Quantifying and Monitoring Potential Ecosystem Impacts of Geological Carbon Storage

Lead Research Organisation: Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Department Name: Plymouth Marine Lab

Abstract

Proposal to Research Councils Energy Program: Carbon Capture and Storage / Potential ecosystem impacts of geological carbon storage call. Quantifying and Monitoring Potential Ecosystem Impacts of Geological Carbon Storage (QICS). Climate change caused by increasing emissions of CO2, principally the burning of fossil fuels for power generation, is one of the most pressing concerns for society. Currently around 90% of the UK's energy needs are met by fossil fuels which will probably continue to be the predominant source of energy for decades to come. Developing our understanding of the pros and cons of a range of strategies designed to reduce CO2 emissions is vital. Of the available strategies such as wind, wave and solar renewables and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) none are without potential problems or limitations. The concept of CCS simply put is to capture CO2 during the process of power generation and to store it permanently in deep geological structures beneath the land or sea surface. If CCS is successful existing fossil fuel reserves could be used whilst new forms of power generation with low CO2 emissions are developed. A few projects have been successfully demonstrating either capture or storage on limited scales, so it is established that the technical challenges are surmountable. Research is also demonstrating that the geological structures are in general robust for long term storage (for example oil deposits remain in place within geological strata). However geological structures are complex and natural sub surface gas deposits are known to outgas at the surface. Consequently it would be irresponsible to develop full scale CCS programmes without an understanding of the likelihood of leakage and the severity of impacts which might occur. The aim of this proposal is to greatly improve the understanding of the scale of impact a leakage from CCS systems might inflict on the ecosystem and to enable a comprehensive risk assessment of CCS. The main location of stored CO2 in the UK will be in geo-formations under the North Sea and our research concentrates on impacts to the marine environment, although our work will also be relevant to all geological formations. Research to date has shown that hypothetical large leaks would significantly alter sediment and water chemistry and consequently some marine creatures would be vulnerable. What is not yet understood is how resilient species are, and how big an impact would stem from a given leak. Our project will investigate for the first time the response of a real marine community (both within and above the sediments) to a small scale tightly controlled artificial leak. We will look at chemical and biological effects and importantly investigate the recovery time needed. We will be able to relate the footprint of the impact to the known input rate of CO2. The results will allow us to develop and test models of flow and impact that can be applied to other scenarios and we will assess a number of monitoring methods. The project will also investigate the nature of flow through geological formations to give us an understanding of the spread of a rising CO2 plume should it breach the reservoir. The work proposed here would amount to a significant advance in the understanding and scientific tools necessary to form CCS risk assessments and quantitative knowledge of the ecological impacts of leaks. We will develop model tools that can predict the transfer, fate and impact of leaks from reservoir to ecosystem, which may be applied when specific CCS operations are planned. An important product of our work will be a recommendation of the best monitoring strategy to ensure the early detection of leaks. We will work alongside interested parties from industry, government and public to ensure that the information we produce is accessible and effective.

Publications

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Bergès B (2015) Passive acoustic quantification of gas fluxes during controlled gas release experiments in International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

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Blackford J (2012) Simulating CO 2 leakage into marine environments in Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology

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Blackford J (2015) Marine baseline and monitoring strategies for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

 
Title QICS Experiment Animation 
Description The QICS project involved a complex novel world-first experiment in which CO2 was injected below the sea floor to mimic a leak from CCS. In order to concisely explain he experimental approach to a wide range of stakeholders an animation of the experimental set up was developed showing the various experimental phases from initial survey through to recovery. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The video animation has been used effectively to communicate the experimental set-up and findings to a variety of stakeholders, including government, regulators, industry and others with an interest in Carbon Capture and Storage 
URL http://www.bgs.ac.uk/qics/
 
Description Whilst there is good evidence to suggest that carbon dioxide stored in deep geological strata as part of climate change mitigating carbon capture and storage (CCS) operations will be secure in the long term, leakage is at least theoretically possible. Regulatory legislation and the public require an understanding of the potential impacts of leakage and monitoring systems that are fit to detect leakage, or conversely, provide assurance that leakage is not occurring. Industry requires guidance as to effective and cost efficient monitoring strategies. Whilst primary monitoring will focus on the deep storage reservoir, the techniques used are unable to detect small anomalies over a kilometre below the surface. Thus near surface monitoring, where small fluxes can be detected, is a necessary component of a comprehensive monitoring strategy.

