Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa: Ecosystems, livestock/wildlife, health and wellbeing

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Scienc

Abstract

Health is a critical aspect of human wellbeing, interacting with material and social relations to contribute to people's freedoms and choices. Especially in Africa, clusters of health and disease problems disproportionately affect poor people. Healthy ecosystems and healthy people go together, yet the precise relationships between these remain poorly understood. The Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium will provide a new theoretical conceptualisation, integrated systems analysis and evidence base around ecosystem-health-wellbeing interactions, linked to predictive models and scenarios, tools and methods, pathways to impact and capacity-building activities geared to operationalising a 'One Health' agenda in African settings.

Ecosystems may improve human wellbeing through provisioning and disease regulating services; yet they can also generate ecosystem 'disservices' such as acting as a reservoir for new 'emerging' infectious disease from wildlife. Indeed 60% of emerging infectious diseases affecting humans originate from animals, both domestic and wild. These zoonoses have a huge potential impact on human societies across the world, affecting both current and future generations. Understanding the ecological, social and economic conditions for disease emergence and transmission represents one of the major challenges for humankind today.

We hypothesise that disease regulation as an ecosystem service is affected by changes in biodiversity, climate and land use, with differential impacts on people's health and wellbeing. The Consortium will investigate this hypothesis in relation to four diseases, each affected in different ways by ecosystem change, different dependencies on wildlife and livestock hosts, with diverse impacts on people, their health and their livelihoods. The cases are Lassa fever in Sierra Leone, henipaviruses in Ghana, Rift Valley Fever in Kenya and trypanosomiasis in Zambia and Zimbabwe. Through the cases we will examine comparatively the processes of disease regulation through ecosystem services in diverse settings across Africa.

The cases are located in a range of different Africa ecosystem types, from humid forest in Ghana through forest-savanna transition in Sierra Leone to wooded miombo savanna in Zambia and Zimbabwe and semi-arid savanna in Kenya. These cases enable a comparative exploration of a range of environmental change processes, due to contrasting ecosystem structure, function and dynamics, representative of some of the major ecosystem types in Africa. They also allow for a comparative investigation of key political-economic and social drivers of ecosystem change from agricultural expansion and commercialisation, wildlife conservation and use, settlement and urbanisation, mining and conflict, among others.

Understanding the interactions between ecosystem change, disease regulation and human wellbeing is necessarily an interdisciplinary challenge. The Consortium brings together leading natural and social scientific experts in the study of environmental change and ecosystem services; socio-economic, poverty and wellbeing issues, and health and disease. It will work through new partnerships between research and policy/implementing agencies, to build new kinds of capacity and ensure sustained pathways to impact.

In all five African countries, the teams involve environmental, social and health scientists, forged as a partnership between university-based researchers and government implementing/policy agencies. Supporting a series of cross-cutting themes, linked to integrated case study work, the Consortium also brings together the University of Edinburgh, the Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium and Institute of Zoology (supporting work on disease dynamics and drivers of change); ILRI (ecosystem, health and wellbeing contexts); the STEPS Centre, University of Sussex (politics and values), and the Stockholm Resilience Centre (institutions, policy and future scenarios).

Planned Impact

Many major policy studies - from UK Foresight to the UN - have identified the global dangers of disease emergence, especially from areas where understandings of disease dynamics, detection and response is poor. A recent report in PNAS (Chan et al., 2010) looking at all disease outbreaks globally showed how detection of infectious diseases and warning of emerging epidemics was extremely poor in Africa, yet the continent is the origin of half the world's outbreaks.

A 'One Health' approach, integrating human, animal and ecological health in a holistic framework, has been suggested as a response. But what should a One Health approach look like, and how would it work in African settings? The DDDAC will gear its outputs towards producing the answers to these questions, ones being posed by policymakers across the globe. Through its detailed case study work, focused on four important, but often neglected, diseases in five locations across Africa, combined with broader modelling and scenarios work, looking at disease drivers and future impacts, the Consortium will build a 'One Health' toolbox for use by practitioners and policymakers in Africa. It will provide cost-effective methodological tools for developing an effective 'One Health' approach for the African setting.

