TRAFFIC POLLUTION AND HEALTH IN LONDON

Lead Research Organisation: King's College London
Department Name: Pharmaceutical Sciences

Abstract

While it has been recognised for some time that small particles from vehicle exhausts and other traffic related pollutants cause a range of health effects, policy within the UK and Europe has not directly targeted these. Emissions from vehicles and ambient air itself are regulated in terms of total particles, with no specific targeting of one component or another. While this is clearly prudent in that it potentially drives reductions in all types of particles, it is also inefficient as it is likely that some particles (or particle components) are more toxic than others. This project seeks to elucidate the more toxic components of the pollution mix in London, with particular emphasis on traffic generated particles. If successful this will inform a more focussed and more efficient policy process for regulating vehicle emissions and ambient air quality. As well as regulating vehicle emissions and ambient air, policy makers - particularly at local and regional government level-can influence air pollution impacts through traffic management and wider planning decisions. Here the project will provide better information on spatial and temporal exposures and their relation to adverse impacts of air quality. This dynamic exposure information will be a major step forward in assessing the scope for more focussed traffic and infrastructure planning and management in London, with possible applications elsewhere in the UK. Even though there is a substantial literature confirming the impact of traffic pollution on health there are still substantial gaps. There is very strong evidence that exposure to traffic pollution causes asthma exacerbations in children and reasonably strong evidence that it may cause other health effects including the onset of childhood asthma, non asthma respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function, total and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. In this project we will undertake a number of new investigations to examine the relationship between chronic exposure to traffic pollution and health. These will include studies of mothers in pregnancy right through to senior citizens. These innovative studies will include health outcomes rarely if ever available for investigation of air pollution effects (e.g. primary care data, child cardiovascular risk factors). The use of exposure metrics on a fine spatial scale that are in routine use for policy in London will enable exposure response relationships to be used for quantifying policy options in terms of health impact. Further this will enable us to evaluate the health impact of trends in exposure to traffic related air pollution, most specifically the Low Emission Zone for London (LEZ).

Publications

10 25 50
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Amato F (2014) Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions. in Journal of hazardous materials

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Atkinson RW (2016) Short-term associations between particle oxidative potential and daily mortality and hospital admissions in London. in International journal of hygiene and environmental health

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Atkinson RW (2016) Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK. in Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology

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Beevers SD (2013) Air pollution dispersion models for human exposure predictions in London. in Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology

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Beevers SD (2012) One way coupling of CMAQ and a road source dispersion model for fine scale air pollution predictions. in Atmospheric environment (Oxford, England : 1994)

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Canova C (2014) PM10 oxidative properties and asthma and COPD. in Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)

 
Title Camden Peoples Theatre Presents FOG EVERYWHERE 
Description In an urgent new production by Camden People's Theatre in collaboration with King's College London and students from Westminster Kingsway College, the critical condition and consequences of London's dirty air are explored onstage as the headliner of CPT's Shoot the Breeze festival. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The production was sold out for the full two week period and provided the general public with information about air pollution in a creative way. As stated in British Theatre Guide "These lively young people have mixed information, history, science, comedy and physical theatre to build up to a Grime music battle delivered with enormous enthusiasm". 
URL https://www.cptheatre.co.uk/production/fog-everywhere/
 
Title Clothes that highlight air pollution are coming to London 
Description The only reminder of the dirty air we breathe is usually just the black stuff that lines every commuter's nostrils, so it's easy to forget that those sputtering exhaust fumes kill up to 9,500 people per year in the capital. Imagine if there was a way to avoid the most heavily polluted areas of the city through the clothes you wear. This is the thinking behind Human Sensor, a high-tech fashion range designed by media artist and environmentalist Kasia Molga, in collaboration with Professor Frank Kelly and members of the Environmental Research Group at King's College London. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The project has received excellent press, TV and Radio coverage including The Guardian, BBC Northwest, The Washington Post, Nature.com and London Evening Standard. 
URL http://invisibledust.com/project/kasia-molgas-human-sensor-project/
 
Description Hourly measurements of kerbside traffic pollution in more detail than ever before from the Marylebone Road monitoring station. Almost half of traffic derived PM mass is now from non-exhaust sources i.e. brake, tire and road wear. Daily determinations of PM2.5 and PM10 oxidative potential (both ascorbate and glutathione dependent) on Partisol filters collected from North Kensington, Jan 2011-Dec 2012 have been achieved.
A hybrid exposure model has been produced which allows each section of an individual's travel journey to be assigned its own particular exposure. Adding together these individual exposures provides a more accurate estimation of an individual's actual exposure while travelling.
Noise exposure modelling completed for London postcodes which includes estimates of road traffic noise and total noise (roads, railways, aircraft).
Extended analyses have now been undertaken examining the cross-sectional associations between individual air pollutants measured at both home and school addresses and spirometric lung function, in all 4932 London study participants aged 9-10 years.
We have investigated the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes in Greater London. The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth
Exploitation Route Data will be of benefit to the Committee on the Medical Effects of Air pollution (COMEAP) and the Health Effects Institute (HEI) who are updating their 2010 report on the Health Impacts of traffic.
Sectors Environment,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Transport

