A hierarchical approach to the examination of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem service flows across coastal margins.

Lead Research Organisation: University of St Andrews
Department Name: Biology

Abstract

CBESS Summary:

The health of the UK's coastlines is inextricably linked to our success as an island nation, and resonates through our economy, our recreation, and our culture. Most pressingly, of all the UK's many and varied landscapes, its coastal systems are the ones most immediately sensitive to climate change. As temperatures increase, sea levels will rise and the forces experienced where land and sea meet will become more destructive. Salt marshes, mudflats, beaches and rocky shores will all be affected but, of these areas, the most sensitive are the mudflats and salt marshes that are common features of coastal systems, and which comprise just over half of the UK's total estuarine area. Not only do these landscapes support a wide range of economically valuable animal and plant species, they also act as sites of carbon storage, nutrient recycling, and pollutant capture and destruction. Their preservation is, therefore, of the utmost importance, requiring active and informed management to save them for future generations. The Natural Environment Research Council's call to help understand the landscape-scale links between the functions that these systems provide (ecosystem service flows) and the organisms that help provide these services (biodiversity stocks) offers an important opportunity to move beyond most previous work in this field, which has been conducted at small or laboratory scales. While of foundational scientific importance, the implications of laboratory studies can be hard to translate into policy, and coastal managers require a clearer evidence base to understand how ecosystem service flows operate at much larger spatial scales, e.g. entire salt marshes or regions of intertidal flat and salt marshes. The programme we are proposing 'A hierarchical approach to the examination of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem service flows across coastal margins' (CBESS) will provide such a large scale understanding. Our consortium of UK experts ranges from microbial ecologists, through environmental economists, to mathematical modellers, including organisations like the BTO and the RSPB, who have immediate and vested interest in the sustainable use of coastal wetlands.

Together, CBESS will create a study that spans the landscape scale, investigating how biodiversity stocks provide the following ecosystem services (cf. National Ecosystem Assessment).

- Supporting' services: nutrient cycling, healthy habitat
- Provisioning services; goods obtained from the landscape
- Regulating' services: coastal protection, climate regulation (greenhouse gas exchange, carbon sequestration)
- Cultural services: Recreation (walking, canoeing, angling, birding, hunting and beauty)

CBESS will combine the detailed study of two regional landscapes with a broad-scale UK-wide study to allow both specific and general conclusions to be drawn. The Regional study will compare two areas of great local and national importance: Morecambe Bay on the west coast and the Essex coastline on the east coast. We will carry out biological and physical surveys at more than 600 stations and use these results to clarify how biodiversity can provide these important ecosystem functions. This information will be shared with those interested in using and managing coastal systems and, after our analysis; we will propose practical methods and improved tools for the future analysis, management, and sustainability of the UK's coastal wetlands.

Planned Impact

CBESS Impact Summary:

Who will benefit from this research, and how?

Commercial private sector and the knowledge economy: CBESS provides new knowledge, new data, and tools to assist the sustainable management of coastal landscapes. Theme 5 of CBESS will also deliver new and innovative methodologies, equipment, techniques, and technologies to assess the role of biodiversity in the provision of ecosystems services. This framework is based on the HiMOM (Hierarchical monitoring of marine systems) EU programme, in providing a 'tool kit' and case studies for use by coastal managers. The research itself is based on an interdisciplinary framework that will provide a model for future programmes in the UK and abroad, through initiatives such as the Cambridge Conservation Initiative, the world's largest cluster of conservation organisations that focus on biodiversity research, policy and practice. Since many commercial interests rely on sustainable wetland socio-ecosystem service flows, beneficiaries will be correspondingly varied: Recreation (e.g. wildfowling, angling, walking) and commerce (e.g. fisheries, farming, cafes, museums, exhibits) that uses the local landscape will see long-term benefits.