Through its novel approach to interdisciplinary analysis of ecosystems, health, poverty and well-being, and particularly its focus on integration across scales, disciplines and sectors, DDDAC will contribute to the growth of the new cross-disciplinary fields of eco-health and socio-ecological systems, providing new concepts, frameworks and methodologies for a growing research and practitioner community.

Engaging potential users of DDDAC research will happen from the very beginning. Key users will cut across sectors - from environmental management to wildlife conservation to veterinary and health systems, as well as broader rural development actors. Research users will involve diverse government departments, non-government agencies, the private sector and local communities, and will stretch from the local to national to international levels. All country project teams involve a partnership between government officials in key departments (usually the DDDAC host) and university researchers. This allows the Consortium an important opportunity to link research directly with national policy, gaining access to high-level national policy discussions from the outset.

In order to establish a Consortium-wide approach to research communications and policy engagement, we will use an adapted Participatory Impact Pathways Assessment (PIPA) approach which has been used successfully within the STEPS Centre. This articulates well with the ESPA impact framework, and provides a practical methodology for implementing it. Early stakeholder dialogues in all project sites will allow DDDAC to engage with users in refining research design, map potential impact pathways and define an impact and engagement plan.

This plan will operate across scales from particular field sites, involving community actors, local officials and development projects, to national level debates cutting across environment, health and agriculture/rural development sectors to the international level, where UN agencies such as the WHO and FAO, as well as major environmental and development NGOs, are eager to engage with the Consortium to define a practical 'One Health' approach, grounded in solid, field-based evidence.

Publications

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Bardosh KL (2017) Engaging research with policy and action: what are the challenges of responding to zoonotic disease in Africa? in Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

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Dzingirai V (2016) Zoonotic diseases: who gets sick, and why? Explorations from Africa in Critical Public Health

 
Description Human and Animal trypanosomiasis are a complex suite of infections that impact in livelihoods in wildlife protected and proximally affected zones. The project has identified a complex relationship between the drive for better rural opportunities and livelihoods and the impact of those livelihoods on the environment and exacerbated risk to both humans animals and wildlife. A One Health approach that takes into account human animal and environmental wellbeing is essential for safe improvement of livelihoods in the study zones in Zambia and Zimbabwe. This offers the opportunity for policy makers to engage in developing informed solutions to populations pressures in these systems while maintaining benefits from tourism revenues that can be gained from protected zones, taking into account the value of ecosystem services.
Exploitation Route Although the project is finished there are a number of papers that are still in progress. We are hoping to secure additional funding to continue the work completed as part of DDDAC
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

 
Description The research contributes to the policy debate on tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in Zambia and Zimbabwe
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Environment,Healthcare
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Title A Multi-Host Agent-Based Model for a Zoonotic, Vector-Borne Disease. A Case Study on Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Province, Zambia. 
Description This paper presents a new agent-based model (ABM) for investigating T. b. rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) disease dynamics, produced to aid a greater understanding of disease transmission, and essential for development of appropriate mitigation strategies. METHODS: The ABM was developed to model rHAT incidence at a fine spatial scale along a 75 km transect in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The method offers a complementary approach to traditional compartmentalised modelling techniques, permitting incorporation of fine scale demographic data such as ethnicity, age and gender into the simulation. RESULTS: Through identification of possible spatial, demographic and behavioural characteristics which may have differing implications for rHAT risk in the region, the ABM produced output that could not be readily generated by other techniques. On average there were 1.99 (S.E. 0.245) human infections and 1.83 (S.E. 0.183) cattle infections per 6 month period. The model output identified that the approximate incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) was lower amongst cattle owning households (0.079, S.E. 0.017), than those without cattle (0.134, S.E. 0.017). Immigrant tribes (e.g. Bemba I.R. = 0.353, S.E.0.155) and school-age children (e.g. 5-10 year old I.R. = 0.239, S.E. 0.041) were the most at-risk for acquiring infection. These findings have the potential to aid the targeting of future mitigation strategies. CONCLUSION: ABMs provide an alternative way of thinking about HAT and NTDs more generally, offering a solution to the investigation of local-scale questions, and which generate results that can be easily disseminated to those affected. The ABM can be used as a tool for scenario testing at an appropriate spatial scale to allow the design of logistically feasible mitigation strategies suggested by model output. This is of particular importance where resources are limited and management strategies are often pushed to the local scale. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Was published as 10(12):e0005252 
 
Title Animal samples Zam 
Description Details of animal ownership, and subsequent molecular analysis 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Some of the information was incorporated into the model of doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005252. and doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139505. 
 