URL http://www.kcl.ac.uk/lsm/research/divisions/aes/research/ERG/research-projects/traffic/index.aspx
 
Description Air quality is a complex subject and research funded under the TRAFFIC study is examining the composition and dynamical factors affecting the impact of traffic on the health of those living and working in London. This research is informing a more focused and efficient policy process for regulating vehicle types, flows and emissions in urban areas and thereby improve the health of the nation. Research undertaken in the TRAFFIC study is illustrated through (a) air quality models for London, (b) overviews of the London Air Quality Network (LAQN; (c) development of personal monitoring equipment (d) impact of air pollution across the human lifespan. Research undertaken in the TRAFFIC project has improved understanding of patterns of human exposure to traffic and developed models with which to evaluate the exposure implications of urban transport and land use policies. The evidence for adverse health effects of traffic pollution is not coherent and there is an incomplete understanding of the relative roles of air pollution and noise that are associated with living near a busy road. The TRAFFIC project has advanced this understanding by co-analysis of each hazard. Exposure response relationships specific to traffic sources have been sought with which to evaluate the health impacts of traffic and transport policies.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Environment,Transport
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Air Quality Task Group - Westminster City Council
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description COMEAP member (2009 - 2011), chair (2012 - date)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Improved accessibility of public services, improved educational and skill level of workforce and effective solutions to societal problems
 
Description GfG2 Board of Experts
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Improved accessibility of public services, Improved regulatory environment and effective solutions to societal problems
 
Description Healthy Air Campaign - advisor (Environmental Protection UK)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Improved accessibility of public services, improved educational and skill level of workforce and effective solutions to societal problems
 
Description House of Commons - Joint Air Quality Select Committee Inquiry
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Input to EU REVIHAAP project - Evidence on health aspects of air pollution to review EU policies
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
Impact Membership of the Scientific Advisory Committee for REVIHAAP
URL http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/environment-and-health/air-quality/publications/2013/review...
 
Description Life Study Scientific Steering Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Improved accessibility of public services, improved educational and skill level of workforce and effective solutions to societal problems
 
Description MRC - Molecular & Cellular Medicine Research Board
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Improved accessibility of public services, improved educational and skill level of workforce and effective solutions to societal problems.
 
Description MRC High Throughput Science Initiative
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Improved accessibility of public services, Improved educational and skill level of workforce and effective solutions to societal problems
 
Description Member of REVIHAAP Scientific Advisory Committee
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact The advice will be grounded on a review of the latest scientific evidence on the health effects of all pollutants regulated in the Directives 2008/50/EC and 2004/107/EC.
 
Description Member of WHO Air Pollution Advisory Board on PM, O3 and N02
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Improved accesibility of public services, improved educational and skill level of workforce and effective solutions to societal problems.
 
Description Members of REVIHAAP
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Advanced understanding on the impacts of poor air quality of citizens health.
URL http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/environment-and-health/air-quality/publications/2013/review...
 
Description NERC Strategy Panel
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Improved accessibility of public services, improved educational and skill level of workforce and effective solutions to societal problems
 
Description NRCG - Nanotechnology Research Coordination Group Task Force
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Improved educational and skill level of workforce, improved accessibility of public services and effective scolutions to societal problems.
 
Description Westminster City Council - Thought Leadership Roundtable on Air Quality
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description ClearfLo: Clean Air for London
Amount £878,568 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/H003231/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2010 
End 12/2014
 
Description DEMiSt - The Diesel Exposure Mitigation Study
Amount £145,832 (GBP)
Funding ID IP-45804-2 
Organisation Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2019
 
Description Delivering a Pilot Study for Researching Personal Air Quality Exposure
Amount £98,600 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 05/2018
 
Description Equipment Grant - Advanced UK Observing Network For Air Quality, Public Heath and Greenhouse Gas Research
Amount £4,296,371 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/R011532/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 08/2022
 
Description Health1UP2 - Differentiated health impacts of primary and secondary ultrafine particles
Amount € 183,455 (EUR)
Funding ID 747882 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description Impact of air pollution on mental illness in early adulthood: Feasibility study combining UK twin cohort data with modelled air pollution exposure
Amount £74,711 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P010687/1 
Organisation National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Description New methods for quantifying sources of black carbon
Amount £23,167 (GBP)
Funding ID 420898 EP/M50743X/1 
Organisation NPL Management Ltd 
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description Pilot study to measure non-exhaust particulate matter emissions from road traffic
Amount £39,070 (GBP)
Funding ID AQ0735 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2014 
End 07/2015
 
