Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): Resolving the Basal Control on Ice Flow and Calving in Greenland

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Scott Polar Research Institute

Abstract

Marine-terminating outlet glaciers drain 88% of the Greenland Ice Sheet and are responsible for at least half of the ice sheet's net annual mass loss, which at present is around 200 km3/year. Understanding the processes that drive the fast flow of these glaciers is crucial because a growing body of evidence points to a strong, but spatially varied and often complex, response to both oceanographic and atmospheric forcing. While the bed of glaciers elsewhere is known to strongly influence the flow of ice, no observations have ever been made from beneath a marine-terminating glacier in Greenland; a potential and likely cause of significant error in current predictions of sea level rise. This project will correct this paucity of observational constraint by gaining access to the bed of a major marine-terminating outlet glacier (Store Gletscher) in West Greenland, in order to observe and characterise the basal interface. With instruments deployed at the bed and on the glacier's surface and forefield, the project will fully resolve the basal control on ice flow and the glacier's response to iceberg calving, including the effects of meltwater input to the bed. The observational outcome will inform the glacier's sensitivity to atmospheric as well as oceanographic forcing while also enabling numerical ice flow modelling of unprecedented detail and accuracy.

Planned Impact

This project has fundamental societal and economic benefits related to the ongoing fast pace of glacier change in Greenland. End users will benefit from the proposed research in the following way:
(1) Policymakers and the general public will benefit from a clearer understanding of why marine glaciers in Greenland flow as fast as they do, why they respond sensitively to environmental forcing, and what the impact of this response is in terms of sea level rise.
(2) People in the Uummannaq township will benefit from a clearer understanding of how their local environment is affected by climate change, and why some glaciers in their region have receded rapidly in recent years. The local marine and fishing industry will also benefit from better understanding and predictions of changing ice and water characteristics of the local fjords.
(3) The government of Greenland will benefit from a clearer understanding of glaciological dynamics of the Greenland ice sheet, and how these can affect local communities and infrastructure planning.
(4) The oil and gas industry, particularly companies operating or considering operations in West Greenland, will benefit from knowing the extent and exact cause of recent rapid glacier change in the region, The area faces major offshore exploration activity, which will benefit from improved knowledge and forecasts of iceberg activity. More generally, they will also benefit from the project's assessment of glacier sensitivity and future potential change.
(5) The mineral resource industry will benefit from a clearer understanding of the geology under the Greenland Ice Sheet. They will also have an intense interest in our predictions of the rate at which glaciers are anticipated to recede, and how this rate may change over the coming decades.

To realise the potential impact of the research, the investigators will use websites to make their work visible to the wider stakeholders and general public, making sure the displayed information is frequently updated, interactive and engaging. The proposed research will also be explained on interactive audio-visual displays at the Polar Museum at the Scott Polar Research Institute, visited by 45,000 or more members of the public and more than 100 school groups every year. Because many schools do not have the funds necessary to visit Cambridge, at least five school groups from inner-city and rural areas located outside of Cambridge will be brought to the Polar Museum free of charge. To promote science as a subject taught in primary and secondary schools, a workshop entitled 'What's happening in Greenland?' will be arranged, with anticipated attendance by 50-60 school teachers.

The Scott Polar Research Institute and Aberystwyth University both have direct links to the private sector. The PI is currently working with the oil and gas industry in order to better understand permafrost changes in the Arctic. Co-Investigators are working with the nuclear waste management industry, to improve understanding of how an ice sheet affects the groundwater flow and water chemistry around a deep geological repository. These connections will be utilized and nourished further in this project.

Finally, one of the investigators on this project (AH) spent three weeks on the Greenland Ice Sheet in 2010, filming the 'Greenland Melt' in episodes 1, 5 & 7 of BBC1's flagship series 'Frozen Planet'. In 2011, two more weeks were spent on the ice sheet filming 'Ice Age' episodes 1, 2 & 3, also for BBC1. In 2012, he is participating in the filming of 'Operation Iceberg' episode 1 for BBC Scotland at Store Gletscher, Uummannaq, the site proposed in this project. BBC has informed the team behind this project that they are planning to film a documentary on Greenland with emphasis on outlet glaciers in 2014, a potential avenue for very high impact of this research, given that filming coincides with the proposed programme of subglacial access drilling and 'on-ice' scientific exploration.

