Earthquakes without frontiers: a partnership for increasing resilience to seismic hazard in the continents

Lead Research Organisation: Durham University
Department Name: Geography

Abstract

Between 2 and 2.5 million people have died in earthquakes since 1900, and approximately two-thirds of those deaths have occurred in the continental interiors, far from the plate boundaries. Over this time interval, advances in the scientific understanding of earthquakes have been translated into impressive resilience in regions where the hazard is well understood (eg California, Chile, and Japan). Here, resilience is defined as the ability of a community to resist, accommodate, or adapt to the effects of an earthquake, to maintain critical basic functions, and to recover after the event.

Comparable advances have not, however, taken place in most parts of the continental interiors. Instead, many parts of the continental interiors, and particularly the Alpine-Himalayan belt, have seen a major increase in vulnerability to earthquakes in the last few decades, due to a wide range of social, economic, and governance issues. Increasing resilience to continental earthquakes and their related hazards is therfore an urgent scientific and societal priority. This goal requires a holistic view of earthquakes, and collaboration between physical scientists, social scientists, practitioners, and governments on a scale that has not yet been attempted. Our project knits together three groups with extensive and successful track records in (i) the science of earthquakes and related hazards [COMET+, the Dynamic Earth and Geohazards research group in the National Centre of Earth Observation, and the British Geological Survey Hazards Group] (ii) exploring the social science of resilience to emerging hazards and risks [Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience, University of Durham, and associated researchers] and (iii) the use of research to promote evidence-based policy [Overseas Development Institute].

First, we shall establish a global partnership between researchers from six UK universities, two UK research centers, and representatives of a wide range of governmental and non-governmental organisations from countries across the Alpine-Himalayan belt. This partnership will be focused on communication and sharing of research needs and knowledge gaps, basic research findings and outputs, and new approaches for building resilience to earthquakes across the region.

This partnership will carry out coupled physical- and social-science research in three case-study areas (China, central Asia, and the Himalayan front). Our understanding of earthquake occurrence across this large region is currently too poor to provide detailed estimates of likely earthquake probabilities and effects at the sub-national scales needed by communities - let alone to provide forecasts of earthquake occurrence.

One component of the project involves research into the locations of active faults across the region, the rates at which they are currently deforming, and the ground shaking that they are likely to produce. This basic physical science research, which will also include the effects of secondary hazards such as landsliding, will provide baseline scenarios about the hazards in forms that are meaningful for, and usable by, the communities at risk.

At the same time, we shall map and identify the societal factors that help or hinder the creation of resilience to those physical hazards. This holistic approach to resilience will include investigation of cultural practices and adaptations, economic considerations, social mechanisms, and the role that governance at all scales plays in determining how resilience communities are to earthquakes.

The overall framework of this project, provided by the ODI's RAPID methodology, will allow us to draw upon the expertise of the partner organisations, and the research findings outlined above, to generate a set of evidence-based toolkits and policy recommendations that together will define the pathways by which resilience to earthquakes can best be increased, both in the case-study areas and across the entire partnership.

Planned Impact

The immediate impact of this work will be in the countries participating in the study. These countries have a number of government-funded or -run institutions with responsibility for seismic hazard assessment and planning, such as the GSI (Iran), CEA (China) and Ministry of Emergencies (Kazakhstan). These bodies will benefit through identification of earthquake-related hazards; capacity building through training of students/researchers and exposure to the wider earthquake hazard community; and evidence-based information to influence policy decisions.

National and international NGOs, and regional organizations and networks will benefit from development of more systematic approaches to assessing vulnerability and building resilience; understanding of the governance `landscape' that underpins their activities; and provision of materials and expertise for training and education. Training activities will include both project-specific courses run by ODI in Y4-5, and input of research results and expertise into training programmes run by our partners. The ODI-run courses will focus on policy makers and operational agency staff; training run in collaboration with our partners will include techniques for physical hazard and vulnerability assessment.

During the lifetime of this project, we expect that the benefits will flow to other nations in Eurasia, particularly the Central Asian republics, where there are comparble seismic hazards, and there are already expressions of interest at high political levels for joining the partnership. In addition, the surveys of other nations, particularly Italy, Greece, and Turkey, will both contribute to, and derive benefit from the earthquake science carried out under this partnership.

The project will also have significant impact on the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), a public-private partnership to develop a global understanding of earthquake risk. NERC and BGS are partners in GEM, and some COMET+ investigators are already contributing their own inputs on faults and countries they have been studying. Several of our overseas Partners are also their own national representatives on GEM, so there are multiple and clear links to make sure the new science from this Partnership, which will be highly relevant, is channelled effectively into the GEM project.