Description Service contract for Improved Tools for Assessing NO2 Exposure
Amount € 50,090 (EUR)
Funding ID 070201/2015/SER/717473/C.3 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 11/2015 
End 11/2017
 
Description Short and Long Term DTL Research Project
Amount £342,316 (GBP)
Organisation Drayson Technologies Limited 
Start 06/2015 
End 06/2017
 
Description Strategic Environmental Capital Call
Amount £300,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2015
 
Description The London Metallomics Facility
Amount £390,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 202902/Z/16/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 12/2021
 
Title Air pollution concentrations for NOX, NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5 
Description The air pollution data represents monthly averages at post code and address level for the Greater London Area between 2003 and 2010 It includes exhaust and non-exhaust PM10/2.5 predictions as well as total PM10/2.5 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A large number of air pollution and epidemiology research papers are planned based around these data. 
 
Title London Hybrid Exposure Data 
Description Summary of air pollution exposure estimates to NO2 and PM2.5 - calculated from 45,000 London Transport Demand Survey respondents 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Smith J.D., Mitsakou C., Kitwiroon N., Barratt B.M., Walton H.A., Taylor J.G., Anderson H.R., Kelly F.J., Beevers S.D. 2016 London Hybrid Exposure Model: Improving Human Exposure Estimates to NO2 and PM2.5 in an Urban Setting. ES&T vol 50 issue 21. 
URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27706935
 
Description 2012 Annual UK Review Meeting on Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution Research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented initial results of the CMAQ-urban model outputs

Discussion with Public Health England about results
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description 2018 Annual UK Review Meeting on outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution Research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly chaired the session of "Emerging research needs"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 21st Annual ISES Conference 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Descried the initial model developments in the Traffic project

Contact with US Environmental Protection Agency
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 7th Innovation Academy Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in the 7th Innovation Academy Symposium and gave a talk titled "Air Pollution and Public Health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk" in Dec 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 8th UK and Ireland Occupational & Environmental Epidemiology Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Combined talk and poster presentation - sparked questions and discussion

interest from Wellcome Trust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Air Quality & Health Workshop - Vancouver 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in the "Air Quality & Health Workshop" in Vancouver and gave a talk titled "London congestion charge and low emission zone" in March 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Air Quality Roundtable 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly invite you to a roundtable on air quality the aim of the meeting will be to explore the key scientific and analytical challenges in improving air quality
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Air pollution causes jump in dementia risk, study suggests (Web) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly, told the Guardian about the study of Air pollution may increase the chance of developing dementia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/sep/18/air-pollution-causes-jump-in-dementia-risk-study...
 
Description Article in The Sunday Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Ian Mudway contributed to an article in The Sunday Times titled "Pollution stunts children's lungs".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/cleanaircampaign/article1624208.ece
 
Description BBC Panorama programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly participated in a BBC Panorama programme titled "The VW Emissions Scandal".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b06q6nh2/panorama-the-vw-emissions-scandal
 
Description BBC Radio 4 interview - 4 You and Yours 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly was interviewed for a feature on the benefits of wearing anti-pollution masks in order to prevent respiratory illness.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BBC Sunday Politics Programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Gary Fuller contributed to a BBC Sunday Politics programme, demonstrating how air pollution is measured.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bloomberg meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Gave a presentation at a meeting with representatives from Bloomberg titled "Air Pollution and Public Health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk" in May 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Brentford Air Quality Public Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a presentation titled "Air Quality & Health" at the Brentford Air Quality public meeting, Feb 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description British Thoracic Society Winter meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in the British Thoracic Society Winter 2017 meeting and gave a talk titled "Air Pollution - the lungs and beyond" in Dec 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Clean Air Research and Innovation Roundtable meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly partecipate at the Clean Air Research and Innovation Roundtable meeting to identify the types of research, innovation and technology development that could potentially deliver a step change forward within these research areas and improve future capability; and to understand current strategies and activities being undertaken by stakeholders to tackle air quality issues on longer timescales.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Client Earth - Clean Air panel event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in a Client Earth Clean Air panel event and gave a talk titled "The impact of air pollution on human health" in March 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Camden People's Theatre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In an urgent new production by Camden People's Theatre in collaboration with King's College Lung Biology Group and students from Westminster Kingsway College, the critical condition and consequences of London's dirty air are explored onstage as the headliner of CPT's Shoot the Breeze festival.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.broadwayworld.com/uk-regional/article/Camden-Peoples-Theatre-Presents-FOG-EVERYWHERE-201...
 