Title Animal samples Zim 
Description Details of trypanosome positivity of cattle and goats sampled in Zimbabwe 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Paper in prep 
 
Title Domestic animal health data from Mambwe District, Zambia (2013) 
Description The dataset describes the results of a laboratory analysis investigating the presence of various infectious agents in goats, cattle, pigs, dogs and sheep from Mambwe District, Eastern Province, Zambia. Blood samples were collected in June, July and August 2013 and stored on Whatman FTA (Flinders Technology Associates) cards. Laboratory analysis was conducted using polymerase chain reactions (PCR) for African trypanosomes and tick-borne infections. In addition, serum was tested for Brucella using the Rose Bengal test. Cattle and dogs were tested for African trypanosomes, tick-borne infections and Brucella. Goats and sheep were tested for African trypanosomes and Brucella. Pigs were tested for African trypanosomes only. The objective was to evaluate the health status of domestic animals in the Mambwe District. This work was conducted alongside a human wellbeing questionnaire survey. The research was part of a wider research project, the Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium (DDDAC). The research was funded by NERC project no NE/J000701/1 with support from the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation Programme (ESPA). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Economic and social science questionnaire dataset, Mambwe District, Zambia (2013) 
Description This dataset contains the results of 211 household surveys conducted in Mambwe District, Zambia, as part of a wider study looking at human and animal trypanosomiasis and changing settlement patterns in the area. The interviews were conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. The objective of the survey was to set the health of people and their animals in the context of overall household wellbeing, assets and access to resources. The topics covered included household demographics, human and animal health, access to and use of medical and veterinary services, livestock and dog demographics, livestock production, human and animal contacts with wildlife, crop and especially cotton production, migration, access to water and fuel use, household assets and poverty, resilience and values. The dataset has been anonymised by removing names of respondents, Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) location of their homes and names of interviewers. Household numbers were retained. Written consent was obtained prior to commencing all interviews. This research was part of a wider research project, the Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium (DDDAC), and these data contributed to the research carried out by the consortium. The research was funded by NERC with support from the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation Programme (ESPA). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Human questionnaires Zam 
Description Questionnaire data based on humans in the Zambian sample set 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Paper published doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139505. 
 
Title Model for Exploiting Human Resource Requirements to Infer Human Movement Patterns for Use in Modelling Disease Transmission Systems: An Example from Eastern Province, Zambia. 
Description In this research, an agent-based model (ABM) was developed to generate human movement routes between homes and water resources in a rural setting, given commonly available geospatial datasets on population distribution, land cover and landscape resources. ABMs are an object-oriented computational approach to modelling a system, focusing on the interactions of autonomous agents, and aiming to assess the impact of these agents and their interactions on the system as a whole. An A* pathfinding algorithm was implemented to produce walking routes, given data on the terrain in the area. A* is an extension of Dijkstra's algorithm with an enhanced time performance through the use of heuristics. In this example, it was possible to impute daily activity movement patterns to the water resource for all villages in a 75 km long study transect across the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, and the simulated human movements were statistically similar to empirical observations on travel times to the water resource (Chi-squared, 95% confidence interval). This indicates that it is possible to produce realistic data regarding human movements without costly measurement as is commonly achieved, for example, through GPS, or retrospective or real-time diaries. The approach is transferable between different geographical locations, and the product can be useful in providing an insight into human movement patterns, and therefore has use in many human exposure-related applications, specifically epidemiological research in rural areas, where spatial heterogeneity in the disease landscape, and space-time proximity of individuals, can play a crucial role in disease spread. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Was published as 10.1371/journal.pone.0139505. 
 