Policy professionals, governmental and devolved governmental organisations: The CBESS consortium hinges on the full involvement (see attached Letters of Support) of a wide range of partner organisations with an explicit interest in policy and the management of coastal wetlands. Members will disseminate information far beyond the immediate circle of CBESS. Our Partners include the Government Office for Science, the Environment Agency and its devolved counterparts (NIEA, SEPA), the Freshwater Biological Association, the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, and The James Hutton Institute. In addition, through the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland (MASTS), the Consortium has access to the Scottish Marine Forum, Marine Scotland, Marine Science Scotland, The Centre of Expertise for Waters, and the Centre of Expertise for Climate Change; a constituency of several thousand members.

The British public: The intrinsic value of publically accessible wetland is widely recognised, enhancing our culture, quality of life, and health. Given that most people experience their surroundings at, and live their daily lives within, the 'landscape' scale, CBESS will enhance evidence based policy-making and support robust legislation at a local, regional, national and international level (see Pathways to Impact).
Voluntary sectors and wider public: Wetland wildlife habitats attract dedicated support from the voluntary sector (e.g The British Trust for Ornithology, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, the Essex Wildlife Trust). CBESS's econometric approach will examine the scale-dependence of wetland use by public, recreational (e.g fishing, birdwatching) and voluntary groups (Litter clearance, nature guides), adding to our Partners' understanding of overall wetland service provision. Through our Partners, new groups will become part of the CBESS constituency and informed about the project.

Skills training. Three areas of benefit arise from CBESS. In addition to academic progression, early career researchers will gain experience in planning and conducting a large and complex programme. PhDs associated with CBESS will gain from the interdisciplinary, and highly cooperative, nature of the work. Finally, areas of CBESS work lie in the traditional skills of sampling and taxonomy (cf. floral and infaunal biodiversity) which will be supported within CBESS and staff encourage to develop skills (taxonomy courses include in costings).

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Analysis of results in progress; results pending. Molecular data now analysed after problems with sourcing company
Exploitation Route Analysis of results in progress; results pending.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism

 
Description Analysis of results in progress; results pending. Production of the "Saltmash" app for smartphone
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Education,Environment
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Advisor to EA Coastal Squeeze R&D project
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Meeting with the Exec Director Fife Coast and Countryside Trust
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Importance of biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery enhanced supporting regulatory decision making
 
Description Member of the Evidence Needs (BEERN) Programme of the Wales Biodiversity Partnership
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL https://www.biodiversitywales.org.uk/BEERN-Programme
 
Description Regular meetings with local coastal user groups such as the Fife Coast and Countryside Trust Ranger, Scottish National Heritage and the West Sands Partnership forum.
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Regular updates are provided to maintain open communication and amicable collaboration.
 
Description HLF funding for the CoCoast Capturing our Coast Citizen Science project led by Newcastle University
Amount £1,700,000 (GBP)
Organisation Heritage Lottery Fund 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 10/2018
 
Description NERC Advanced Short Training Course
Amount £4,215 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2015 
End 03/2015
 
Description Postgraduate and Professional Skills Development Awards
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Funding ID USTAN 29/13 
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2014 
End 03/2014
 
Title EIDC CBESS Data 
Description Coherent meta-data and data for all field CBESS campaigns 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact New Bayesian approach to linking biodiversity to ecosystem function in process 
URL https://data.gov.uk/dataset/12a202e0-c25e-4221-8a17-9e8c1c3dca82/coastal-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-...
 
Description C-SIDE project - NERC 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Department School of Biology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-wrote the proposal that eventually actracted NERC standard grant funding. New partner at St Andrews, Paleo-Oceanography.
Collaborator Contribution Paleo-oceaongraphical expertise, especially radio istope dating of sedimentary cores.
Impact Still emerging. Early days.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Floc characterisation of estuarine samples 
Organisation HR Wallingford Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution All biological processing and characterisation has been carried out by USTAN. All field work equipment provided by USTAN. Mass spectroscopy to determine sugar composition of samples will be performed by USTAN. Analysis of relationships between floc characteristics and biological data performed by USTAN. New technology and an innovative approach to examining floc structure and function from Prof Kate Spencer for visualising flocs and a new NERC proposal examining the role of organic molecules on the formation of flocs in the presence of xenobiotic compounds, being considered by NERC this year (2018)
Collaborator Contribution Use of the Labsfloc imaging suite and the expertise provided by Professor Andy Manning.
Impact Presented at AGU conference. Forms a chapter in PhD Thesis Technical report for HR Wallingford consultancy in preparation. Article in preparation Analysis still ongoing Biological and sedimentological disciplines New interdisciplinary NERC proposal (2018)
Start Year 2014
 
