a detailed understanding of how the species are related to each other, we can build a picture of the evolutionary events that occurred in the formation of giant genomes. We will address what DNA sequences are involved in genome enlargement, why particular sequences became so abundant, and if genome enlargement happened suddenly in evolution, or slowly over time. Thus our study will provide the community with fundamental knowledge of the processes occurring in plant genome evolution.

Publications

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Dodsworth S (2015) Genomic repeat abundances contain phylogenetic signal. in Systematic biology

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Dodsworth S (2015) Genome size diversity in angiosperms and its influence on gene space. in Current opinion in genetics & development

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Greilhuber J (2013) Plant Genome Diversity Volume 2

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Kelly L (2012) Why size really matters when sequencing plant genomes in Plant Ecology & Diversity

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Kelly LJ (2011) Exploring giant plant genomes with next-generation sequencing technology. in Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology

 
Description Our findings have provided new fundamental insights into the organization and evolution of the giant genomes of Fritillaria, which contain more than 30 times as much DNA in each nucleus as humans. By analysing the most repetitive fraction of some of the largest known genomes for diploid species, the research has shown that genomic expansion in Fritillaria has not resulted from the recent massive amplification of just a handful of repeat families, as shown in species with smaller genomes. Instead, the bulk of their immense genomes is composed of highly heterogeneous, relatively low abundance repeat-derived DNA, supporting a scenario where amplified repeats continually accumulate due to infrequent DNA removal. Our research thus indicates that a lack of deletion, and low turnover, of repetitive DNA is a major contributor to the evolution of extremely large genomes and that their size cannot simply be accounted for by the activity of a small number of high abundance repeat families. An additional key finding of the research is that the giant genomes of Fritillaria cannot be explained by a catastrophic failure of the epigenetic machinery as signatures of epigenetic regulation have been uncovered (see Becher et al. 2014). This therefore has overturned one frequently suggested explanation as to why the genomes of Fritillaria have undergone such genome expansion.
These novel findings have now opened up new areas of research including (i) investigating the nature of the epigenetic machinery and processes underpinning the reduced rates of DNA elimination that have been identified in the Fritillaria genomes, and (ii) determining whether the genomic repeat landscape and underlying genomic processes responsible that we have uncovered in Fritillaria are typical of all species with giant genomes (e.g. similar approaches are being used to analyse the giant genomes in the plant family Melanthiaceae as part of an EU-funded Beatriu de Pinós fellowship).
In addition to these findings focused on understanding genomic processes, the research has also led to the development of novel uses of the large amounts of repetitive sequence data generated by next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches. We have demonstrated that the repetitive fraction of the genome contains a signature of evolutionary relationships and hence can be used to build phylogenetic trees. This novel methodology, published in Dodsworth et al. (Systematic Biology 2014; doi: 10.1111/nph.13107) may well prove to be especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation with standard phylogenetic markers. Thus, rather than discarding such NGS data, as many researchers do in their focus on genes, these findings highlight the potential for them to deliver a wealth of novel data for phylogenetic inference.
Exploitation Route The findings have laid the foundation to understanding the composition and evolutionary processes responsible for generating the giant genomes encountered in Fritillaria. Already the data are being used by our research group (i) to investigate the epigenetics of genome obesity, (ii) to uncover whether the mechanisms responsible for generating giant genomes are homologous between different lineages of plants, both within angiosperms as well as with other land plant groups such as gymnosperms, and (iii) in collaboration with Dr Jiri Macas (named collaborator on NERC grant) and his team, the data are being used to test whether there is a fundamental shift in the genomic processes operating once genomes get beyond a certain size. In addition, an increasing number of visitors are asking to be trained in the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the genome so that similar approaches can be applied to other plant systems.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://evolve.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/leitch/sample-page/
 
Description The work undertaken for this grant generated fundamental research and therefore, its major outcomes are listed in the section 'Key findings'. Overall economic and societal impacts have yet to be fully realised. Nevertheless, the research on Fritillaria has led to deeper understanding of evolutionary relationships between Fritillaria species (which have been published, see Day et al. 2014) and these are likely to lead to societal impact and be exploited given that this genus is of interest to both the horticulture trade and practitioners of Traditional Chinese medicine. In addition, the data has the potential to be exploited in agricultural and environmental settings since the work is leading to a better understanding of the metabolic costs of genome size. The work has contributed to data leading to publications, and has attracted research scientists to the UK enabled by EU Framework 7-derived resources, and Science without Borders scholarships.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description Leverhulme Visiting Professorship
Amount £45,899 (GBP)
Funding ID VP1-2017-018 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 06/2019
 
Title 454 dataset for Fritillaria species 
Description Dataset containing the 454 data used to analyse the repetitive DNA composition of Fritillaria species. The sequences have been submitted to the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA;accession no. PRJEB6757). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact New insights into the organization and evolution of repetitive DNA in the giant genomes of Fritillaria 
 