The Insurance and Risk Industry, both in the UK and overseas, is concerned with earthquake hazard and catastrophe planning. It is a principal driver behind the GEM project and is clearly interested in the constantly-evolving understanding of earthquake hazard. We are well connected to this industry through: (1) the BGS and NERC Council, which includes Mr. Rowan Douglas of Willis Re; (2) the COMET+ Advisory Board, which includes Dr. Andrew Coburn of Risk Management Solutions (RMS); (3) Prof. Robin Spence of Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd, who is a member of the Willis Research Network and on the Scientific Board of GEM.

Large, damaging earthquakes are rarely out of the news for long, and the public appetite for informed and clear explanations of natural catastrophes is insatiable. Such events are virtually certain to occur during the duration of an this project. We shall pursue energetically the opportunities to engage with the public through lectures, broadcasts, web sites and briefings to UK government agencies and NGOs. Many of the investigators on this proposal are regularly engaged in this activity.

Education will form an enduring impact of this project. We confidently expect that exceptional young researchers from the counties involved will be attracted into this programme and will be able to pursue graduate studies or post-docotoral work, through state-sponsored, or philanthropic support. This is a route through which we have in the past helped countries such as Iran and Mongolia to grow their capacity in earthquake science.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The overarching aim of the project was to increase the resilience to earthquakes of populations in continental interiors by:

1) providing transformational increases in knowledge of primary and secondary seismic hazards in the continental interiors;

2) identifying pathways to increased resilience in the populations exposed to these hazards; and

3) through engagement with partners and stakeholders, secure the uptake and impact of the knowledge and understandings generated by the project both over its duration and subsequently through establishing an enduring partnership.

The project was focused primarily on three countries - China, Kazakhstan and Nepal - but through the partnership a trans-national network has been established that has led to the exchange of knowledge and expertise with other countries at risk from earthquakes in the Alpine-Himalayan belt. In line with the transdisciplinary approach that has been adopted, the specific focus areas in each case-study country emerged from interactions between the disciplines represented in the project team and through engagement with stakeholders in the focus countries and with partners.

Throughout the work, we adopted a transdisciplinary approach in which we:

aimed to shape processes in society, rather than just analyse them;

work closely with stakeholders in society, integrating their perspectives and knowledge with our own; and

took account of local conditions and possibilities for action in order to generate socially robust knowledge, and to secure its uptake and impact.

Activities and findings of the project that are specific to Durham University can be summarised as follows; research by other university partners is summarised separately.

1. We successfully launched the project and the partnership through a series of meetings with project partners in Cambridge (19-21 Oct 2012), Patna (12 Jan 2013), and Kathmandu (16 Jan 2013). Launch events in China took place in 2013 in Xian and Beijing. A mid-project meeting occurred in Kathmandu (11-13 April 2015). These meetings were critical for talking to stakeholders and identifying the key research unknowns in each of the focus countries.

2. We completed mapping exercises designed to assess the state of knowledge and activity around earthquake disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Bihar, India, and Nepal, working directly with Indian and Nepali partners. These included a set of structured interviews with key stakeholders and community groups.

3. We assessed the state of knowledge and earthquake DRR activities in Kazakhstan, and identified project partners in both the university and NGO sectors, including the Red Crescent Society, al-Faraby Kazakh National University, Taraz State University, and Shymkent University. We engaged in a wide range of specific research activities that assessed public perceptions of earthquake hazard and the effectiveness of these local partners in building resilience.

4. We identified the use of science in earthquake disaster risk reduction as a major unknown. The improved or enhanced use of science has been identified by numerous organisations as a priority issue, but it remains unclear how this can best be done, or what benefits might accrue, at community, regional, or sub-national scales. In Nepal, we carried out a major review of how science is used in earthquake disaster risk reduction, involving focus group discussions with scientists, practitioners, donors, UN organisations, and engineers. This study revealed some major gaps in the use of science, particularly around mechanisms for inclusion of up-to-date earthquake science and the use of scenarios. This work was published as a report by the Overseas Development Institute (Oven et al., 2017). A follow-up study was undertaken after the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, and illustrated the challenges involved in using science for operational decision-making in the immediate aftermath of a large earthquake. At the same time, we made some specific recommendations about how scientific information could better inform a post-earthquake humanitarian response. Notably, this work highlights the importance of building long-term relationships between scientists and disaster managers before a major event. This strand of the research was also published by the Overseas Development Institute (Datta et al., 2018).

