The role of adaptation in determining resistance to climatic change in ecological communities

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Sch of Biological Sciences

Abstract

Man-made climate change poses a grave threat to the survival of plant and animal species. This is because each species has a particular preference or tolerance for the climate - an optimum climatic range suitable for survival and reproduction. Beyond this optimum, the individuals within species can survive if they migrate to other locations where the environment is more suitable or by making plastic adjustments to their physiology or morphology to suit the new conditions. However, phenotypic plasticity has limits, and many species won't be able to move quickly enough to escape climate change or will be trapped on islands of suitable habitat. In this case, the remaining option is in situ adaptation. This involves survival of the individuals in each population that are fittest (best adapted) under the new climate, and the inheritance of the traits conferring fitness through the genes that control them. This propensity for adaptation is important, because it tells us whether species will be able to offer long-term resistance to the effects of climate change in the places where they currently occur. While researchers have considered the effects of adaptation in individual species, they have not considered consequences of adaptation occurring within ecological communities. This broader perspective is crucial, since most species do not exist in isolation, but coexist with other species instead. Species occurring together in communities interact through competition for resources or through dependency on other species as food, prey or hosts. These links and connections between species might, for example, mean that adaptation to climate change in one species influences persistence or extinction in one or more other species in the community. If so, then our expectation of how biodiversity will respond to the climate is not based on sound foundations, and might differ substantially from what will actually occur. This large gap in knowledge leads me to want to answer three very fundamental questions in my project: (a) Are populations of different species within communities able to adapt to climate change? More specifically are the species that succeed under climate change the ones that have adapted? (b) What influence does success or failure of one species in the community (whether or not through adaptation) have on the performance of other interacting species and their persistence in the community? (c) What impact does non-climatic environmental variation have on the spatial distribution of the genetic diversity that controls adaptation to climate? In this project, I will investigate the mechanism driving the resistance of species-rich grassland communities to 16 years of simulated climate change in a unique climate change experiment. I will use a classical experimental design widely employed to identify adaptation - the reciprocal transplant experiment (RTE) - to determine whether species that have increased or decreased in abundance in response to the manipulations have also adapted to them. I will also use a novel modification to the RTE design, where entire microcosm communities are reciprocally transplanted, to dissect the impact of success or failure of species under climate change on other members of the community. Finally, I will use high throughput sequencing technology to identify the regions of plant genomes that likely control adaptation. Using this information I will investigate the impact of non-climatic environmental variability on the distribution of adaptive climate-related genetic diversity. The ultimate goal of the project is to facilitate a mechanistic understanding of the responses of grassland communities to environmental changes at the level of interacting individuals and their genes. This will result in a detailed knowledge of how humans impact on plant communities and how they might respond, such that we can better plan their management before decline occurs.
 
Description Research within NE/H015647/1 aimed (i) to understand whether coexisting populations of grassland plants can adapt to climate change, (ii) to investigate any resulting ecological consequences of this adaptation, and (iii) to understand the genomic basis of climate-induced evolution. The project utilised Buxton Climate Change Impacts Lab (BCCIL) as a key experimental resource, where an intact grassland ecosystem has been exposed to 20 years of simulated climate change treatments, including annual summer drought, warming and watering manipulations.

Achievement 1: Creation of a new experimental resource within which to study evolutionary responses to climate change (Objective 1, Case for Support (CfS)). A large outdoor microcosm experiment was set up at Ness gardens on raised bays, complete with rain shelters for control of precipitation, and capacity for irrigation. Common Garden and precipitation manipulation experiments were maintained for a total of four years.

Achievement 2: Comparison of plant individuals collected from drought-treated and control plots at BCCIL demonstrated significant evolutionary changes in phenotype in three of the four plant study species (Objective 1, CfS). Monitoring of survival and plant performance following the imposition of experimental drought stress at Ness Gardens indicated that evolutionary changes in phenotype were not always consistent with local adaptation (i.e. conferring higher fitness under the ancestral "home" climate).