The NERC funded project "Quantifying and monitoring environmental impacts of carbon storage" (QICS) had two primary objectives, specifically to assess:
1. If leakage of CO2 from geological storage (or transport) occurred, would the environmental impact be significant?
2. What are the best methods to monitor for leakage (including detection and quantification) in the shallow sub-surface and water column?
Because carbon storage potential in the UK is located offshore, the project focussed on marine systems.

In order to answer these questions the QICS project developed a world-first experiment, injecting CO2 directly into marine sediments below the sea floor in a coastal bay, just north of Oban, Scotland. We did this in order to replicate as closely as possible, within pragmatic limits, what a real leakage event could look like at the sea floor. There are a number of reasons why a real world injection was advantageous. Firstly, little was known about how gas forms new pathways within sediments, secondly sediments have very distinct vertical gradients in terms of physical structure, chemistry and biological populations. Hence the impact of CO2 from below can be very distinct from that when CO2 is introduced from above. Thirdly, working in a real environment ensures that we see realistic dispersal of CO2 as driven by tides and currents once the CO2 reaches the water column and finally, the biological response depends on ecological interactions and behaviour that cannot be replicated in a laboratory setting.

The key findings from QICS are:

1. The sediments acted as a buffer for leaking CO2, both by physical absorption into the pore spaces and subsequently by carbonate dissolution, a process that absorbs CO2. As a consequence of this, the expected increase in acidity of sediment pore water was partially restricted, moderating impacts. The presence of gas in the sediments could be clearly imaged by seismic techniques.

2. Only a fraction (~15%) of the injected CO2 escaped into the water column in the gas phase where it was clearly detectable using hydrophones to listen for bubbles. However we hypothesise that additionally significant dissolved phase flow occurred closely associated with the gas plumes. Significant changes in water chemistry were restricted to the area of outgassing, the CO2 was undetectable at a few 10s of metres distance.

3. Some biological impacts were seen, there was a decrease in species numbers and biodiversity due to both emigration and mortality. However impacts were confined to the area within the bubble flow and the biology recovered within a few weeks of the injection ceasing.

4. We hypothesise that the sediment buffering, sea floor flux and impacts may change significantly for a longer term leak, if sediments become saturated with excess CO2.

As a result of our work we can make a very clear statement that small scale leakage from carbon storage would only impact a very small area and if short term, biological recovery would be rapid. We would suggest that even if the risk of small-scale leakage (i.e. a fraction of a % of the volume stored) from CCS was significant, there would be little environmental impact concern, especially contrasted with the threat of unmitigated climate change.

The second clear message from our research is that monitoring for small leakage fluxes of CO2 in the shallow sediments and water column is tractable. However because we saw a very large heterogeneity in the distribution of CO2 over small distances, and timescales, monitoring systems will need to be very carefully designed to ensure they are both efficient and effective.

Storage reservoirs cover an area of the order of 100km2 and the detectable signal of leakage may be spatially very restricted (~10m). Hence monitoring systems will have to be capable of covering large areas at a high resolution. We suggest a monitoring strategy initially based on anomaly detection, and only if anomalies are detected should more concentrated effort to confirm, attribute and quantify leakage be expended. No one method of detection is likely to suffice in all circumstances, a combination of chemical (pH or pCO2) and acoustic (bubble plume) methods mounted on Autonomous Underway Vehicles is recommended. Understanding the natural variability or baseline of the marine system (e.g. biologically mediated pH variability, the presence of natural biogenic gas in the sediments) will be essential for effective and efficient monitoring.

The QICS results have been published in Nature Climate Change (Nature Climate Change 4, 1011-1016. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2381) with a further 21 papers published in a special issue of the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control titled CCS and the Marine Environment http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/17505836/38
Exploitation Route The results of QICS are being used to design appropriate sensors, sensor platforms and baseline / monitoring strategies as part of projects funded by the ETI and the EU Horizon 2020 programme.