Publications

10 25 50

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Cooley S (2017) Observation Bias Correction Reveals More Rapidly Draining Lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet in Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface

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Cowton TR (2018) Linear response of east Greenland's tidewater glaciers to ocean/atmosphere warming. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Kendrick A (2018) Surface Meltwater Impounded by Seasonal Englacial Storage in West Greenland in Geophysical Research Letters

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Todd J (2018) A Full-Stokes 3-D Calving Model Applied to a Large Greenlandic Glacier in Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface

 
Title THAW 
Description Photographic exhibition at Bonham's Auction House on New Bond Street, London, 20-23 February 2017. The striking images of Greenland's supraglacial lakes, taken by Timo Lieber (photographer), was a collaboration with scientists (including myself) at the Scott Polar Research Institute in Cambridge. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The images of Greenland's expanding lakes was seen by visitors to Bonham's. The exhibition gained 140,000+ likes and 600+ comments on Facebook. 
URL https://www.bonhams.com/press_release/23363/
 
Title Uummannaq: a century of exploration in Greenland 
Description The exhibition 'Uummannaq: a century of exploration in Greenland' was presented at the Polar Museum in Cambridge and on display from 22 September 2017 to 31 March 2018. The exhibition featured photographic displays, animations, historic information, and scientific equipment used in exploratory research spanning 100 years. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The exhibition was visited by 20,000 members of the public and approximately 100 primary school groups. 
URL https://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/exhibitions/
 
Description The SAFIRE project has drilled through more than 600 m of ice in order to produced the first observational records from the basal environment of a fast flowing glacier in Greenland. Focussing on Store Glacier, which drains an area of 35,000 km2 and discharges 30 million cubic metres of ice into a fjord every day, the team has produced fundamental new understandings of rapid ice sheet dynamics, which are the processes responsible for generating rapid flow of ice on the Greenland Ice Sheet. The new understanding is used to constrain computer models needed to predict the flow of Greenland's fast flowing outlet glaciers and the ice sheet's rising contribution to global sea level change.
Exploitation Route The data collected in this project are providing crucial new insights to the basal environment of Greenland's fastest flowing glaciers. By making these data freely available, the project has benefitted other scientists working on reducing the uncertainty tied to predicting ice flow and Greenland's contribution global sea level rise. The findings of this project were furthermore displayed in an science exhibition at the Polar Museum in Cambridge, which ran from 27 September 2017 to 31 March 2018. The exhibition was visited by c. 20,000 members of the public and a hundred visiting school groups. The major findings of this project will, in due course, also influence policy-making.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.geog.cam.ac.uk/research/projects/safire/
 
Description Marine-terminating outlet glaciers drain 90 percent of the Greenland Ice Sheet and are responsible for about half of the ice sheet's net annual mass loss, which currently raises global sea level by 1 mm per year. The basal controls on fast glacier flow are, however, largely unknown, with the implication that numerical ice sheet models needed to predict future dynamic ice loss from Greenland relies on untested basal parameterisations. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE) is addressing this paucity of observational constraints by carrying out a coordinated suite of scientific investigations on Store Glacier, a large and fast-flowing outlet glacier terminating in Uummannaq Fjord, West Greenland. The SAFIRE project has advanced our knowledge of rapid ice sheet dynamics, which is most uncertain source of global sea level rise. The new knowledge gained in this project has produced a step change for establishing the basal controls on Greenland's fast flowing outlet glaciers. The project was the first to drill through one of these highly dynamic outlets. During 2014-2016, the SAFIRE team successfully drilled eight boreholes to a depth of >600 m below surface in a fast-flowing sector of Store Glacier. Probes and sensors were installed at the bed and within the glacier itself, and unique new datasets were collected. These data include: englacial and basal ice temperatures, ice deformation, basal water pressure, basal effective pressure, electrical conductivity and turbidity. Instruments installed on the surface includes: time-lapse cameras to capture calving events and geometrical changes in the glacier's front, GPS receivers to record ice flow speeds over periods of hours to multiple years, an automatic weather station to record meteorological conditions. A phase-sensitive imaging radar has been deployed in order to determine rates of englacial ice deformation and basal melting. Two seismic surveys have established the properties of the glacier and its bed. The team has, in addition, developed comprehensive 3D computer models. The models are novel because they are created in full 3D and feature basal parameterisations guided by direct observations from the basal environment of Store Glacier. Another key novelty lies is the incorporation of the process whereby icebergs break off the front of the glacier. The SAFIRE team has produced not only the first observational evidence from the bed of a fast flowing outlet glacier in Greenland, they have also produced the some of the most sophisticated computer models.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Distributed European Computing Initiative (DECI-12)
Amount € 20,000 (EUR)
Funding ID Dynamical Modelling of Ice Transport and Evolution (DynaMITE) 
Organisation Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Belgium
Start 10/2014 
End 11/2015
 