Title Policy and community interviews on trypanosomiasis in Hurungwe District, Zimbabwe (2012 - 2013) 
Description This resource contains anonymised interviews with community members in Chundu Ward, Hurungwe District, Zimbabwe, conducted to further our understanding of how the local community interacts with tsetse. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants in 2012 to 2013 to investigate livelihood strategies including hunting, livestock keeping and cultivation, and how they influenced the risk of contracting trypanosomiasis. Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) occurs sporadically within the Zambezi Valley in Zimbabwe and is transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans and Glossina pallidipes). African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) is more prevalent and places significant constraints on livestock keeping. Approaches taken by local people to control or manage the disease were also investigated during the interviews. This research was part of a wider research project, the Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium (DDDAC) and these interviews contributed to this consortium. The research was funded by NERC project no NE/J000701/1 with support from the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation Programme (ESPA). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Tsetse trypanosome and endosymbiont data from Hurungwe District, Zimbabwe (2016) 
Description The data set includes the results of a laboratory analysis in 2016, investigating the presence of trypanosomes and prevalence of tsetse endosymbionts in tsetse flies. The tsetse flies were sampled in Hurungwe District, Mashonaland West Province, Zimbabwe, from February 2014 to November 2014. Flies were sampled using a combination of Epsilon traps and fly rounds, both established techniques for sampling tsetse. Tsetse were stored prior to laboratory analysis using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in 2016. The data include two species of tsetse, Glossina pallidipes and Glossina morsitans morsitans. Trypanosome species investigated include Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. b. rhodesiense, T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae, T.simiae (Tsavo) and T. godfreyi. Endosymbionts included in the study were Sodalis glossinidius and Wolbachia spp. Hurungwe District is the only sleeping sickness focus in Zimbabwe and an increase in cases had been detected in years preceding this study. The objective of the study was to investigate the trypanosome species present in the tsetse population and their association with tsetse endosymbionts. This study was conducted as part of research into the relationship between trypanosomiasis, well-being and ecosystems by the Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium (DDDAC). The research was funded by NERC with support from the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation Programme (ESPA). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title tsetse data Zim 
Description Details of the trypanosome and endosymbiont status of tsetse collected in Zimbabwe as part of the project 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Paper in prep 
 
Description AP consultants 
Organisation AP Consultants Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We collected field data which Dr Shaw will help analyse
Collaborator Contribution Analysis of socieconomic data
Impact Publications in prep
Start Year 2012
 
Description Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium (DDDAC) 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Opportunity for further application/validation of DDDAC research Participated in project planning activities for Zambian projects
Collaborator Contribution Various team members visited Nigeria to share knowledge and experiences during engagement activities Contributed to project planning activities
Impact Anderson et al, 2011; Okello, Welburn and Smith, 2014; Okello, Bardosh et al, 2014;
Start Year 2012
 
Description Lancaster University 
Organisation Lancaster University
Department Centre for Health Informatics, Computing, and Statistics (CHICAS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided field data for modelling work. Analysis of modelling results
Collaborator Contribution Undertook the modelling work
Impact doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005252. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139505. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0827-0. doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2016.09.008 DOI: 10.1186/s40249-016-0110-4
Start Year 2014
 
Description Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Zambia 
Organisation Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock
Country Zambia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sample frame, molecular analysis of domestic livestock samples
Collaborator Contribution Involved in Zambian field work
Impact doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0827-0. doi: 10.1007/s10393-016-1131-y
Start Year 2012
 
Description Southampton University 
Organisation University of Southampton
Department Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided field data for modelling work and analysis of results
Collaborator Contribution They undertook modelling work based on field data supplied by us
Impact doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005252. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139505. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0827-0. doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2016.09.008 DOI: 10.1186/s40249-016-0110-4
Start Year 2012
 
Description Tsetse Control Division, Department of Livestock and Veterinary Services Zimbabwe 
Organisation Department of Veterinary Services, Zimbabwe
Department Division of Tsetse Control
Country Zimbabwe 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Involved in sampling frame calculation, molecular analysis of tsetse
Collaborator Contribution Trapped tsetse and provided input on papers
Impact doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1879-5
Start Year 2012
 
Description University of Zimbabwe 
Organisation University of Zimbabwe
Department Centre for Applied Social Sciences
Country Zimbabwe 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided details on sampling frame, analysis of tsetse and livestock through molecular methods
Collaborator Contribution They were involved in sampling of livestock and collecting tsetse. They were also involved in interviewing inhabitants of study area
Impact doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1879-5 doi: 10.1186/s40249-016-0110-4. doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2016.09.008 doi.org/10.1080/09581596.2016.1187260
Start Year 2012
 