Description Floc characterisation of estuarine samples 
Organisation Queen Mary University of London
Department School of Geography
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution All biological processing and characterisation has been carried out by USTAN. All field work equipment provided by USTAN. Mass spectroscopy to determine sugar composition of samples will be performed by USTAN. Analysis of relationships between floc characteristics and biological data performed by USTAN. New technology and an innovative approach to examining floc structure and function from Prof Kate Spencer for visualising flocs and a new NERC proposal examining the role of organic molecules on the formation of flocs in the presence of xenobiotic compounds, being considered by NERC this year (2018)
Collaborator Contribution Use of the Labsfloc imaging suite and the expertise provided by Professor Andy Manning.
Impact Presented at AGU conference. Forms a chapter in PhD Thesis Technical report for HR Wallingford consultancy in preparation. Article in preparation Analysis still ongoing Biological and sedimentological disciplines New interdisciplinary NERC proposal (2018)
Start Year 2014
 
Description Floc characterisation of estuarine samples 
Organisation University of Hull
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution All biological processing and characterisation has been carried out by USTAN. All field work equipment provided by USTAN. Mass spectroscopy to determine sugar composition of samples will be performed by USTAN. Analysis of relationships between floc characteristics and biological data performed by USTAN. New technology and an innovative approach to examining floc structure and function from Prof Kate Spencer for visualising flocs and a new NERC proposal examining the role of organic molecules on the formation of flocs in the presence of xenobiotic compounds, being considered by NERC this year (2018)
Collaborator Contribution Use of the Labsfloc imaging suite and the expertise provided by Professor Andy Manning.
Impact Presented at AGU conference. Forms a chapter in PhD Thesis Technical report for HR Wallingford consultancy in preparation. Article in preparation Analysis still ongoing Biological and sedimentological disciplines New interdisciplinary NERC proposal (2018)
Start Year 2014
 
Description Floc characterisation of estuarine samples 
Organisation University of Plymouth
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution All biological processing and characterisation has been carried out by USTAN. All field work equipment provided by USTAN. Mass spectroscopy to determine sugar composition of samples will be performed by USTAN. Analysis of relationships between floc characteristics and biological data performed by USTAN. New technology and an innovative approach to examining floc structure and function from Prof Kate Spencer for visualising flocs and a new NERC proposal examining the role of organic molecules on the formation of flocs in the presence of xenobiotic compounds, being considered by NERC this year (2018)
Collaborator Contribution Use of the Labsfloc imaging suite and the expertise provided by Professor Andy Manning.
Impact Presented at AGU conference. Forms a chapter in PhD Thesis Technical report for HR Wallingford consultancy in preparation. Article in preparation Analysis still ongoing Biological and sedimentological disciplines New interdisciplinary NERC proposal (2018)
Start Year 2014
 
Description Najing University, China 
Organisation Nanjing University (NJU)
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Visited Nanjing University and established links with them for future research work and reciprocal visits. College of Harbour, Coastal Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China Paper submitted Hindered erosion: The biological mediation of non-cohesive sediment behaviour X. D. Chen1, C. K. Zhang1, D. M. Paterson2, C. E. L. Thompson3, I. H. Townend4, Z. Gong1, Z. Zhou1 and Q. Feng5,6 Submitted
Collaborator Contribution Discussion of research methods, help in drafting papers and considering interpretation of results
Impact Chen XD, Zhang CK, Zhou Z, Gong Z, Zhou1 JJ, Tao JF, Paterson DM, Feng Q 2017. Stabilizing effects of bacterial biofilms: EPS penetration and redistribution of bed stability down the sediment profile. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 22: 3113-3125. DOI: 10.1002/2017JG004050 Chen, XD, Zhang, CK, Paterson, DM, Thompson, CEL, Townend, IH, Gong, Z, Zhou, Z & Feng, Q 2017, 'Hindered erosion: the biological mediation of noncohesive sediment behavior' Water Resources Research, vol Early View. DOI: 10.1002/2016WR020105
Start Year 2016
 
Description Analytical approaches worshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Internal workshop for all CBESS members to discuss analytical approaches as a consortium to the CBESS data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BBC Radio Cumbria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Not know as this was a national radio broadcast.