Achievement 3: I found that the ecological consequences of evolutionary responses to climate change are limited in extent (Objective 2, CfS). I determined the consequences of evolutionary responses to simulated climate change for the performance of a competitor species included within microcosm communities. The climate of origin of focal plants collected from BCCIL was not a significant predictor of competitor plant performance, even though competitor response varied with focal plant genotype and phenotype.

Achievement 4: Establishment of a set of genomic resources for four grassland plant study species (Objective 3, CfS). RNA sequencing and bioinformatics approaches were used to derive transcriptome sequences for four focal study species. In addition, microsatellite markers were established using these sequences and existing sequence data from related species. These sequence data represent a significant research resource that will support future projects in this study system. The sequence data were used to design and carry out sequence capture assays for two of the study species (Festuca ovina, Lotus corniculatus).

Achievement 5: Genomics experiments (using a sequence-capture/ pool seq approach) were used to identify SNP variants and gene loci mediating adaptive responses to climate selection at BCCIL. Functional analyses (Gene Ontology Enrichment analyses) were used to determine the extent to which adaptive responses were underpinned by particular gene functions or biological processes. A major finding of this work is that genes mediating biotic interactions and, in particular, disease resistance are highly over-represented amongst those that become differentiated under simulated climate change. This result implies that evolution of biotic responses may be instrumental in mediating adaptation to abiotic change.

All project objectives have now been met, including the major experimental, phenotypic and sequencing/ genomics aspects to the project. Write up of the first major written output from this research is underway (summarising evolutionary responses to climatic selection).

The major findings of this project (detection of evolutionary responses to climatic selection in multiple coexisting species, relevance of genes for biotic response in driving adaptive change) suggest several new research opportunities. First, if climate change can cause evolutionary changes in mean phenotype of different coexisting plant populations, then what are the ecosystem-level consequences of these changes? Second, responses in the biotic (soil) environment may be instrumental in mediating the expression of adaptive change in plants. This may explain why fitness measurements (recorded in multiple abiotic environments, but using a single soil source) have so far failed to reveal fitness responses typically associated with local adaptation. Finally, the results suggest an applied research direction. If biotic responses in natural plant populations are important in mediating abiotic adaptation, then the same may be true of crop plants. Few researchers, for instance, have entertained the possibility that resistance to abiotic change and disease resistance have a shared genetic basis. Put another way, the current strategy of improving crops via gene variants that may confer direct abiotic adaptation may undermine the future sustainability of crop yields, since this strategy does not take into account necessary adaptation to cope with an altered disease/ soil microbial environment.
Exploitation Route A) Academic routes to impact (via Dr Raj Whitlock)

A1) Existing results/ data must be published in the primary literature
A2) Planned collaborative PhD project with Peak Park Authority and Emorsgate Seeds to investigate the relevance of local (micro-climatic) adaptation for grassland restoration.
A3) Funding bid to investigate the consequences of evolutionary responses to climate change for ecosystem processes (NERC)
A4) Funding bid to investigate the role of plant/microbial co-evolution in mediating adaptation to the climate and plant productivity (BBSRC/ NERC)

N) Non-academic routes to impact (via Dr Raj Whitlock)

N1) Stakeholder meeting to facilitate knowledge exchange with conservation practitioner stakeholders, to be facilitated by NERC knowledge exchange fellow Katherine Allen
N2) Further experimental tours and associated outreach at Ness Botanic Gardens
N3) Additional outreach in local schools in Liverpool, following successful event at a primary school
N4) Local Café Scientifique presentation, Liverpool
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment

 
Description I have engaged with the general public in order to communicate project findings, and to provide information on the importance of grasslands, their ecology and conservation. Although not a direct economic output, such engagement fosters and enhances knowledge of the natural world and natural resources, builds an understanding of the environmental challenges that we face, and provides information on the scientific process and methods needed to meet these challenges. I have engaged with the public via tours of the experimental site at Ness Gardens, participating in the Gardeners' Question Time Summer Garden Party (2012, 2013), via an interview broadcast on Radio 4's Gardeners' Question Time, through publication in a local magazine run by the Friends of Ness Gardens, through a public seminar hosted at Ness Gardens, and through outreach activities in a local primary school.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Education,Environment
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Early Career Project Grant
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ECPG4011/4886 
Organisation British Ecological Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2012 
End 11/2013
 