Description Comments for BBC News article 'Boris Johnson announces plans for Ultra Low Emission Zone' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Comments for BBC News article 'Boris Johnson announces plans

for Ultra Low Emission Zone'

Increase in public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Comments for BBC News article 'Great Smog 60 years on: 'New laws needed to clean London's air'' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Comments for BBC News article 'Great Smog 60 years on: 'New laws needed to clean London's air''

Increasing public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Comments for English News China article 'London's air pollution history, policies have lessons for Beijing' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Comments for English News China article 'London's air

pollution history, policies have lessons for Beijing'

Increase in public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge internationally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Comments for LBC Radio 97.3 about children and air pollution at School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Comments for LBC Radio 97.3 about children and air pollution at School

Increase in public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge internationally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Comments for The Sunday Times - 'Des res boroughs suffer worst pollution deaths' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Comments for The Sunday Times - 'Des res boroughs suffer worst pollution deaths'

Increase in public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference on Air pollution and its impact on health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly was invited in Paris to participate at the "Air pollution and its impact on health" debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2018
 
Description Contributed to BBC Inside Health programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to a BBC Radio 4 Inside Health programme on pollution in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b06d2lzw
 
Description Contributed to BBC News article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to a BBC News article titled "Diesels more polluting below 18C, research suggests".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-36589106
 
Description Contributed to BBC World News article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to a BBC World News article titled "Air Pollution"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Contributed to BBC World Service Health Check programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to a BBC World Service Health Check radio programme titled "Living in Cities"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Contributed to BMJ article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Comments made by Dr Ian Mudway at a Commons inquiry in 2014 contributed to an article in the BMJ titled "Air pollution in UK: the public health problem that won't go away".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h2757
 
Description Contributed to CNN article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to a CNN online article titled "Can London mayor's car ban solve pollution crisis?".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://edition.cnn.com/2016/09/12/world/sadiq-khan-london-pollution/index.html
 
Description Contributed to Evening Standard article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly was interviewed for an Evening Standard Article titled "Putney High Street breached air pollution limits 1,000 times this year".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/putney-high-street-breached-air-pollution-limits-1000-times-th...
 
Description Contributed to Evening Standard article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly was interviewed for an article titled "Parents warned over taking babies outside in London as air pollution levels soar".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.standard.co.uk/news/health/parents-warned-over-taking-babies-outside-in-london-as-air-pol...
 
Description Contributed to ITV Tonight programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly appeared on ITV Tonight programme that investigated why level of pollution are so high and what's being done to protect the nation's health from the air we breathe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.itv.com/news/2015-05-19/tonight-the-air-we-breathe/
 
Description Contributed to Mail Online article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to a Mail Online article titled "Enough to make you choke! First we were bribed to buy diesel cars. Now they want to tax us for doing so. One furious driver says the latest price hike is an outrage"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3632355/First-bribed-buy-diesel-cars-want-tax-us.html
 
Description Contributed to MailOnline article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the MailOnline titled "How diesel fumes give city dwellers old people's skin: Particles from engines make skin come out in blotches".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3158686/How-diesel-fumes-city-dwellers-old-people-s-skin-P...
 
Description Contributed to MailOnline article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Research from a study published in a paper titled "Circulating Levels of Antioxidant Vitamins Correlate with Better Lung Function and Reduced Exposure to Ambient Pollution" contributed to a MailOnline article titled "Can avocados cut the health risk of smog? Fruit's high levels of vitamin E may help to protect lungs from tiny particles".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3082493/Avacado-s-high-levels-vitamin-E-help-protect-lungs...
 
Description Contributed to New Scientist article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Kelly contributed to an article on air pollution and health titled "Pollution nanoparticles may enter your blood and cause disease" in New Scientist.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.newscientist.com/article/2128923-pollution-nanoparticles-may-enter-your-blood-and-cause-...
 
Description Contributed to a BBC Inside Out South East programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly contributed to a BBC Inside Out South East programme looking at the impact of air pollution at the Dartford Crossing on the health of people living nearby.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08h4kx7
 
Description Contributed to a BBC News article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly was interviewed for a BBC News article titled "Monkeys? Humans? The ethics of testing diesel fumes".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-42872983
 
Description Contributed to a BBC News article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly and Drs Gary Fuller and Ian Mudway contributed to a BBC News article titled "The health Implications of the diesel scandal".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-34411366
 
Description Contributed to a BBC World New article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly was interviewed for a BBC World News article titled "German shock at car exhaust tests on humans and monkeys".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-42858668
 
Description Contributed to an article in BBC News Science and Environment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly was interviewed for a BBC News Science and Environment article titled "Scrutiny over wood and coal fires in UK homes".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-42873645
 
Description Contributed to an article in the Evening Standard 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly was quoted in an article in the Evening Standard titled "The European cities leading the way in car-free living in a bid to tackle toxic air pollution".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://hieh.hpru.nihr.ac.uk/media/european-cities-leading-way-car-free-living-bid-tackle-toxic-air-p...
 