The CBESS team are returning to Morecambe Bay this week to look at how the plants and animals living in salt marshes and mudflats contribute to our natural environment, economy and society.



The 30 strong team of scientists first visited the Bay in February and will continue to study the role natural systems, such as salt marshes, play in the purification of water, the production of food and the protection of coastlines, as well as the provision of habitat for wildlife and recreational space for people.

Not know as this was a national radio broadcast.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/2013/08/01/bbc-radio-cumbria/
 
Description BESS - Science Meeting 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Staff at University of St Andrews attended and contributed to an Annual Science Meeting held by BESS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description BESS - Science Meeting 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact BESS organised meeting for all consortia and partners.
- generated discussion and debate
- greater understanding and dialogue


Informed CBESS science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description BESS Connect - quartely newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact CBESS contributes to the newsletter BESS Connect which is emailed by BESS to a mailing list. We have raised awareness of out our research to the BESS community.

General impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Biodiversity research in coastal systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The relationship between biodiversity, ecosystem function and service flows is central to the concept of the "ecosystem approach" for ecosystem management. Laboratory studies have become more complex but still fall far short of capturing the complexity of natural systems and so we have to move out of the laboratory back to the field. This talk will provide a short review of the varied approaches to the BEF debate and describe some of the recent work of the NERC "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Sustainability" programme focussed on determining the biodiversity stocks and ecosystem service flows from coastal marine habitats (salt marshes and mudflats) in Morecambe Bay and Essex.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description CBESS Annual Science Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact A meeting of all of the CBESS consortia to discuss CBESS science.
- debate and discussion.

Progress made on key aspects of programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description CBESS Annual Science Meeting 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The CBESS team met in York at the start of January for two days to discuss the best way to incorporate scale and context into our data analysis and how to best approach up-scaling biodiversity and ecosystem services and finally the creation of novel tools for Ecosystem Service Provisioning.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/news/progress-report/cbess-annual-science-meeting-2015/
 
Description CBESS Field Campaigns 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Four cross consortia field campaigns to collect ecological data.
- Generated discussion & debate with consortia members.
- High profile; generating newspaper articles & TV/radio interviews.
- A number of positive conversations with the general public recreating in data collection area.
- Contact with local organisations.

Increase in awareness across many sectors about saltmarsh/mudflat science, ecosystem services & valuation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/science/progress-report/
 
Description CBESS Science Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Stakeholders (Natural England, RSPB and Environment Agency) met the researchers collecting data on the salt marshes and mudflats. Activity will provide context to future discussions.

Valuable discussion throughout open day & questions answered.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description CBESS on ITV News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact CBESS Team interviewed on ITV Anglia during the Winter Field Campaign on the Essex Marshes.

Very general impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Café Scientifique (2014) Putting a value on Morecambe Bay 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A public presentation in a pub in Morecambe Bay by Dr Martin Skov. Generated lively debate on whether putting a value on the environment is a good thing.

Very positive feedback from the audience on the night & several emails, thanking CBESS for presenting at Caf? Scientifique & informing locals about high profile research on their doorstep.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Developing Interdisciplinary Academic Collaborations' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scottish Crucible is a prestigious leadership and development programme for early career researchers in Scotland. The aim was to i) encourage participants to become more collaborative and interdisciplinary in their approach to their research; ii) help them discover skills and attitudes likely to make their research more innovative and iii) develop their understanding of how research can impact on Society through the process of Knowledge Exchange.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www1.hw.ac.uk/scottishcrucible
 
Description Echo - Scientists trawl saltmarshes for climate change answers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article in response to press release (Essex).