Description Zambia University 
Organisation University of Zambia
Department School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia
Country Zambia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided sample frames and people to help with field data collection. Molecular analysis of livestock samples
Collaborator Contribution University of Zambia coordinated and took part in field work. They also collected tsetse for analysis.
Impact doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0827-0. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004241 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139505. doi:10.1007/s10393-016-1131-y doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005252.
Start Year 2012
 
Description 1. Trypanosomiasis in Domestic Livestock in the Luangwa Valley in Zambia. Kathrin Schaten, Martin Simuunza, Noreen Machila, Ewan MacLeod, Alexandra Shaw, Michael Thrusfield and Susan Welburn. British Society for Parasitology, April 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 1. Trypanosomiasis in Domestic Livestock in the Luangwa Valley in Zambia. Kathrin Schaten, Martin Simuunza, Noreen Machila, Ewan MacLeod, Alexandra Shaw, Michael Thrusfield and Susan Welburn. British Society for Parasitology, April 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description 1. Integrative Approaches to Disease Modelling. EcoHealth 2014, Delia Grace, Pete Atkinson, Gianni Lo Iacono, Johanna Lindahl and Catherine Grant, panel presentation. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact 1. Integrative Approaches to Disease Modelling. EcoHealth 2014, Delia Grace, Pete Atkinson, Gianni Lo Iacono, Johanna Lindahl and Catherine Grant, panel presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description 1. Patches, tsetse and livelihoods in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. Dzingirai V, Murwira A, Shereni W, Scoones I and Anderson NE. One Health for the Real World: zoonoses, ecosystems and wellbeing, Zoological Society of London, 17 Mar 2016 ? 18 Mar 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact 1. Patches, tsetse and livelihoods in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. Dzingirai V, Murwira A, Shereni W, Scoones I and Anderson NE. One Health for the Real World: zoonoses, ecosystems and wellbeing, Zoological Society of London, 17 Mar 2016 ? 18 Mar 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 1. Tsetse, Trypanosomiasis and Communities in Transition: Investigations into Health, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Change in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Neil E Anderson, Noreen Machila, Simon Alderton, Joanna Kuleszo, Kathrin Schaten, Martin Simuunza, Ewan MacLeod, Alexandra Shaw, Peter M Atkinson and Susan C Welburn. One Health for the Real World: zoonoses, ecosystems and wellbeing, Zoological Society of London, 17 Mar 2016 ? 18 Mar 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation 1. Tsetse, Trypanosomiasis and Communities in Transition: Investigations into Health, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Change in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Neil E Anderson, Noreen Machila, Simon Alderton, Joanna Kuleszo, Kathrin Schaten, Martin Simuunza, Ewan MacLeod, Alexandra Shaw, Peter M Atkinson and Susan C Welburn. One Health for the Real World: zoonoses, ecosystems and wellbeing, Zoological Society of London, 17 Mar 2016 ? 18 Mar 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 1. www.diseasescenarios.org/ website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 1. http://www.diseasescenarios.org/ website developed to showcase work of consortium. Includes results from scenarios exercise conducted at workshop in Naivasha in 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description DDDAC Trypanosomiasis Case Study Review, Lusaka 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Workshop to discuss the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description HAT Policy Workshop, Lusaka Nov 12-13, 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Discussed the project and what would be undertaken with study area participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Impact case studies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Impact case study on Building trust, sharing, learning and seeking solutions with communities in flux.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Impact case study 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Impact case study on 1. Modelling flies, people and livestock in the struggle against sleeping sickness.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Impact case study 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Impact case study at ZSL London Focused fly elimination campaigns give farmers hope for safe new settlement lands.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Impact case study 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Impact case study presented at ZSL in 2016 1. Alerting authorities to the reality of tsetse: how talking to locals made a difference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop Zambia January 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Around 40 delegates made up of political, university, study area participants attended a workshop in Lusaka. Also in attendance were DDDAC members from Edinburgh, Lancaster and Zimbabwe
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop Zimbabwe March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Around 30 attended, they were a mixture of researchers from the project in Zimbabwe, representatives from DDDAC Zambia and University of Edinburgh. Also in attendance were groups from the study area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016