Title Illumina data for analysis of epigenetic pathways in Fritillaria species 
Description Illumina transcriptome data of small RNA in Fritillaria 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact New insights into the epigenetic regulation of repetitive DNA in species with giant genomes 
URL https://goo.gl/PrNKfB
 
Title Illumina data for analysis of ribosmal DNA 
Description EMBL/GenBank data sequence read archives under accession numbers ERR845258-ERR845263. Chromosoma 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact New insights into organization and evolution of ribosomal DNA sequences 
URL http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/ERX926169
 
Title Plant DNA C-values database 
Description This database contains information on plant genome sizes that have either been obtained by our research team or collated from published literature 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact - Realisation of the full extent of plant genome size diversity and its biological significance, and the extreme size of Fritillaria genomes. - Numerous large scale analyses have been conducted using data downloaded from the database by ourselves as well as other scientists. These publications have contributed to understanding the causes, consequences and evolution of plant genome size diversity 
URL http://data.kew.org/cvalues/
 
Description Collaboration with Drs J Macas and P Novak 
Organisation European Space Agency
Department ESA Long Term Data Preservation Working Group
Country European Union (EU) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Providing botanical, taxonomic and genomic information and expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Providing bioinformatics expertise for the analysis of NGS data
Impact Ongoing collaboration with Drs J Macas and P Novak (Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic) in the analysis of NGS data resulting in the following publication (Workshop also organised by Macas and Novak in collaboration with Andrew R Leitch (PI) - see his ResearchFish ouput submission) Kelly et al. (2015) Dodsworth et al. (2015) Further joint publications are in preparation.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Collaboration with Professor Jonathan Wendel 
Organisation University of Iowa
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Discussions are leading to a fuller understanding of genome size diversity in plants with the aim of submitting a joint grant application while Prof. Wendel is at Royal botanic Gardens, Kew on a Leverhulme visiting professorship (Jan - June 2019)
Collaborator Contribution Discussions are in progress of grant outline
Impact Leverhulme Visiting Research Fellowship awarded.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Art exhibition combining science with photographic images 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The exhibition runs from August 2014 - February 2015. It is based at the Shirley Sherwood Botanical Art gallery. A leaflet describing the science is available to visitors. The exhibit, which forms part of the exhibition entitled 'Inspiring Kew' represents the results of a collaboration between the PI of the NERC grant and a butler with a passion for studying and photographing Fritillaria. The life-size photographic images for 51 species were arranged based on evolutionary relationships (arising from the research) to highlight the morphological diversity and lack of relationship between plant size and genome size.

None at present
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.kew.org/visit-kew-gardens/whats-on/inspiring-kew
 
Description Article published in the science magazine 'Nautilus' mentioning research on plant genome size 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The article appeared following discussions with one of the writers for the magazine called 'Nautilus' called Jeremy Hus. The title of the article was 'The Galaxy That Got Too Big, From atoms to brains, bigger isn't always better'. The aim of the article was to introduce the public to extremes in science, it included a section on genome size.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://nautil.us/issue/29/scaling/the-galaxy-that-got-too-big.
 
Description Display of Fritillaria plants and poster at the Harlow Alpine Garden Society meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The aim of the poster and display of Fritillaria plants was to introduce members of the public who are interested in growing Fritillaria into the associated scientific genomic research going on. The display attracted interest and questions about the science research and an increased interest in the genus Fritillaria. The poster and plant display won a Gold Medal. The poster has since been put on display in the reception of the Jodrell Laboratory at Kew Gardens to introduce the research to visitors to the laborotory
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Family-focused Wall-mas Christmas event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Wall-mas Christmas event 10th December 2016 (Centre for Ecology and Evolution; http://www.ucl.ac.uk/cee) was organized by IJ Leitch at the Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The aim was to enable scientists and their families interested in Ecology and Evolution in the London area and beyond to meet and discuss relevant science issues. The event included a tour of the research facilities at the Jodrell Laboratory of Kew given by IJ Leitch, which included a talk about the ongoing genome size diversity research (including Fritillaria).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Harlow Alpine Garden Society early Spring meeting 4th March 2017 - Poster and plant display on Fritillaria work - wins Gold Medal. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact To inform the public of the science research into Fritillaria (and other alpine genera), a poster was presented at the Early Spring Meeting of the Alpine Garden Society. It was combined with displays of Fritillaria plants grown by Kew (as well as other plant genera). The display generated lots of interest and was awarded a gold medal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interview for article in Quanta magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed by an editor of Quanta - an American Science magazine for an article entitled 'Shrinking bat DNA and elastic genomes'. It was published on 1st August online at https://www.quantamagazine.org/shrinking-bat-dna-and-elastic-genomes-20170801/. The aim of the article was to highlight the extraordinary diversity of genome sizes in plants and animals and why it matters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.quantamagazine.org/shrinking-bat-dna-and-elastic-genomes-20170801/
 
Description Interview given for Radio 4 series 'Plants - from roots to riches' resulting in contributions in two of the episodes. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Arising from the Radio 4 series was the publication of a book also entitled 'Plants - from Roots to Riches' which will provide an additional outlet for the information.