5. A major related strand of work has been to develop earthquake scenarios for Nepal, for use in contingency planning. We built upon recent advances in scenario design, including the development of open-access shaking algorithms and new approaches to modelling secondary hazards such as landslides, to develop a suite of scenarios for possible future earthquakes in Nepal (Robinson et al., 2018). We are working with the humanitarian sector in Nepal, led by the UN Resident Coordinator's Office, to refine these scenarios and to apply them to planning exercises.

6. We are currently undertaking collaborative work with partners in Nepal and Kazakhstan to trial different approaches toward the use of science in earthquake disaster risk reduction efforts. Work in eastern Nepal has shown the value of landslides as an entry point in engaging communities to think about earthquake disaster risk reduction, and we have been exploring the use of community disaster management groups and early warning systems in those communities to introduce science into decision making processes. Similar work in Kazakhstan has pointed out the importance of community structures in enabling DRR activities.

7. The occurrence of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence in Nepal has had a substantial impact on our work in that case-study area. We established the extent and impact of earthquake-triggered landslides in the region, and have monitored landsliding through the 2015 monsoon season and beyond. Our work shows that the earthquake triggered the equivalent of several hundred years' worth of landslides, focused mostly on the High Himalayan areas far from the epicentre. The subsequent monsoon triggered landslides at a rate that is about an order of magnitude greater than a 'typical' monsoon, most likely due to cracking and damage of the hillslopes by seismic shaking. The impacts of the earthquake have continued to be felt through the 2016, 2017, and 2018 monsoons as elevated rates of landslide activity.
Exploitation Route The research was aimed specifically at a non-academic goal - namely, increasing resilience to earthquakes in communities across the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt. Our results are most relevant to both governmental and non-governmental organisations that are charged with planning for major earthquakes, because our efforts have been focused on factors which make affected populations more or less resilient (rather than on, for example, the best ways to respond to a given earthquake). The results of the research have been achieved in close contact and collaboration with our external (non-academic partners). The precise route by which the research can be exploited varies in each of the three focus countries and across the partnership more widely, due to differences in the cultural, societal, and governmental approach to earthquake DRR. These differences have themselves been a focus of our research.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://ewf.nerc.ac.uk
 
Description Our findings are being used by our key partners, including NSET (Nepal), BSDMA (India), Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (Nepal), DFID (Nepal), the UN Resident Coordinator's Office (Nepal), Mission East (Nepal), the Red Crescent Society (Kazakhstan), GDS (China), and World Vision (China), to improve their advocacy efforts for earthquake risk reduction. We are working with these partners on applied research into the use of scientific information in their interventions and decision-making around earthquake risk. This includes a wide range of different activities, from scientific advice on threats to reconstruction efforts after the 2015 earthquakes in Nepal, to refinement of guidance on urban and rural earthquake responses in Kazakhstan, and to the set-up of a model earthquake-resilient community in China.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description 2015 Gorkha earthquake: advice to NGOs
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description 2015 Gorkha earthquake: advice to UK government
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Support for community hazard assessment by National Reconstruction Authority, Nepal
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Enhanced guidance for community hazard assessment teams involved in surveying 500 earthquake-affected communities, in preparation for post-earthquake reconstruction
 
Description DFID Research Policy Fund
Amount £53,240 (GBP)
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Department for International Development (DfID)
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 07/2017
 
Description DFID SHEAR
Amount £14,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Department for International Development (DfID)
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 02/2016
 
Description DFID South Asia Research Hub
Amount £76,160 (GBP)
Funding ID 205053-108 
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Department for International Development (DfID)
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 08/2016
 
Description Global Challenges Research Fund
Amount £197,269 (GBP)
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 07/2017
 
Description Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience Studentship
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation Durham University 
Department Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2016
 
Description NERC Newton follow-on funding: Earthquakes without Frontiers
Amount £239,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 08/2017
 
Description NERC Urgency grant
Amount £63,883 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/N007689/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Description Science for Humanitarian Emergencies and Resilience
Amount £326,875 (GBP)
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Department for International Development (DfID)
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 04/2019
 
Title Landslide database, 2015 Gorkha earthquakes, Nepal 
Description Database of landslides triggered by the 25 April and 12 May 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence in Nepal. The database was constructed using a variety of optical satellite imagery, and was shared widely via the Earthquakes without Frontiers blog and Twitter accounts to aid humanitarian response and recovery efforts by a variety of end users. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Widely used by humanitarian and other organisations in Nepal, including the UN Logistics Cluster, WFP, Nepal Red Cross, NSET 
URL http://ewf.nerc.ac.uk/2015/06/30/updated-30-june-landslide-inventory-following-25-april-and-12-may-n...
 