Description Contributed to an article in the Evening Standard 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly was interviewed by the Evening Standard for an article titled "London's low-emission bus zones hailed for 'improving toxic air levels overnight".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/londons-lowemission-bus-zones-praised-for-leading-to-overnigh...
 
Description Contributed to an article in the Huffington Post 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly was interviewed by The Huffington Post for an article titled "Air Pollution Exposed: Why You Might Be Breathing In Tire Waste".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://hieh.hpru.nihr.ac.uk/media/air-pollution-exposed-why-you-might-be-breathing-tire-waste
 
Description Contributed to an article in the Independent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly was interviewed for an article in the Independent titled "Radical solutions to the air pollution crisis from around the world".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/air-pollution-solutions-crisis-radical-world-london-uk-beij...
 
Description Contributed to an article in the Independent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly contributed to an article in the Independent on air pollution titled "Deadly air pollution can get into the bloodstream, 'smoking gun' study suggests".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/air-pollution-enter-bloodstream-deadly-smoking-gun-study-e...
 
Description Contributed to an article in the Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly contributed to an article in the Times that reports on a study undertaken by Scientists at Harvard University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/safe-level-of-air-pollution-kills-thousands-every-year-2xpj9rz9v
 
Description Contributed to an episode of "Trust me I'm a Doctor" for BBC Two 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly contributed to an episode of "Trust me I'm a Doctor" for BBC Two titled "Should I worry about air pollution?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/3mXHDs31VgMfhdlhDngnBdN/should-i-worry-about-air-pollution
 
Description Contributed to article for BBC News Online 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contributed to BBC News Online article titled "Amazing views and dirty air in French Alps".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-39115829
 
Description Contributed to article for Financial Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to Financial Times article titled "Healthcare clean up of urban environment means tackling pollution at source".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.ft.com/content/25558b40-9a05-11e6-8f9b-70e3cabccfae
 
Description Contributed to article in El Mundo 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly contributed to an article in El Mundo about "Pollution in Spain".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.elmundo.es/salud/2016/01/24/56a3829022601df1608b4671.html
 
Description Contributed to article in Mail Online 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to a Mail Online article titled "Why walking by a main road is as bad for you as smoking. And beware of your air freshener, too!"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3459266/Why-walking-main-road-bad-smoking-beware-air-fresh...
 
Description Contributed to article in New Scientist 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly is quoted in an article about pollution in European cities in New Scientist titled "Paris says 'non' to diesel in anti-pollution push".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn26678-paris-says-non-to-diesel-in-anti-pollution-push/#.VIgXN...
 
Description Contributed to article in New Scientist online 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the New Scientist online titled "London's low-emission zone fails to improve air quality".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22730363-900-londons-low-emission-zone-fails-to-improve-air-q...
 
Description Contributed to article in the Evening Standard 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the Evening Standard titled "Do pollution masks really work? How cyclists are trying to filter out the filth".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Contributed to article in the Evening Standard 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the Evening Standard titled "Sadiq Khan plans new 'T charge' for polluting cars that spew toxic fumes.
New Mayor Mr Khan announces first major plan to clean up London's filthy air".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/sadiq-khan-plans-new-t-charge-for-vehicles-that-spew-toxic-fum...
 
Description Contributed to article in the Evening Standard 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly contributed to an article in the Evening Standard titled "Killer pollution in city hits top 'black' alert level.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/killer-pollution-in-city-hits-top-black-alert-level-a3160716.h...
 
Description Contributed to article in the Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article for the guardian titled "Air pollution linked to increased mental illness in children".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/jun/13/air-pollution-linked-to-increased-mental-illness...
 
Description Contributed to article in the Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the guardian titled "Will real-world emissions tests clean up diesel cars?"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/apr/22/will-real-world-emissions-tests-clean-up-diesel-...
 
Description Contributed to article in the Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly and Dr Ian Mudway contribute to an article in the Guardian titled "All choked up: did Britain's dirty air make me dangerously ill?"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.theguardian.com/global/2015/jun/20/britain-london-pollution-air-quality-health
 
Description Contributed to article in the Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the Guardian titled "The costly gridlock: How can we keep our cities moving?".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2016/oct/31/improving-transport-systems-electric-ca...
 