Description ERC Consolidator Grant
Amount € 2,443,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2021
 
Description Marie Curie Fellowship
Amount € 183,454 (EUR)
Funding ID 705215 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2016 
End 05/2018
 
Title Borehole records and ancillary data from Store Glacier, West Greenland 
Description A record of borehole data and ancillary information was made freely available. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The freely available borehole data records include: A) englacial ice temperature, B) ice deformation, C) basal sliding speeds, D) water pressure, E) electrical conductivity, F) surface motion, and accompanying automatic weather station data. The data were collected at Store Glacier, which is a fast-flowing outlet glacier of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The records are novel as they are the provide the first hard evidence for conditions at the base of Greenland's fast flowing outlet glaciers. 
URL https://figshare.com/articles/_/5745294
 
Title Model output from 3D calving simulations of Store Glacier, West Greenland 
Description This dataset represents model output from 4 simulations of Store Glacier produced using the Elmer/Ice glacier model equipped with novel 3D calving subroutines. As described in the paper associated with this dataset (Todd et al., JGR, 2018), the model was initialised with satellite derived surface velocities and then forced with present day environmental forcing. The simulation covers a 5 year time period with no fixed dates. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These four simulations can be used by anyone who wishes to study the force balance and flow dynamics of a large Greenlandic outlet glacier. 
URL http://doi.org/10.5285/19893d62-19db-4fbd-938b-a9858d1cf40b
 
Title Seismic reflection profiles from Store Glacier in Greenland 
Description A collection of five seismic reflection datasets were made freely available. The data were collected on Store Glacier, which is a large marine-terminating outlet glacier draining the Greenland Ice Sheet and flowing into Uummannaq Fjord. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The reflection datasets can be downloaded and used by anyone. The dataset are unique in that it was collected in a fast-flowing setting on the Greenland Ice Sheet. 
URL https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.884529
 