Description DFID Nepal 
Organisation Government of the UK
Department Department for International Development (DfID)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Advice to Nepal country office on earthquake and landslide hazard before and after 2015 Gorkha earthquakes Advice on reconstruction in landslide-prone areas of Nepal Advice on scientific rationale for hazard assessment across Nepal
Collaborator Contribution Facilitation of contacts with Humanitarian Country Team in Nepal Access to additional funding via the DFID-NERC Science for Humanitarian Emergencies and Resilience (SHEAR) programme
Impact Williams, J.G., Rosser, N.J., Kincey, M.E., Benjamin, J., Oven, K.J., Densmore, A.L., Milledge, D.G., Robinson, T.R., Jordan, C.A., and Dijkstra, T.A. (2018) Satellite-based emergency mapping: landslides triggered by the 2015 Nepal earthquake. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 18, 185-205, doi:10.5194/nhess-18-185-2018. Not multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2015
 
Description DFID South Asia Research Hub 
Organisation Government of the UK
Department Department for International Development (DfID)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We carried out a review of the Nine Minimum Characteristics of a Disaster Resilient Community, a framework developed by the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium, the Nepali Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development, and the IFRC, and promoted as a broad general framework for community-based disaster risk reduction (DRR) projects across the country. The review (Oven et al., 2016b) found that the Nine Minimum Characteristics have been effective in building resilience in some communities, especially those where the hazard is broadly recognised by the community and where DRR activities can also address livelihood concerns. In other settings, for example where there is disagreement about the nature of the threat or where there is little support available at VDC or district level, the Characteristics have not been as effective. The review concluded that the Characteristics are most useful as a unified but flexible framework for designing and implementing DRR activities, in contrast to more rigid devices such as the Local Disaster Relief Management Plan.
Collaborator Contribution DFID South Asia Research Hub supported the research
Impact Oven, K., Sigdel, S., Rana, S., Wisner, B., Datta, A., Jones, S., and Densmore, A.L. (2017) Review of the Nine Minimum Characteristics of a Disaster Resilient Community in Nepal. Report for the DFID South Asia Research Hub. Multi-disciplinary (geology, physical geography, human geography)
Start Year 2016
 
Description Earthquakes without Frontiers 
Organisation Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Country Kazakhstan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team carried out research on (1) physical earthquake hazard across the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt, (2) pathways and barriers to earthquake resilience and disaster risk reduction in this region, and (3) mechanisms by which improved scientific understanding can be linked to policy recommendations for enhanced resilience. We also facilitated discussions about earthquake resilience among partners across this broad partnership.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners worked with us in the three case-study regions (China, Nepal-India, and Kazakhstan) as collaborators and co-producers of knowledge in the three areas outlined above. They also provided in-kind donations of time and logistical support to allow the research to progress.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Earth sciences, physical geography, human geography, social work/applied social sciences, policy
Start Year 2012
 
Description Earthquakes without Frontiers 
Organisation Bihar State Disaster Management Authority
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our research team carried out research on (1) physical earthquake hazard across the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt, (2) pathways and barriers to earthquake resilience and disaster risk reduction in this region, and (3) mechanisms by which improved scientific understanding can be linked to policy recommendations for enhanced resilience. We also facilitated discussions about earthquake resilience among partners across this broad partnership.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners worked with us in the three case-study regions (China, Nepal-India, and Kazakhstan) as collaborators and co-producers of knowledge in the three areas outlined above. They also provided in-kind donations of time and logistical support to allow the research to progress.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Earth sciences, physical geography, human geography, social work/applied social sciences, policy
Start Year 2012
 
Description Earthquakes without Frontiers 
Organisation China Earthquake Administration
Country China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our research team carried out research on (1) physical earthquake hazard across the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt, (2) pathways and barriers to earthquake resilience and disaster risk reduction in this region, and (3) mechanisms by which improved scientific understanding can be linked to policy recommendations for enhanced resilience. We also facilitated discussions about earthquake resilience among partners across this broad partnership.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners worked with us in the three case-study regions (China, Nepal-India, and Kazakhstan) as collaborators and co-producers of knowledge in the three areas outlined above. They also provided in-kind donations of time and logistical support to allow the research to progress.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Earth sciences, physical geography, human geography, social work/applied social sciences, policy
Start Year 2012
 