Description Contributed to article in the Independent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the Independent titled "Labour's drive towards diesel cars causing 'massive public health problem,' admits shadow Environment Minister".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/motoring/motoring-news/labours-drive-towards-diesel-cars-cau...
 
Description Contributed to article in the Independent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the Independent titled "Scientist warns we could be breathing in microplastic particles laden with chemicals"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/microplastic-microbeads-microfibres-pollution-environment-...
 
Description Contributed to article in the Independent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly contributed to an article titled "Air pollution, our new public health scandal, and what the Government could do to tackle it", published in the Independent.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/air-pollutionair-pollution-cars-nitrogen-dioxide-poison-fum...
 
Description Contributed to article in the Sunday Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the Sunday Times titled "Windows that do not open - the future in toxic UK".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/Health/article1641677.ece
 
Description Contributed to article in the Sunday Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the Sunday Times titled "Diesel fumes poison babies in the womb".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/Health/article1682266.ece
 
Description Contributed to creation of 'Human Sensor' high tech fashion range 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly provided expert advice to media artist Kasia Molga for a project to design wearable costumes that collect data on the quality of air the wearer is breathing and change colour to show the levels of PM2.5. Molga aims to use the costumes to increase awareness of the quality of the air we breathe and how it affects our bodies and our health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.timeout.com/london/blog/clothes-that-highlight-air-pollution-are-coming-to-london-080116
 
Description Contribution to MailOnline article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed comments to a MailOnline article titled "Should you only use the back rings of your cooker? The clever tricks experts say can save you from toxic air pollution".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3300905/Should-use-rings-cooker-clever-tricks-experts-say-...
 
Description Contribution to Sunday Times article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the Sunday Times titled "WIndows that do not open - the future in toxic UK".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/Health/article1641677.ece
 
Description Contribution to article in The Observer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed comments related to air poullution in London to an article in The Observer titled "Sadiq Khan: You make sure you can defend yourself".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/nov/08/sadiq-khan-london-mayor-fight-defend-yourself
 
Description Contribution to article in the Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Gary Fuller contributed to an article in the Guardian titled "Where is the world's most polluted city?".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/dec/02/where-world-most-polluted-city-air-pollution
 
Description Contribution to article in the Sunday Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly contributed to an article in the Sunday Times titled "3,000 schools face threat of toxic diesel".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/Health/article1618132.ece
 
Description Contribution to the Economic Times of India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Gary Fuller contributed to an article on air pollution in London in the Economic Times of India titled "As diesel vehicles add to pollution levels, London struggles on air quality".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/as-diesel-vehicles-add-to-pollutio...
 
Description Dementia threat soars in areas hit by pollution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly said that while results were not conclusive "it is increasingly appreciated that the impacts of air pollution on health are seen far beyond the lungs".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Department of Health Science Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in a Department of Health Science Seminar and gave a talk titled "Air Pollution and Public Health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk" in March 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion on air pollution, traffic and health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Over 150 members of the local community turned out to hear Professor Frank Kelly, Caroline Russell AM and Ruth Cadbury MP discuss the serious impact traffic has on air quality and health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.brentfordtw8.com/default.asp?section=info&page=airquality007.htm
 
Description Dispersion Modellers Users Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented preliminary details of our new hybrid exposure model

I have been invited to talk this year on the same subject
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Dr Mudway and Dr Grieve discuss their latest research at Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Ian Mudway and Dr Andrew Grieve spoke at the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology event, The Science of Health and Wellbeing, at the House of Commons on 4th June 2013. Dr Mudway and Dr Grieve spoke to Members of Parliament about air quality in London and the UK. The stand focused on the movement of people around cities during rush hour which is often a time when pollution levels are highest increasing the exposure of the commuting population.

Increasing awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Dr Mudway comments on new Thames Tunnel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Mudway comments on new Thames Tunnel

Increase in public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Environment Trust 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participate at the Environment Trust Conference and gave a talk titled "Air Quality and Health"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Expert witness at Environmental Audit Committee meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly acted as an expert witness at a meeting of the Environmental Audit Committee looking at the environmental risks of microplastics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Global Clean Air Summit - Poland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in the Global Clean Air Summit in Poland and gave a talk titled "Mechanisms of PM Toxicity and the role of PAHs" in Nov 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Green Party Group - Air Pollution event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Participated in a Green Party Group Air Pollution event and gave a talk titled "Air Quality and Health" in March 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Harmo16 modelling conference, Varna, Bulgaria. 8-11 Sept 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact lots of questions after talk and mentioned in other talks

none as yet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Heart & Lung Health Fest 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in the "Heart & Lung Health Fest 2017" in Vancouver and presented a talk titled "Following in David's footsteps: From London to Vancouver and back to London" in March 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Helmholtz Center Munich - Scientific Evaluation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly participate in a scientific review panel for the scientifc evaluation of the Helmholtz Zentrum München in the Research Field Health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description How UK cleaned its air, and what Delhi can learn 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly was quoted in the Times of India, in relation to Delhi's pollution levels.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/how-uk-cleaned-its-air-and-what-delhi-can-learn/artic...
 
