Synthesis and Integration of Global Air-Sea Gas and Particle Fluxes to Improve Models and Assessments of Future Climate and Pollution

Lead Research Organisation: University of East Anglia
Department Name: Environmental Sciences

Abstract

A large amount of work has taken place over a number of years to make measurements of chemicals and small particles, included land-derived dust, in both the global ocean and its overlying atmosphere. These chemicals and particles play important roles in determining the Earth's climate and the quality of the air we breathe. In addition, dust derived from the land surface is transported through the atmosphere and becomes distributed globally. Some of this land-derived dust deposits onto the oceans and provides a source of nutrients, particularly iron, which are vital to the livelihood of marine microscopic plants (plankton). We propose to work with the scientific community to bring such measurements together into large databases and to use them, along with the most up-to-date information on rates at which chemicals and particles exchange between the air and the sea, to make the best possible estimates of the amounts of materials exchanging between the ocean and the atmosphere. An improved understanding of the relative amounts of these compounds and particles and their exchange between the ocean and atmosphere will be particularly beneficial to scientists who are trying to model the Earth's climate and air quality. This information will also be useful for predicting future changes due to factors such as increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and its affect on ocean acidity, temperature and ocean mixing. The predictions from such models are important to policy makers in order to maximise the benefits and minimise the costs of mitigating and adapting to climate and other global changes.
 
Description Aerosol and Rain Chemistry Database - A compilation and analysis



We have developed an online repository of atmospheric aerosol and rain water chemistry data measured exclusively from ship-based platforms and from remote islands in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean is developed for the first time. With particular interest in trace metals and nutrients, the database currently hosts approximately 1400 aerosol and 90 rain data points dating back to 1975.



We have also performed some important statistical analysis on trace metals Aluminium (Al), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) data from the database. We have estimated Enrichment Factors (EF) of Fe and Mn relative to the crustal tracer Al, and we found that samples from the North Atlantic were significantly enriched relative to the Al.



Using the data we have also estimated instantaneous dry deposition flux of total-Fe (878 data points), soluble-Fe (380 data points) and NO3- as N (1200 data points) assuming a particle size of 5µm and using a deposition velocity (Vd) which depended on the wind speed at the location and time of sampling. Average total-Fe dry deposition flux was found to be highest (55.9x1012 g yr-1) in the North Atlantic with a strong east-west gradient in the 0-30 N latitude belt. For NO3 however, the average N dry deposition was highest (2190 x 109 g N yr-1) for the Indian Ocean samples. We suspect an influence of anthropogenic activities on the aerosol samples with high values of dry deposition fluxes, and this was indicated by the isentropic 5-day back trajectories calculated at 100, 1000 and 3000m using the NOAA HYSPLIT model.



Based on our recent research findings we have written a manuscript which we intend to submit to an International Journal very soon.
Exploitation Route The database could be of great value to climate modellers who could use the aerosol data information as an input to their biogeochemical models.Our research analysis on the aerosol data could also help marine experimentalists to consider important areas of sampling in future.
Sectors Aerospace/ Defence and Marine,Environment

URL http://www.bodc.ac.uk/solas_integration/implementation_products/group1/aerosol_rain/
 
Title Aerosol and rain chemistry database - Compilation 
Description An online repository of atmospheric aerosol and rain water chemistry data measured exclusively from ship-based platforms and from remote islands in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean is developed for the first time. With particular interest in trace metals and nutrients, the database currently hosts approximately 1400 aerosol and 90 rain data points dating back to 1975. The database is available for free online access using the link http://www.bodc.ac.uk/solas_integration/implementation_products/group1/aerosol_rain/ and we aim to keep this project active in future. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? No  
 
Description MEMENTO- Marine methane and nitrous oxide emissions from global ocean 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The MEMENTO database project is currently carried out in collaboration with Scientist Dr. Hermann Bange and his post-doctoral assistant Dr. Annette Knock, both based at IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany. This project focusses on collating marine methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from global oceans. To date we have assembled >100,000 N2O and >18,000 CH4 data points,and we aim to make this data publicly accessible using an online database as soon as possible. We have carried out a statistical checking procedure on the CH4 database using methodology mentioned in Bange et al., 2001. This procedure removed data points with very high concentratin values . We have then produced 12 monthly global maps of 1x1 degree resolution. Currently, we are in the process of converting the CH4 concentrations ( nmoles/Litre) to its equivalent dry mole fraction in air using equations from Wiesenburg and Guinasso (1979) and temperature and salinity values from the World Ocean Atlas Database. In future, we aim to extrapolate the CH4 dry mole fractions from individual sampling locations to global oceans using biogeochemical province data from Longhurst(1998) and determine their annual and monthly climatologies.
Start Year 2011