Very general impact as this was a regional news article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/2013/01/17/scientists-trawl-saltmarshes-for-climate-change-ans...
 
Description Eden Estuary field trip 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact In July, CBESS featured on Shared Planet, a BBC Radio 4 series that explores how society and wildlife interact. After listening to the programme, Ben Seymour, a teacher from St Leonard's High School in St Andrews, got in touch with CBESS and asked if the University of St Andrews could give some of their students a taste of CBESS research.

In late 2013, Kate Wade (a PhD student whose research is contributing to CBESS) went into St Leonard's High School and gave a presentation on valuing ecosystem services to the International Baccalaureate students studying Environmental Systems and Societies. To complement the presentation given by Kate, students joined researchers from the University of St Andrews, to experience data collection on the salt marshes and mudflats of the Eden Estuary in early 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/outreach-and-education/local-schools/
 
Description Edinburgh Science Festival (2013) Lab Rats: All at Sea! 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Mini-scientists were put through their paces on a journey around Scotland's coastline; on route they stopped off at the Mud Lab. This was their chance to learn about the amazingly varied creatures that can be found in the mudflats off Scotland and what mud scientists have to do to find them.



Excitement & buzz about mudflat science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/2013/04/05/lab-rats-all-at-sea/
 
Description Educational outreach with two local high schools. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Dissemination of coastal and ecological research to local schools and organised school visits to the university. To date this has focused on ecosystem function and services, sediment dynamics and coastal defences in the Eden estuary.
It involved delivering short presentations on work carried out at our research group, including that of the COHBED and CBESS projects, as well as field trips and laboratory work with students to learn various techniques and field skills.


The students gave good feedback and both schools have requested to repeat the experience in future years.
We hope to spark their interest in the local ecology and environment and also in science as a subject in the curriculum. The exercise will also hopefully go some way to helping achieve the aims of the curriculum for excellence in developing the children to become successful learners, confident individuals, responsible citizens, and effective contributors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description EuroMarine Workshop, 2016 Linking biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services: a comparison between temperate and tropical seagrass meadows, Sete.with Claire Gollety 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact European workshop to plan future ITN proposal (in prep)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description First Chances 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact CBESS participated in the University of St Andrew's Summer School First Chances Programme.
- encouraged students to think about how we value the environment & what services nature provides

- collaboration with local high schools
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/science/progress-report/summer-outreach-at-st-andrews/
 
Description Invited Keynote Campus Do Mar Oceans Day 2016 One for all.The basis of interdisciplinary Science University of Tras os Montes and Alto Duro, Portugal 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Campus Do Mar Oceans Day 2016, annual event for Ph.d students and marine scientists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Keynote ISRS , Stuttgart Germany 2016 Form, function and physics D. M. Paterson, J. M. Kenworthy Scottish Ocean Institute, School of Biology, University of St Andrews J. A. Hope, S.U. Gerbersdorf Institute for modelling hydraulic and environmental systems, University of Stuttgart 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International research conference key note speech highlighting UK research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Liaison meeting with Natural Resources Wales (NRW) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The meeting centered on gaining an understanding of how NRW practitioners perceive and use the concept of Ecosystem services in decision making and management of the Welsh natural environment. The CBESS team gained a good insight into the use of the ecosystem approach to natural management in Wales, including underpinning policy drivers. cusseNRW gained an insight to what the CBESS project has achieve so far. NRW staff were very interested in utilising CBESS project data for making future projectsion of the distribtion of ecosystem services in the coastal environment of Wales. The potential for complying with NRW wishes were discussed.

The CBESS team is currently exploring the potential for generating a decision-support tool for NRW specifically minded at mapping the distribution of ecosystem services in wales.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Madras College Field Trip 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Local high school field trip to the Gatty Marine Lab.
- greater understanding of CBESS science
- discussion on ecosystem services

Greater understanding of research at a university level and importance of saltmarsh/mudflat habitats to ecosystem services.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Morecambe Bay socio-economic workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact On 8 May, in collaboration with the Morecambe Bay Partnership, CBESS team members from the University of St Andrews, the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and the Centre for Hydrology and Ecology (CEH) were in Barrow-in-Furness to host a participatory stakeholder workshop for local recreational users.