International offshore CCS developers are interested in the QICS findings and we are working to extrapolate QICS results to other systems in potentially Japan, South Korea, China, Australia, and the USA.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

URL http://www.qics.co.uk
 
Description As a result of our work we can make a very clear statement that small scale leakage from carbon storage would only impact a very small area and if short term, biological recovery would be rapid. This compares positively with, for example, the impact from trawling activities. We would suggest that even if the risk of small-scale leakage (i.e. fractions of a % of the volume stored) from CCS was significant then there would be little environmental impact concern. The second clear message from our research is that monitoring for small leakage fluxes of CO2 in the shallow sediments and water column is tractable. However because we saw a very large heterogeneity in the distribution of CO2 over small distances, monitoring systems will need to be very carefully designed to ensure they are both efficient and effective. Storage reservoirs cover an area of the order of 100km2 and the detectable signal of leakage may be spatially very restricted. Hence monitoring systems will have to be highly efficient and capable of covering large areas at a high resolution. We suggest a monitoring strategy initially based on anomaly detection, and only if anomalies are detected should more concentrated effort to confirm, attribute and quantify leakage be expended. No one method of detection is likely to suffice in all circumstances, a combination of chemical (pH) and acoustic (bubble plume) methods mounted on Autonomous Underway Vehicles will be needed. This work is now feeding into an ETI funded project designing AUVs and sensors as well as a Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Action project which will design baseline and monitoring strategies. The outputs and outcomes of QICS are detailed on the project website http://www.qics.co.uk, where most 'products' can be downloaded. The synthesis of outcomes from QICS has been published in Nature Climate Change, http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v4/n11/full/nclimate2381.html. Twenty one research and synthesis have been published in a special issue of the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control volume 38, July 2015 ISSN:1750-5836. In the 6 months since publication this special issue has already accumulated 106 citations in other publications. We have developed a series of factsheets and a brochure, along with videos to aid the communication of our results to a non-specialist audience and held meetings to disseminate results to industrial, regulatory and other interested stakeholders. The outputs from QICS fed directly into both of the UK FEED studies for full scale CCS commercialization projects at Peterhead and White Rose, in particular assisting Shell to develop monitoring plans for the Peterhead project. Results from QICS were also presented as evidence to the London Convention meeting (Nov 2015). QICS results have been presented to interested stakeholders (including industry and government representatives) and scientists in Europe, Australia, Japan, China, South Korea and the US. The results and insights stemming from QICS are highly sought after internationally, with pilot CCS projects in the aforementioned countries actively seeking to interact with QICS and successor projects. QICS is therefore positioned to have international policy influence and has established an international scientific reputation and focus for future international collaboration. The QICS project will facilitate the development of CCS as a climate mitigation option.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Energy,Environment
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Briefing for BIS
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Input to DECC
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description ACT Accelerating CCS Technologies
Amount £507,000 (GBP)
Funding ID project no. 271497 
Organisation Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2022
 
Description EU Horizon2020
Amount € 16,000,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 654462 
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 03/2016 
End 03/2020
 
Description Marine Monitoring and Verification
Amount £5,400,000 (GBP)
Organisation Energy Technologies Institute (ETI) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description QICS 2 Scoping study
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2013 
End 10/2013
 
Description QICS 2 Scoping study
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2013 
End 12/2013
 
Description Top up grant for QICS
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Scotland 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2012 
End 12/2012
 
Title Background values for benthic variables in ERSEM 
Description Added background values to variables of the benthic ERSEM modules. This is one of the original ERSEM features, which is required also in new model structure to allow e.g. recovery of benthic faunal groups. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Allow modelling of recovery of benthic fauna and bacteria after their elimination due to e.g. stress, trawling, predation. 
URL https://gitlab.ecosystem-modelling.pml.ac.uk/edge/ersem/tree/V1/SAFE
 
Title Benthic carbonate system in FABM-ERSEM 
Description Implemented benthic alkalinity fluxes and carbonate system calculations in FABM-ERSEM model framework. Contributions of benthic biogeochemical fluxes to benthic alkalinity are taken into account. Bulk benthic pH and saturation states are calculated, also rough per-layer estimates. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Benthic carbonate system implementation is a basis for many ocean acidification and CCS impact studies, long-term carbon dynamics modelling in climate scenarios. 
URL https://gitlab.ecosystem-modelling.pml.ac.uk/edge/ersem/tree/V1/SAFE
 