Description NERC Industrial CASE Studentships July 2016
Amount £84,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P01058X/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description NERC Standard Grant
Amount £795,316 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/R011451/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 11/2021
 
Description NERC Standard Grant July 2016
Amount £629,507 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P013392/1; NE/P01335X/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2020
 
Description Buxton Climate Change Impacts Lab Steering Committee 
Organisation Lancaster University
Department Lancaster Environment Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I currently chair the Buxton Climate Change Impacts Lab Steering Committee, which oversees the running and scientific activities at the UK's longest-running scientific experiment, Buxton Cliamte Change Impacts Lab (BCCIL)
Collaborator Contribution Dr Emma Sayer (Lancaster), and Dr Karl Evans (Sheffield) contribute to the project by providing input and advice at steering committee meetings, leading to joint management of the BCCIL site.
Impact We secured further funding from the ECT and from NERC to carry out additional scientific investigation at BCCIL and to keep the climate manipulations at Buxton running for a further four years.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Buxton Climate Change Impacts Lab Steering Committee 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Department Department of Animal and Plant Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I currently chair the Buxton Climate Change Impacts Lab Steering Committee, which oversees the running and scientific activities at the UK's longest-running scientific experiment, Buxton Cliamte Change Impacts Lab (BCCIL)
Collaborator Contribution Dr Emma Sayer (Lancaster), and Dr Karl Evans (Sheffield) contribute to the project by providing input and advice at steering committee meetings, leading to joint management of the BCCIL site.
Impact We secured further funding from the ECT and from NERC to carry out additional scientific investigation at BCCIL and to keep the climate manipulations at Buxton running for a further four years.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Invasive species and climate change 
Organisation Purdue University
Department Department of Forestry and Natural Resources
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration involves: Cascade Sorte (University of California, Irvine) Regan Early (Exeter, UK) Amanda Bates (Southampton, UK) Bethany Bradley (University of Massachusetts) Montserrat Vilà (Seville) Jeffrey Diez (University of California, Riverside) Jeffrey Dukes (Purdue) Dana Blumenthal (USDA ARS Fort Collins) Jenica Allen (University of New Hapmshire) Jonathan Lenoir (Universite de Picardie) Jacquelyn Gill (University of Maine) This large collaboration involves several projects that aim to understand how the spread of invasive species may be enhanced or limited by climate change, and what the impacts of this will be on native ecosystems. My current contribution to one of the projects is in carrying out mixed model meta-analyses (statistical support).
Collaborator Contribution My partners within the meta-analysis project component of this collaboration have done literature searches and data extraction to prepare data for analysis.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Invasive species and climate change 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Department Agricultural Research Service
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This collaboration involves: Cascade Sorte (University of California, Irvine) Regan Early (Exeter, UK) Amanda Bates (Southampton, UK) Bethany Bradley (University of Massachusetts) Montserrat Vilà (Seville) Jeffrey Diez (University of California, Riverside) Jeffrey Dukes (Purdue) Dana Blumenthal (USDA ARS Fort Collins) Jenica Allen (University of New Hapmshire) Jonathan Lenoir (Universite de Picardie) Jacquelyn Gill (University of Maine) This large collaboration involves several projects that aim to understand how the spread of invasive species may be enhanced or limited by climate change, and what the impacts of this will be on native ecosystems. My current contribution to one of the projects is in carrying out mixed model meta-analyses (statistical support).
Collaborator Contribution My partners within the meta-analysis project component of this collaboration have done literature searches and data extraction to prepare data for analysis.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Invasive species and climate change 
Organisation University of California, Irvine
Department Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration involves: Cascade Sorte (University of California, Irvine) Regan Early (Exeter, UK) Amanda Bates (Southampton, UK) Bethany Bradley (University of Massachusetts) Montserrat Vilà (Seville) Jeffrey Diez (University of California, Riverside) Jeffrey Dukes (Purdue) Dana Blumenthal (USDA ARS Fort Collins) Jenica Allen (University of New Hapmshire) Jonathan Lenoir (Universite de Picardie) Jacquelyn Gill (University of Maine) This large collaboration involves several projects that aim to understand how the spread of invasive species may be enhanced or limited by climate change, and what the impacts of this will be on native ecosystems. My current contribution to one of the projects is in carrying out mixed model meta-analyses (statistical support).
Collaborator Contribution My partners within the meta-analysis project component of this collaboration have done literature searches and data extraction to prepare data for analysis.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Invasive species and climate change 
Organisation University of California, Riverside
Department Department of Botany & Plant Sciences