17 stakeholders attended from 14 different recreational sectors, including bird watching, cycling, sailing, windsurfing, running, fishing, water-skiing, walking, photography and diving. The group completed questionnaires about which sites around Morecambe Bay were of particular importance to their sector, what makes those locations important (site characteristics, senses, emotional attachment, beauty etc.), along with their general thoughts on nature. They also used touch-tables to map exactly where people from their recreational sector undertake their activity, providing further information on frequency, timings and numbers of people involved in the activity to give us a comprehensive picture of recreational activity in the Bay area.

The workshop has provided us with some very interesting data that we are now in the process of analysing, alongside corresponding data collected at the Essex socio-economic workshop last year. By exploring the data from these two regions, we can start to investigate the relationship between biodiversity and recreation in saltmarsh and mudflat ecosystems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/2014/07/25/cbess-morecambe-bay-socio-economic-workshop/
 
Description NERC visit to University of St Andrews 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Visit by NERC to the Gatty Marine Lab. Generated discussion.

Opportunity to discuss with funder scope of research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Natural England webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Good post presentation discussion.

Greater participation from Natural England in the Morecambe Bay area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Organised workshop on Coastal Grazing Landscapes - Exploring the diverse preferences for saltmarsh livestock grazing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We organised a workshop on saltmarsh grazing to develop a clearer understanding of how Welsh saltmarshes are used by the farming community, and to determine how multiple uses and values can be supported. Paticipants came from councils, environmental agencies (Natural England, NRW), the farming community and NGOs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://interests.me/org/cardiff-info/story/95059
 
Description Participation in Blue Carbon Working Group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participation in the Blue Carbon Working Group (UN) regional meeting in Ibiza, Spain, 9-12th October, 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://thebluecarboninitiative.org/scientific-working-group/
 
Description Postgraduate and Professional Skills Developement Awards -Morecambe Bay Field Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Pilot NERC funded postgraduate course.
- increased understanding of CBESS science.
- generated discussion & debate.

Students went back to their respective research institutions with new knowledge to share & use in their research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/news/post-graduate-training-course-a-great-success/
 
Description Public talk on climate change in the ocean to Glasgow Probus - January 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a hour-long talk on the effects of climate change to a group of retired professional and business people from the Glasgow area, including ex academics. Insightful and interesting questions resulted in the following discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://kelvinprobus.org/
 
Description Radio 4 - What's so special about salt marshes? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Andrew Bomford of Radio 4's PM interviews the CBESS Team. A very general interview on a current affairs programme.

Gernal impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2013
 
Description Radio 4: Shared Planet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Not known as this was a national radio broadcast.

A local high school got in touch & we are in the process of organizing a second CBESS class talk & field trip with them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/2013/07/01/radio-4-shared-planet/
 
Description Royal Metereological Society meeting on 'Risky Business', Bristol, 11th April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact To evaluate environmental change, from a climatic perspective, and how this will impact on society and the natural environment. The meeting had input from NHS, geological society, research community and the Royal society itself. My presentation was entitled: Are Sudden Changes in the Cover of Valuable Saltmarshes Linked to Climate Change?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Royal Society of Edinburgh, Start up Science Masterclass 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact S1 and S2 pupils from a number of local schools are invited to take part in a number of activities regarding biodiversity and local coastal habitats. The aim is to spark an interest in local habitats and ecology.

Most participants learn new material and it promotes open discussion and development of ideas. It has gone on to encourage students to request work experience in the Sediment Ecology research Group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014
URL http://www.royalsoced.org.uk/784_StartupScienceMasterclasses.html
 
Description Schools visit; Royal High school edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Explain the broad reach of biological research and potential career using examples of exiting programmes CBESS, COHBED and BLUE-COAST, also presentation by current Ph.D student on blue carbon economy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Science Camp 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact - Greater understanding of saltmarsh/mudflat science.