Title Characterisation of environmental baseline of carbonate system variables 
Description A method allowing for characterisation of near-bottom baseline conditions of carbonate variables was developed and implemented using multi-year time-series subsampled from larger-scale 3D model simulation. The method allows detecting baseline natural variability of pCO2/pH as predicted by covariance of other model variables. Deviations from predicted values might indicate possibility of carbon dioxide leakage from CCS. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The method allows discrimination between baseline natural conditions of carbonate system and potential leakage from CCS site. This methodology has a potential for implementation in CCS site monitoring and leakage detection technology. 
 
Title Dataset on macrofauna response to CCS leakage. 
Description Macrofauna abundance and biomass data from the QICS release experiment. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A paper has been submitted on these data. The data have significantly improved our understanding of the biological impacts of CCS leakage. 
 
Title Dataset on meiofaunal response to CCS leakage. 
Description Abundance and biomass data of general meiofauna and nematodes from the QICS experiment. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact A paper is being produced. 
 
Title Diagnostic variables in benthic ERSEM 
Description Added series of individual diagnostic variables (i.e. fluxes) to be added to aggregate diagnostic variables for budget calculations. These include particulate deposition fluxes, suspension-feeding, resuspension fluxes, fluxes of dissolved inorganics and gases, biotic respiration etc. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Individual diagnostics are necessary for calculation of aggregated diagnostics (fluxes), which will allow estimates of stocks and fluxes of carbon and other elements in North-Atlantic Shelf area, implemented in 3D modelling context. 
URL https://gitlab.ecosystem-modelling.pml.ac.uk/edge/ersem/
 
Title Model of benthic sensitivity to high CO2 
Description Marine systems may experience high levels of CO2 either as a result of Ocean Acidification or via leakage from geologically stored CO2. Ongoing research under both the OA and CCS research streams have allowed us to develop a prototype model that describes the response of both tolerant and sensitive benthic fauna as well as the recovery potential. The model is conceived as a sub-model of the ERSEM marine system model and is therefore able to place impacts in the context of resource levels, resource competition and predator - prey interactions. The model is currently being used to investigate CCS leakage scenarios and will shortly be applied to climate change / OA runs. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The model has yet to be published but is contributing to reports relating to best practices for CCS, currently in preparation 
 
Description CSLF taskforce 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Technical Barriers and R&D Opportunities for Offshore, Sub-Seabed Geologic Storage of Carbon
Dioxide. Report Prepared for the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) Technical Group
By the Offshore Storage Technologies Task Force, U.S. Department of Energy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cslforum.org/publications/documents/OffshoreStorageTaskForce_FinalCombinedReport.pdf
 
Description Carbon Sequestration leadership forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The key outcomes of QICS were presented to the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum, in London, July 2016. The CSLF is a Ministerial-level international climate change initiative that is focused on the development of improved cost-effective technologies for carbon capture and storage (CCS). It also promotes awareness and champions legal, regulatory, financial, and institutional environments conducive to such technologies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.cslforum.org/cslf/Events/2016London
 
Description European Parliament Briefing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A briefing was given at the EU parliament about marine environmental issues related to carbon capture and storage, specifically impact of leakage, monitoring strategies, and the requirements of a baseline.

Higher profile for CCS science within EU parliment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description FCO meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Foreign & Commonwealth Office meeting on Opportunities for future collaboration in CCS R&D, UK/China/Canada, Southampton 27th Sept 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description IEAGHG Impacts and Risks 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact IEAGHG CCS Impacts and Risks network meeting, Southampton, 29th 1st Oct. Presentation on marine environmental risks associated with offshore CCS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description IEAGHG Monitoring Network Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact IEAGHG Monitoring Network Meeting, 10-12 June 2015, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA, USA.
Monitoring and baseline options for offshore CCS: outcomes from the QICS project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description MMO CCS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk to the Marine Management Organisation on Environmental impacts and monitoring for offshore CCS - implications for regulations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description OHCO2W 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The key findings of the ROAM and QICs projects and how these inform both our understanding of Ocean Acidification and applied challenges such as mitigation via Carbon Capture and Storage where presented to an international audience at the 2016 Oceans in a High CO2 World conference, Hobart, Tasmania during May 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.highco2-iv.org/
 