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration involves: Cascade Sorte (University of California, Irvine) Regan Early (Exeter, UK) Amanda Bates (Southampton, UK) Bethany Bradley (University of Massachusetts) Montserrat Vilà (Seville) Jeffrey Diez (University of California, Riverside) Jeffrey Dukes (Purdue) Dana Blumenthal (USDA ARS Fort Collins) Jenica Allen (University of New Hapmshire) Jonathan Lenoir (Universite de Picardie) Jacquelyn Gill (University of Maine) This large collaboration involves several projects that aim to understand how the spread of invasive species may be enhanced or limited by climate change, and what the impacts of this will be on native ecosystems. My current contribution to one of the projects is in carrying out mixed model meta-analyses (statistical support).
Collaborator Contribution My partners within the meta-analysis project component of this collaboration have done literature searches and data extraction to prepare data for analysis.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Invasive species and climate change 
Organisation University of Exeter
Department Biosciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration involves: Cascade Sorte (University of California, Irvine) Regan Early (Exeter, UK) Amanda Bates (Southampton, UK) Bethany Bradley (University of Massachusetts) Montserrat Vilà (Seville) Jeffrey Diez (University of California, Riverside) Jeffrey Dukes (Purdue) Dana Blumenthal (USDA ARS Fort Collins) Jenica Allen (University of New Hapmshire) Jonathan Lenoir (Universite de Picardie) Jacquelyn Gill (University of Maine) This large collaboration involves several projects that aim to understand how the spread of invasive species may be enhanced or limited by climate change, and what the impacts of this will be on native ecosystems. My current contribution to one of the projects is in carrying out mixed model meta-analyses (statistical support).
Collaborator Contribution My partners within the meta-analysis project component of this collaboration have done literature searches and data extraction to prepare data for analysis.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Invasive species and climate change 
Organisation University of Maine
Department School of Biology & Ecology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration involves: Cascade Sorte (University of California, Irvine) Regan Early (Exeter, UK) Amanda Bates (Southampton, UK) Bethany Bradley (University of Massachusetts) Montserrat Vilà (Seville) Jeffrey Diez (University of California, Riverside) Jeffrey Dukes (Purdue) Dana Blumenthal (USDA ARS Fort Collins) Jenica Allen (University of New Hapmshire) Jonathan Lenoir (Universite de Picardie) Jacquelyn Gill (University of Maine) This large collaboration involves several projects that aim to understand how the spread of invasive species may be enhanced or limited by climate change, and what the impacts of this will be on native ecosystems. My current contribution to one of the projects is in carrying out mixed model meta-analyses (statistical support).
Collaborator Contribution My partners within the meta-analysis project component of this collaboration have done literature searches and data extraction to prepare data for analysis.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Invasive species and climate change 
Organisation University of Massachusetts
Department Department of Environmental Conservation
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration involves: Cascade Sorte (University of California, Irvine) Regan Early (Exeter, UK) Amanda Bates (Southampton, UK) Bethany Bradley (University of Massachusetts) Montserrat Vilà (Seville) Jeffrey Diez (University of California, Riverside) Jeffrey Dukes (Purdue) Dana Blumenthal (USDA ARS Fort Collins) Jenica Allen (University of New Hapmshire) Jonathan Lenoir (Universite de Picardie) Jacquelyn Gill (University of Maine) This large collaboration involves several projects that aim to understand how the spread of invasive species may be enhanced or limited by climate change, and what the impacts of this will be on native ecosystems. My current contribution to one of the projects is in carrying out mixed model meta-analyses (statistical support).
Collaborator Contribution My partners within the meta-analysis project component of this collaboration have done literature searches and data extraction to prepare data for analysis.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Invasive species and climate change 
Organisation University of New Hampshire
Department College of Life Sciences and Agriculture
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration involves: Cascade Sorte (University of California, Irvine) Regan Early (Exeter, UK) Amanda Bates (Southampton, UK) Bethany Bradley (University of Massachusetts) Montserrat Vilà (Seville) Jeffrey Diez (University of California, Riverside) Jeffrey Dukes (Purdue) Dana Blumenthal (USDA ARS Fort Collins) Jenica Allen (University of New Hapmshire) Jonathan Lenoir (Universite de Picardie) Jacquelyn Gill (University of Maine) This large collaboration involves several projects that aim to understand how the spread of invasive species may be enhanced or limited by climate change, and what the impacts of this will be on native ecosystems. My current contribution to one of the projects is in carrying out mixed model meta-analyses (statistical support).
Collaborator Contribution My partners within the meta-analysis project component of this collaboration have done literature searches and data extraction to prepare data for analysis.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Invasive species and climate change 
Organisation University of Picardie Jules Verne
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration involves: Cascade Sorte (University of California, Irvine) Regan Early (Exeter, UK) Amanda Bates (Southampton, UK) Bethany Bradley (University of Massachusetts) Montserrat Vilà (Seville) Jeffrey Diez (University of California, Riverside) Jeffrey Dukes (Purdue) Dana Blumenthal (USDA ARS Fort Collins) Jenica Allen (University of New Hapmshire) Jonathan Lenoir (Universite de Picardie) Jacquelyn Gill (University of Maine) This large collaboration involves several projects that aim to understand how the spread of invasive species may be enhanced or limited by climate change, and what the impacts of this will be on native ecosystems. My current contribution to one of the projects is in carrying out mixed model meta-analyses (statistical support).