None at present
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/radio4/posts/Plants-From-Roots-to-Riches
 
Description Kew Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This involved the preparation of an interactive display entitled 'What is genome size and why do we care' including demonstrating the diversity of genome sizes encountered in plants and what impact it can have on the plant. It also included opportunities to for hands-on demonstration of how genome size is estimated to over 150 people (ages 3 - c. 70) and how long the genome sizes are in different plants, including Fritillaria. The display generated much interest with many questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://assets.kew.org/files/9779_Science%20Festival_A5_web.pdf?_ga=1.139827508.609099667.1484743087
 
Description Kew Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This involved the preparation of an interactive display entitled 'What is genome size and why do we care' including demonstrating the diversity of genome sizes encountered in plants and what impact it can have on the plant. It also included opportunities to for hands-on demonstration of how genome size is estimated to over 150 people (ages 3 - c. 70) and how long the genome sizes are in different plants, including Fritillaria. The display generated much interest with many questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.kew.org/about-our-organisation/press-media/press-releases/kew-science-festival-2017
 
Description Lecture at the XVIII International Botanical Congress, Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussions afterwards

No notable impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Lecture presented at Next Generation Plant Ecology and Evolution Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussions afterwards

Enhanced knowledge of how to analyse NGS data
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Lecture presented at UK Next Gen Sequencing Meeting, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

Discussion on methods to analyse next generation sequencing data
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Lecture presented at the Polygen PHD meeting, held at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussions of the significance of finding as well as opportunities for further collaborations

Increased collaboration between scientists attending the meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Lecture presented at the University of Guelph, Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards and long term collaborations

No notable impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Lecture presented at the University of Vienna 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

Requests for further information and future collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Lecture to 'Friends of Kew' during open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk sparked lots of interesting questions and discussions

No clear notable impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Lectures to Horticultural Diploma, BSc and MSc students 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Increased interest in the importance of giant genomes

Talk given to MSc students led to request for future visits which have subsequently taken place annually
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Podcast for Planet Earth online on giant genomes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Podcast: Nov 4th 2010 - Planet Earth online - http://planetearth.nerc.ac.uk/multimedia/story.aspx?id=859 - podcast with co-PI Dr Mike Fay about the biggest genomes in plants.
No direct results arising from the podcast.

No notable impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
URL http://planetearth.nerc.ac.uk/multimedia/story.aspx?id=859
 
Description Poster display for public in Jodrell Laboratory Royal Botanic Gardens Kew 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Poster has generated questions from visitors leading to further discussions

Poster has raised awareness of ongoing Fritillaria research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013
 
Description Poster presented at the Genetics Society Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Posted triggered discussion and questions

No notable impact
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Presentation to the Kew Board of Trustees on the NERC-funded Fritillaria research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The article sparked interest and lively discussion amongst the Board of Trustees of Kew

After the talk various trustees asked questions about the nature of the NERC grant and its impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Public engagement talk as part of the 'Meet the expert' series talks for the public at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The talk , which formed part of the 'Meet the scientist' series held at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew and entitled 'When it comes to genomes - size matters'. It was attended by c. 30 people from the general public. It sparked many questions from the public.

None reported so far.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Public engagement talk as part of the 'Spoonful of Sugar' series of talks given to visitors 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The talk formed part of the 'Spoonful of Science' series of talks to the general public held at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. It was entitled 'When it comes to genomes - size matters' and was attended by c. 30 people from the general public. It sparked many questions form the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description School visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

Request made for further visits in the future
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Seminar presented at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards and increased awareness of the aims of the NERC funded grant

Increased recognition of the impact of NGS on studying plant genomes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Talk presented at the Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk presented at the Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, China 31st July - 3rd August entitled 'Plant genome size diversity and evolution'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk presented to the Fritillaria group of the Alpine Garden Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

No notable impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Talk presented to the Fritillaria group of the Alpine Garden Society ''Probing the DNA of Fritillaria to provide evolutionary insights" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk presented to c. 50 members of the Fritillara group of the Alpine Garden Society which predominantly comprises amateur botanists with a passion for growing Fritillaria species. The scientific research presented certainly sparked lots of questions and discussion and requests for the copy of the slides to be uploaded onto the website so they could be consulted further.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.fritillaria.org.uk/meetings.html
 
Description Tour of the genomic research at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew to MSc and PhD students from the University of Nottingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A tour of the ongoing genomics research at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, including that focused on genome size diversity, dynamics and evolution was given to MSc and PhD students studying plant genetics and technology at the University of Nottingham, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Training provided to college based sandwich course student (1 year) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact The training sparked interest in plant genomic research

The student has gone on to conduct his own research by registering for a PhD studentship
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013
 
Description Website containing information about the NERC-funded research made available 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Website has generated interest in the occurrence and biological and evolutionary significance of genome size obesity

No particularly notable impacts have arisen from this specific activity expect for general increased awareness of the occurrence of big genomes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2012,2013,2014
URL http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/research-data/science-directory/projects/genomic-studies-mon...