Description Presentation at IEAGHG workshop: impact of sub-seabed CO2 leak on microbial activities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Presentation at IEAGHG workshop: Risk Management Network & Environmental Research Network Meeting
Title to talk: Predicting the Impact of Sub-Seabed Leakage of CO2 on Benthic Microbes and Microbially-Driven Processes: Lessons Learned from Mesocosm and Field studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at QICS final meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk explained the response of the benthic animals to the QICS controlled release experiment. The information helped demonstrate the likely biological impacts of CCS leakage to an audience of policy makers, industry and NGOs.

A lot of people were interested in the results and asked questions. The information will help develop effective baseline and monitoring activities associated with the implementation of CCS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Publicity for QICS Nature Climate Change Paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was issued to accompany the publication of Detection and impacts of leakage from sub-seafloor deep geological carbon dioxide storage in Nature Climate Change, by J C Blackford et al. As a result articles describing the research appeared in Scientific American, Planet Earth, Scinexx, Oceanology, Phys.org. The paper has been viewed online ~500 times within 4 weeks of publication.


As a result of the initial press release I was interviewed by journalists from Planet Earth (online and podcast) and Scientific American.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description QICS presentation at GHGT12 Austin Texas 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In excess of 100 people attended a talk at GHGT12, Austin Texas, describing the policy and stakeholder relevant outcomes of the QICS project.

This project is seen as a model for future research in its field
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ghgt.info/index.php/Content-GHGT12/ghgt-12-overview.html
 
Description QICS stakeholder engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In order to effectively disseminate the outcomes of the QICS project to relevant stakeholders (~50 individuals), including industry, regulators and policy makers a workshop was held in London (8th May 2014 at the Westminster Conference Centre). Within this a number of presentations covered the potential impacts of a leak from transported or geologically stored CO2 in terms of areal significance, chemical changes and biological consequences and then discussed best practice for monitoring and baseline studies. Finally discussions on follow-up research needs were conducted.
The activity was supported by the development of a range of media including project brochures, factsheets, and interviews.

As a result of this activity, the outputs of the QICS project have been used by both the FEED studies currently developing plans for full scale Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK. In particular the QICS project participants have been assisting Shell with the development of their environmental monitoring and impact plans.
The workshop has also generated stakeholder interest in a repeat experiment, and this has feed into a submission to the NERC SPAG.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bgs.ac.uk/qics/
 
Description Trondheim CCS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The 8th Trondheim Conference on CO2 Capture, Transport and Storage (TCCS8) 16/06/2015 - 18/06/2015. Trondheim, Norway
Monitoring and baseline options for offshore CCS: outcomes from the QICS project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description UK CCS R&D needs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact What role for R&D in delivering cost-competitive CCS projects in the UK in the 2020s
Conference Room, Mary Sumner House, 24 Tufton Street, London, SW1P 3RB
Discussion and analysis of research priorities for UK CCS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description UKCCSRC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Via attendance at UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre biannual meetings, including the UKCCSRC Industrial Advisory Board, a wide range of UK stakeholders have been updated with latest research into environmental monitoring for CCS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://ukccsrc.ac.uk/news-events/events/making-case-ccs-edinburgh-biannual
 
Description UKCCSRC CPD course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact CO2 Storage and Monitoring CPD certified course 20th April 2015 to 21st April 2015, Cranfield, UK
Environmental Impacts of CO2 Storage
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description US DoE 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Based on the results arising from the QICS project there has been contact with the US Dept of Environment to ensure that lessons learnt and questions arising from the UK programme inform the developing US roll out of Carbon Capture and Storage. The potential for collaborative work is currently pending strategy decisions from the new US administration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description pre COP side event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact What geological CO2 storage can bring to mitigating climate change - UK research perspective. Accredited side event for the pre-Paris COP scientific conference 'Our common future under climate change' London, 1 July, 2015.
Understanding baselines and leakage scenarios for efficient biochemical monitoring
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015