Collaborator Contribution My partners within the meta-analysis project component of this collaboration have done literature searches and data extraction to prepare data for analysis.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Invasive species and climate change 
Organisation University of Seville
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration involves: Cascade Sorte (University of California, Irvine) Regan Early (Exeter, UK) Amanda Bates (Southampton, UK) Bethany Bradley (University of Massachusetts) Montserrat Vilà (Seville) Jeffrey Diez (University of California, Riverside) Jeffrey Dukes (Purdue) Dana Blumenthal (USDA ARS Fort Collins) Jenica Allen (University of New Hapmshire) Jonathan Lenoir (Universite de Picardie) Jacquelyn Gill (University of Maine) This large collaboration involves several projects that aim to understand how the spread of invasive species may be enhanced or limited by climate change, and what the impacts of this will be on native ecosystems. My current contribution to one of the projects is in carrying out mixed model meta-analyses (statistical support).
Collaborator Contribution My partners within the meta-analysis project component of this collaboration have done literature searches and data extraction to prepare data for analysis.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Invasive species and climate change 
Organisation University of Southampton
Department Department of Geography and Environment
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration involves: Cascade Sorte (University of California, Irvine) Regan Early (Exeter, UK) Amanda Bates (Southampton, UK) Bethany Bradley (University of Massachusetts) Montserrat Vilà (Seville) Jeffrey Diez (University of California, Riverside) Jeffrey Dukes (Purdue) Dana Blumenthal (USDA ARS Fort Collins) Jenica Allen (University of New Hapmshire) Jonathan Lenoir (Universite de Picardie) Jacquelyn Gill (University of Maine) This large collaboration involves several projects that aim to understand how the spread of invasive species may be enhanced or limited by climate change, and what the impacts of this will be on native ecosystems. My current contribution to one of the projects is in carrying out mixed model meta-analyses (statistical support).
Collaborator Contribution My partners within the meta-analysis project component of this collaboration have done literature searches and data extraction to prepare data for analysis.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Plant-soil feedbacks under climatic and edaphic stress 
Organisation Emorsgate Seeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution In this collaboration we wish to investigate the consequences of plant-soil-plant feedbacks for plant fitness and community structure. We are particularly interested in the effects of soil nutrient status and moisture availability on ecological structure. We have successfully applied for a small N8 AgriFood Fund grant to support this work, and have developed links with Emorsgate Seeds to establish an agronomically relevant study system.
Collaborator Contribution Marina Semchenko has led grant applications; Emorsgate Seeds have offered to provide material from possible study species that they hold in seed cultivation.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Plant-soil feedbacks under climatic and edaphic stress 
Organisation University of Manchester
Department School of Earth and Environmental Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution In this collaboration we wish to investigate the consequences of plant-soil-plant feedbacks for plant fitness and community structure. We are particularly interested in the effects of soil nutrient status and moisture availability on ecological structure. We have successfully applied for a small N8 AgriFood Fund grant to support this work, and have developed links with Emorsgate Seeds to establish an agronomically relevant study system.
Collaborator Contribution Marina Semchenko has led grant applications; Emorsgate Seeds have offered to provide material from possible study species that they hold in seed cultivation.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Prof Honor C Prentice, Lund University, Sweden 
Organisation Lund University
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Drafting and contributing to joint grant proposals, commenting on manuscripts, knowledge exchange (methods and concepts).
Collaborator Contribution Drafting and contributing to joint grant proposals, commenting on manuscripts, knowledge exchange (methods and concepts).
Impact I won a British Ecological Society Early Career Project Grant (ECPG4011/4886; "Do geographically separated grassland plant populations share a common genetic response to selection by moisture stress?") to support work in collaboration with Prof Prentice.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Role of genetic diversity in determining grassland community structure under drought 
Organisation French National Institute of Agricultural Research
Department Poitou-Charentes Research Center
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I have collaborated with Dr Isabelle Litrico to investigate how genetic diversity within species from fertile grasslands alters grassland community structure. My role has been in guiding and carrying out data analyses. Together, we are discussing and refining possible mechanisms through which genetic diversity affects community structure.
Collaborator Contribution My partner at INRA has provided data from some of her experiments that have been run in Lusignan.
Impact No outputs as yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description Article in the Gentian Magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact No direct results of this activity.