Description Interview about London air pollution in La Croix newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview about London air pollution in La Croix newspaper

Increase in public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Interview for BBC World News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for BBC World News

Increase in public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge internationally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Interview for BBC World Service programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview with Professor Kelly is included in a BBC World Service programme on "Electric Cars".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/w3csvpnz
 
Description Interview for Channel 4 Dispatches programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly interviewed for Channel 4 Dispatches programme titled "The great car con".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview for article in South China Morning Post 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly interviewed for article in South China Morning Post titled "Air pollution slows growth of children's lungs, says UK study" Following the release of a six-year study indicating that children exposed to nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter have slower lung growth, medical experts are calling for more action to clean the UK's air

Increase in requests for further information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Interviewed on BBC Today programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly was interviewed on the BBC Today programme about a member of the public citing estimates by Professor Kelly that diesel engines could be responsible for a quarter of the 29,000 premature deaths in Britain attributed to air pollution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description It's time for all of us to clear up 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly comments revealed that we are now all breathing in microscopic particles of plastic, with no idea of what they may be doing to us..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6634065/Jeremy-Paxman-time-clear-dustbin-Britain.html
 
Description Letter submitted to the Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly wrote a letter to the Times titled "Diesel particles, air quality and public health" on the UK government's plans to publish data on air pollution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/diesel-particles-air-quality-and-public-health-3jjc3zdnv
 
Description London Living Streets, Urban Design Group conference on EV and the public realm 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly give a talk about about the impact of electric vehicles on air quality
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description London Scrutiny Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly presented a talk of "Scrutiny and overview of the impact of air pollution on Londoners' health: an update" followed by Q and A at the London Scrutiny Network
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participate at the Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society and gave a talk titled "Air Pollution and Public Health: contribution of the transport sector"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Natural Environment Research Council - Planet Earth podcast - London's air pollution from the BT Tower 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In the Planet Earth weekly podcast Professor Frank Kelly describes the link between traffic, pollution and disease.

Increase in public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description PLuS ALLIANCE Informed Urbanisation Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in a PLuS ALLIANCE Informed Urbanisation Workshop and gave a talk titled "The London Hybrid exposure model"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Partnership with Mayor of London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Leading the Environmental Research Group partnership with the Office of the The Mayor of London which will improve the way the public are informed about incidents of poor air quality in the capital.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://hieh.hpru.nihr.ac.uk/news/kings-researchers-working-mayor-london-improve-pollution-forecastin...
 
Description Pollutionwatch article by Dr Gary Fuller in the Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article by Dr Gary Fuller titled "The deadly toll of city smog".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/feb/07/smog-diesel-exhaust-particles-traffic-health-warn...
 
Description Pollutionwatch article by Dr Gary Fuller in the Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article by Dr Gary Fuller titled "Climate, health and opportunity".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/dec/13/climate-summit-paris-air-pollution-health
 
Description Pollutionwatch article by Drs Gary Fuller and Heather Walton in the Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Drs Gary Fuller and Heather Walton wrote a Pollutionwatch article in the Guardian titled "Beware the air we breathe".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/aug/09/pollutionwatch-nitrogen-dioxide-traffic-health-li...
 
Description Presentation at 2017 New Scientist Live 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly presented a talk titled "The Fight for Breathable Air" at the New Scientist Live 2017 event at the ExCel Centre, London, a festival of 4 days of exciting talks, exhibitions and competitions, 28th Sept - 1st October.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.excel.london/visitor/whats-on/new-scientist-live
 
Description Presentation at the Foundation for Science & Technology event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Kelly presented at the Foundation for Science & Technology event titled "What needs to be done to meet urban air quality targets and what are the consequences if the targets are not met?" held at the Royal Geographical Society on 26th April 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.foundation.org.uk/Events/AudioPdf.aspx?s=1482&f=20170426_Kelly.pdf
 
Description Prof Kelly quoted in International Business Times article - 'London's Rich are Killing Themselves with Pollution' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prof Kelly quoted in International Business Times article - 'London's Rich are Killing Themselves with Pollution'

Increase in public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge internationally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Professor Frank Kelly interviewed for BBC World News programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly interviewed for BBC World News.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Professor Frank Kelly named one of London's most influential people 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly included in the Evening Standard Progress 1000: London;s most influential people 2016 - Eco Warriors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.kcl.ac.uk/lsm/newsevents/newsrecords/2016/sep/Faculty-staff,-student-and-alumnus-all-name...
 