Description Earthquakes without Frontiers 
Organisation Kulima Integrated Development Solutions
Country South Africa 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Our research team carried out research on (1) physical earthquake hazard across the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt, (2) pathways and barriers to earthquake resilience and disaster risk reduction in this region, and (3) mechanisms by which improved scientific understanding can be linked to policy recommendations for enhanced resilience. We also facilitated discussions about earthquake resilience among partners across this broad partnership.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners worked with us in the three case-study regions (China, Nepal-India, and Kazakhstan) as collaborators and co-producers of knowledge in the three areas outlined above. They also provided in-kind donations of time and logistical support to allow the research to progress.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Earth sciences, physical geography, human geography, social work/applied social sciences, policy
Start Year 2012
 
Description Earthquakes without Frontiers 
Organisation National Society for Earthquake Technology
Country Nepal 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our research team carried out research on (1) physical earthquake hazard across the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt, (2) pathways and barriers to earthquake resilience and disaster risk reduction in this region, and (3) mechanisms by which improved scientific understanding can be linked to policy recommendations for enhanced resilience. We also facilitated discussions about earthquake resilience among partners across this broad partnership.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners worked with us in the three case-study regions (China, Nepal-India, and Kazakhstan) as collaborators and co-producers of knowledge in the three areas outlined above. They also provided in-kind donations of time and logistical support to allow the research to progress.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Earth sciences, physical geography, human geography, social work/applied social sciences, policy
Start Year 2012
 
Description Earthquakes without Frontiers 
Organisation Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium
Country Nepal 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our research team carried out research on (1) physical earthquake hazard across the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt, (2) pathways and barriers to earthquake resilience and disaster risk reduction in this region, and (3) mechanisms by which improved scientific understanding can be linked to policy recommendations for enhanced resilience. We also facilitated discussions about earthquake resilience among partners across this broad partnership.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners worked with us in the three case-study regions (China, Nepal-India, and Kazakhstan) as collaborators and co-producers of knowledge in the three areas outlined above. They also provided in-kind donations of time and logistical support to allow the research to progress.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Earth sciences, physical geography, human geography, social work/applied social sciences, policy
Start Year 2012
 
Description Earthquakes without Frontiers 
Organisation Red Crescent Society of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Country Kazakhstan 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our research team carried out research on (1) physical earthquake hazard across the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt, (2) pathways and barriers to earthquake resilience and disaster risk reduction in this region, and (3) mechanisms by which improved scientific understanding can be linked to policy recommendations for enhanced resilience. We also facilitated discussions about earthquake resilience among partners across this broad partnership.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners worked with us in the three case-study regions (China, Nepal-India, and Kazakhstan) as collaborators and co-producers of knowledge in the three areas outlined above. They also provided in-kind donations of time and logistical support to allow the research to progress.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Earth sciences, physical geography, human geography, social work/applied social sciences, policy
Start Year 2012
 
Description Earthquakes without Frontiers 
Organisation World Vision
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our research team carried out research on (1) physical earthquake hazard across the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt, (2) pathways and barriers to earthquake resilience and disaster risk reduction in this region, and (3) mechanisms by which improved scientific understanding can be linked to policy recommendations for enhanced resilience. We also facilitated discussions about earthquake resilience among partners across this broad partnership.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners worked with us in the three case-study regions (China, Nepal-India, and Kazakhstan) as collaborators and co-producers of knowledge in the three areas outlined above. They also provided in-kind donations of time and logistical support to allow the research to progress.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Earth sciences, physical geography, human geography, social work/applied social sciences, policy
Start Year 2012
 
Description Earthquakes without Frontiers 
Organisation Xi'an Jiaotong University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team carried out research on (1) physical earthquake hazard across the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt, (2) pathways and barriers to earthquake resilience and disaster risk reduction in this region, and (3) mechanisms by which improved scientific understanding can be linked to policy recommendations for enhanced resilience. We also facilitated discussions about earthquake resilience among partners across this broad partnership.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners worked with us in the three case-study regions (China, Nepal-India, and Kazakhstan) as collaborators and co-producers of knowledge in the three areas outlined above. They also provided in-kind donations of time and logistical support to allow the research to progress.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Earth sciences, physical geography, human geography, social work/applied social sciences, policy
Start Year 2012
 