No known impacts from this activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.nessgardens.org.uk/media/203658/GentianWinter2013_4LR.pdf
 
Description Broadcast interview on Radio 4's Gardeners' Question Time 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The broadcast lead to interest from friends, family, taught students and colleagues.

No known impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qp2f/episodes/guide
 
Description Health and Life Sciences Summer School, University of Liverpool 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The pupils showed a clear interest in the experiments that they ran with us, and asked questions.

No known impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Ness Family Science Fair for British Science Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The outreach activity involved a stall with model grassland communities in microcosms (for verbal demonstration and interaction), and an art area for drawing grassland plants and carrying out a wildflower crossword
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Primary School Outreach Activity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Interactive presentation given to a total of 87 pupils in two year groups (1, 2). The presentation was intended (i) to introduce pupils to life as a biologist (ii) to introduce environmental issues caused by/ faced by humans, including climate change and (iii) to motivate pupils to become scientists regardless of background and gender. As a result of this event the school booked a trip to Ness Botanic Gardens to follow up on some of the issues raised, and exand the pupils' learning about biology and environmental issues. I will be taking part in this second outreach activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Public seminar, Ness Botanic Gardens 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The talk was well received, and generated questions and discussion.

No measureable impact from this activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Tours of experiments at Ness Gardens 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The tours often stimulate interest in, and questions about, the research project, and grasslands and their ecology and conservation in general.

No known impact from this activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014