Description Professor Kelly contributes to article in the Evening Standard 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview about London air pollution levels in the Evening Standard.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/killer-pollution-in-city-hits-top-black-alert-level-a3160716.h...
 
Description Quoted in a BBC News article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly is quoted in a BBC news article that looks at the claim made by the Chinese government that Beijing's air quality improved sharply in the winter of 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-42513531
 
Description Quoted in an article in New Scientist 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Kelly is quoted in an article in New Scientist titled "China's dreadful air pollution seems to have got a bit better".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.newscientist.com/article/chinas-dreadful-air-pollution-seems-got-bit-better/
 
Description Quoted in an article in the Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly is quoted in an article in the guardian titled "Green cabs: is London ready for electric taxis?".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://hieh.hpru.nihr.ac.uk/media/green-cabs-london-ready-electric-taxis
 
Description Quoted in an article in the Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly was quoted in an article in The Times that reports that thousands of drivers break the law everyday by driving diesel cars without pollution filters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/thousands-of-diesel-drivers-rip-outfilters-m0n3vbf60
 
Description Quoted in article in the Evening Standard 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly is quoted in an article in the Evening Standard that looks at the number of sites that breached EU limits in 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/pollution-breached-eu-limits-at-nearly-50-sites-in-london-las...
 
Description RAC Foundation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participate at the RAC Foundation and gave a talk titled "Air Pollution and Public Health: An update"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Research contributes to Dyson's plans for new battery electric vehicle 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Research at King's College London was quoted in a news release by Dyson advising staff that Dyson has begun work on a battery electric vehicle, due to be launched by 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://hieh.hpru.nihr.ac.uk/news/dyson-begins-work-battery-electric-vehicle
 
Description Royal College of Physicians' roundtable 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly gave his contribution to the discussion about policy interventions should the government prioritise to tackle air pollution in order to achieve maximum health benefits, and what actions can health professionals take to tackle air pollution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Royal Geographical Society 21st Century Challenges Series - The impact of atmospheric pollution on human health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Increase in requests for further information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.21stcenturychallenges.org/challenges/air-quality/media-gallery/video/professor-frank-kell...
 
Description Royal Geographical Society Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a presentation titled "London's Air Quality: still challenging in the 21st century" at the Royal Geographical Society in May 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description School children exposed to 30% more toxic pollution than adults while walking to school 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly is quoted in the article titled "School chilrdren exposed to 30% more toxic pollution than adults while walking to school", published on the Open Access Government website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.openaccessgovernment.org/school-children-exposed-to-30-more-toxic-pollution-than-adults-...
 
Description Scientists confirm for the first time that air pollution causes heart disease and stroke 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly is quoted in an i News article titled Scientists confirm for the first time that air pollution causes heart disease and stroke.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://inews.co.uk/news/health/scientists-confirm-for-the-first-time-that-air-pollution-causes-hear...
 
Description Television interview for China Central Television (CCTV) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Television interview for China Central Television (CCTV)

Increase in public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge internationally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The MRC Science Festival - The Life Game 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Ian Mudway took part in the MRC Science Festival 'The Life Game' , an MRC Century event, at the Science Museum, London.

Increase in public awareness and understanding of the air quality challenge in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The Progress 1000: London's most influential people 2017 - Social Pillars: Environment 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly was included in the "Social Pillars: Environment" section of The 2017 Progress 1000 list of "London's most influential people".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.standard.co.uk/news/the1000/the-progress-1000-londons-most-influential-people-2017-socia...
 
Description The Whitehall & Industry Group - Collaborative approaches to tackling air pollution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Gave a talk titled "Collaborative approaches to tackling air pollution" to The Whitehall and Industry Group in Nov 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The road to clean air: how fighting pollution turned political 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly was interviewed for a three part series on air pollution in the Evening Standard. The second article is titled The road to clean air: how fighting pollution turned political.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Transcampus Dresden-London - The Green City event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in a Transcampus Green City event (Dresden-London) and gave a talk titled "London's Air Quality: still challenging in the 21st century" in May 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description US-UK meeting Hertfordshire meeting US Environmental Protection Agency 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact much discussion after the talk

none as yet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Wood burners add to air pollution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Frank Kelly commented on the impact of wood burners on air pollution for the Times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/wood-burners-add-to-air-pollution-6ch8hlhr7
 
Description Wrote an article in The Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kelly wrote an article in the guardian explaining why the government's new strategy to tackle air pollution does not go far enough in recognising fewer vehicles, not just cleaner ones, are the answer.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/aug/04/london-should-lead-in-showing-electric-cars-will...