Description Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium 
Organisation Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium
Country Nepal 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The Earthquakes without Frontiers team has contributed to NRRC communication efforts, including reviewing SMS messages used to promote DRR in Nepal. The team carried out a review of the NRRC's 9 Minimum Characteristics of a Disaster-Resilient Community.
Collaborator Contribution Facilitation of contacts with a broad range of NRRC partners Introduction to DFID-Nepal
Impact No formal outputs
Start Year 2012
 
Description 2015 Gorkha earthquake: media engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Numerous media appearances after the 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence in Nepal. Content focused on the hazard from earthquake-triggered and post-earthquake landslides, building on Earthquakes without Frontiers research. Activity included interviews with BBC Online, BBC World Service, BBC Radio 4, and solicited editorials for New Scientist and Re magazine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Collaboration on building vulnerability in Kazakhstan 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We facilitated a visit to Kazakhstan by staff from project partner NSET, a national NGO in Nepal. The focus of the visit was to work with the Red Crescent Society and the Buildings Institute in Taraz, Kazakhstan, to investigate the vulnerability of traditional adobe buildings to earthquakes. This is a clear example of knowledge exchange between partners across the Earthquakes without Frontiers project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description DFID visit to Dhankuta and Sindhupalchok districts, Nepal 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We coordinated a visit by DFID London and DFID Nepal staff to see landslide monitoring work in Dhankuta and Sindhupalchok districts, Nepal, to help understand the context for local DRR activities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Earthquake information for DFID Nepal 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations on earthquake hazard to staff at DFID Nepal in April and June 2015. We answered general questions on earthquake occurrence and hazard and discussed the outcomes of the research as relevant for DFID staff.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Earthquakes without Frontiers Blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Project blog that describes activity and shares some of the headline findings or results

Not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014
URL http://ewf.nerc.ac.uk/blog/
 
Description Earthquakes without Frontiers Twitter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Project Twitter account, used to share updates on research progress, details of field work, key findings, reports and other outputs

Numerous re-tweets and enquiries resulting from posts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014
URL https://twitter.com/EwFProject
 
Description Earthquakes without frontiers - India launch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Launch event in Patna, Bihar, India, for the Earthquakes without Frontiers project. This involved policymakers, practitioners, the state disaster management authority, scientists, and the media.

This event launched the research project and led directly to both primary research results on earthquake risk governance, and widespread awareness of the project among existing and potential stakeholders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Earthquakes without frontiers - Nepal launch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Launch event in Kathmandu, Nepal, for the Earthquakes without Frontiers project. This involved policymakers, practitioners, scientists, and media representatives.

The event led to widespread awareness of the project among existing and potential stakeholders. We also carried out primary research during the event on perceptions of earthquake risk governance in Nepal, which were used to inform an output from the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Field visit to landslide monitoring sites with DFID and UN-OPS 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Field visit to several communities in eastern Nepal, organised in collaboration with project partners at NSET, to demonstrate low-tech slope monitoring to DFID London, DFID Nepal, and UNOPS staff. This led to an application for additional funding through the DFID/NERC/ESRC SHEAR programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Input to community hazard assessment procedures by National Reconstruction Authority, Nepal 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The project team provided advice on landslide hazard assessment to UNOPS, who are designing community hazard assessment procedures to be used by the National Reconstruction Authority in prioritising reconstruction efforts across the 14 earthquake-affected districts in Nepal
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description Landslide knowledge sharing with INGOs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Learning from low-cost landslide monitoring and community engagement in Chhintang, eastern Nepal, was shared with the international NGOs Mission East and Save the Children, who are engaged in a landslide risk reduction project in the 14 earthquake-affected districts in Nepal. Mission East has subsequently adopted the low-tech slope monitoring approach in Ramechhap District, Central Nepal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Review of the Nine Minimum Characteristics of a Disaster-Resilient Community 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Findings and recommendations from the Review of Nepal's Nine Minimum Characteristics of a Disaster Resilient Community, which was commissioned by the DFID South Asia Research Hub and carried out by project PDRA Katie Oven, were presented in a workshop organised by the Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development, Government of Nepal and the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium's Flagship 4 programme. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 government, UN and NGO representatives engaged in DRR activities in Nepal. The findings of the review were discussed, and have been used to inform the redrafting of DRR policy in Nepal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Scenario inputs to Exercise Tempest Express 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Project staff contributed to earthquake scenarios that were used as the basis for contingency planning by the UN Humanitarian Country Team and by the US and Nepali armies in Exercise Tempest Express, a major disaster exercise in April 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016