- Working with local primary and high schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/science/progress-report/summer-outreach-at-st-andrews/
 
Description Science Discovery Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The activity got public engagement and encouraged the sharing of research with the local community.


The activity sparked interest and stimulated thoughts about the importance of coastal areas and sediment transport and the importance of the loss of local biodiversity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Science Discovery Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Mud Lab gave visitors the opportunity to try their hand at sieving for animals, using microscopes and understanding the stability of mud.

Staff were on hand to explain why salt marshes and mud flats are such an important habitat for providing food for so many animals and plants and their vital role in flood defence (by stabilizing mud).

Visitors had the chance to sieve mud collected from the Eden Estuary just outside St Andrews for animals that make mudflats their home and gain an insight into the variety of life that inhabits these vast 'empty' spaces. Everyone was keen to get a closer look at these sometimes tiny creatures and to learn more about the vital role they play in the food web. Microscopes allowed visitors to get a closer look and Mud Lab staff explained the amazing life history of the animals they were looking at.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/2014/03/13/science-discovery-day/#more-1193
 
Description Socio-economic Workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Socio-economic data collection on recreational activities in saltmarsh and mudflat habitats in Morecambe Bay and Essex Marshes.
- Discussion and debate about the types and level of recreational activity on these habitats.
- Participation by local groups.
- Collaboration with NGOs

- Dissemination of CBESS research to local stakeholders.
- Stakeholders were given a platform to discuss their recreational activity with other users and how that impacts access, enjoyment, environment etc...
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description St Leonards High School presentation & fieldwork 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presentation & field trip for local high school in response to Radio 4 programme 'Shared Planet' .
- Discussion about ecosystem services & saltmarsh/mudflat science.


Increase in understanding Of CBESS science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/outreach-and-education/local-schools/
 
Description Stand on natural flood protection at the Eisteddfod Yr Urdd, Brecon, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We had a stall on natural flood protection and ecosystem services at at the Eisteddfod Yr Urdd, Brecon, 27-31/05/2018. The stall included a small flume, lego village and flodding display, chocolate coins to illustrate costs and valuation, and multiple colourful displays and posters. Interacted with hundreds of people over 5 days.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.urdd.cymru/en/news-press/brycheiniog-maesyfed-yn-gwahodd-eisteddfod-yr-urdd-yn-2018/
 
Description Summer Essex field campaign - press release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Request for interviews by radio, TV & newspapers.

General impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/files/2013/07/CBESS_Press-Release-USTAN-EM-summer.pdf
 
Description Summer Morecambe Bay field campaign - press release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Contacted for interview by newspapers, TV & radio.

General impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/news/archive/2013/title,223012,en.php
 
Description The Citizen: Morecambe Bay comes under the spotlight from St Andrews University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article in local newspaper in response to press release.

Very general impact as this this was a regional article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2013
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/2013/02/12/the-citizen/
 
Description The power of plants 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The CBESS team at the University of St Andrews joined fellow researchers at ResearchLIVE! in St Andrews.


ResearchLIVE! was part of European Researchers' Night 2015 where over 300 researchers all over Europe joined forces on Friday 25 September to deliver an evening of discovery, debate and entertainment.

At the CBESS stand we introduced participants to the power of plants and the role they play in coastal defence and reducing erosion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/cbess/2015/09/30/university-of-st-andrews-researchlive/
 
Description Why save nemo??? Marine biodiversity, health and society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presentation part of of the Model UN at George Watson's College to provoke conversation and debate among the delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.gwc.org.uk/beyond-the-classroom/clubs-and-societies/model-united-nations/mun-conference/
 
Description Winter Essex field campaign - press release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Contacted for interview by newspapers, TV & radio.

Impact general.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/news/archive/2013/title,97135,en.php
 
Description Winter Morecambe Bay field campaign - press release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Contacted for interview by newspapers, TV & radio.

Impact very general.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/news/archive/2013/title,198980,en.php