Description Coupling basal mechanics and ice flow in the Community Ice Sheet Model 
Organisation Los Alamos National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution In this collaboration, the Cambridge group was responsible for integrating a model of subglacial processes in the higher-order Community Ice Sheet Model.
Collaborator Contribution The partner at the Los Alamos National Laboratory contributed with their expertise on numerical ice sheet modelling. The Community Ice Sheet Model is primarily developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Impact This collaboration has increased the dynamic capability of the CISM. Outcomes were reported in conference papers as well as articles published in peer-reviewed journals of high international standard. A good example is: Bougamont*, M., S. Price**, P. Christoffersen, A. J. Payne, Dynamic patterns of ice stream flow in a 3D higher-order ice sheet model with plastic bed and simplified hydrology, Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, 2011, doi:10.1029/2011JF002025***. * Postdoctoral Researcher at the Scott Polar Research Institute ** Partner at Los Alamos National Laboratory *** THIS ARTICLE WAS SELECTED AS A RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT BY EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION AND FEATURED AS RESEARCH SPOTLIGHT IN THE EOS NEWSLETTER.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Coupling hydrology and ice flow in the Community Ice Sheet Model 
Organisation University of California, San Diego (UCSD)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution In this collaboration, the Cambridge group integrated hydrological processes in the Community Ice Sheet Model, which they use to simulate the flow of glaciers and ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography provided a validated hydrological model.
Impact The collaboration with Prof. Helen Fricker and her research group at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography has so far produced three significant peer-reviewed journal articles: Bougamont, M., P. Christoffersen, A. L. Hubbard, A. A. Fitzpatrick, S. H. Doyle, and S. P. Carter, Sensitive response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to surface melt drainage over a soft bed, Nature Communications, 5, 5052-5052, doi:10.1038/ncomms6052, 2014. HIGH IMPACT RESEARCH OUTPUT WITH ALTMETRIC SCORE OF 144 ONE MONTH AFTER PUBLICATION. OUTPUT REPORTED IN 17 NEWS OUTLETS. Christoffersen, P., *M. Bougamont, S. P. Carter, H. A. Fricker, and S. Tulaczyk, Significant groundwater contribution to Antarctic ice streams hydrologic budget, Geophysical Research Letters, 41(6), 2003-2010, doi:10.1002/2014gl059250, 2014. SELECTED AS RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT BY AGU EDITORS AND FEATURED AS RESEARCH SPOTLIGHT IN EOS NEWSLETTER. Beem, L. H., S. M. Tulaczyk, M. A. King, *M. Bougamont, H. A. Fricker, and P. Christoffersen, Variable deceleration of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica, Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 119(2), 212-224, doi:10.1002/2013jf002958, 2014. SELECTED AS RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT BY AGU EDITORS AND FEATURED AS RESEARCH SPOTLIGHT IN EOS NEWSLETTER.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Implementing the calving mechanism in the Elmer/ICE finite element package 
Organisation CSC – IT Centre for Science
Country Finland 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution New parameterisations for the glacier calving mechanism was implemented in Elmer/ICE finite element package in both 2D and 3D. Elmer/ICE is an open source software package used widely to simulate glaciers and ice sheets.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Thomas Zwinger at CSC provided technical assistance with coding and running Elmer/ICE on a supercomputer in Finland.
Impact Development and validation of 2D and 3D calving criteria formed the basis of a PhD project funded by NERC. Simulations of Store Glacier was performed on a supercomputer. Model outputs was used to produce scientific articles.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Subglacial Access and Exploration 
Organisation Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution In this collaboration, the Cambridge group contributes with logistical access to Store Glacier, a fast-flowing outlet glacier in West Greenland, which is also the target of the Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE) funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. Dr. Coen Hofstede (Alfred Wegener Institute) contributed to the project by carrying out a seismic survey near the drill site where PI (Christoffersen) and his team gained access to the glaciers bed. Prof. Jason Box (GEUS) contributed with equipment for an automatic weather station, set up on the glacier. Dr. Jake Walter at University of Texas, Austin, contributed with a broadband seismometer, which was deployed on the glacier.
Collaborator Contribution In 2014, Dr. Coen Hofstede (Alfred Wegener) joined the field team and contributed with a seismic survey (German equipment) from which soft basal sediment could be identified. The mapped presence of soft sediment will guide the extraction of sediment samples from boreholes drilled to the bed of the glacier in 2015. Prof. Jason Box (GEUS) and Jake Walter (University of Texas, Austin) contributed with scientific instruments (automatic weather station, time-lapse cameras, seismometer) and Dr. Ian Howat provided Worldview high-resolution satellite imagery.
Impact This collaboration has been successful in that joint objectives for fieldwork in 2014 was achieved. The outcomes include data from 1) a comprehensive seismic survey on Store Glacier, 2) an automatic weather station installed on the glacier, and 3) a broadband seismometer installed on the ice. The collaboration enhances the outcomes from the SAFIRE project and will, in due course, be able to explain why Greenland outlet glaciers are the fastest and most dynamic on Earth.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Subglacial Access and Exploration 
Organisation Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
Country Denmark 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution In this collaboration, the Cambridge group contributes with logistical access to Store Glacier, a fast-flowing outlet glacier in West Greenland, which is also the target of the Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE) funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. Dr. Coen Hofstede (Alfred Wegener Institute) contributed to the project by carrying out a seismic survey near the drill site where PI (Christoffersen) and his team gained access to the glaciers bed. Prof. Jason Box (GEUS) contributed with equipment for an automatic weather station, set up on the glacier. Dr. Jake Walter at University of Texas, Austin, contributed with a broadband seismometer, which was deployed on the glacier.
Collaborator Contribution In 2014, Dr. Coen Hofstede (Alfred Wegener) joined the field team and contributed with a seismic survey (German equipment) from which soft basal sediment could be identified. The mapped presence of soft sediment will guide the extraction of sediment samples from boreholes drilled to the bed of the glacier in 2015. Prof. Jason Box (GEUS) and Jake Walter (University of Texas, Austin) contributed with scientific instruments (automatic weather station, time-lapse cameras, seismometer) and Dr. Ian Howat provided Worldview high-resolution satellite imagery.
Impact This collaboration has been successful in that joint objectives for fieldwork in 2014 was achieved. The outcomes include data from 1) a comprehensive seismic survey on Store Glacier, 2) an automatic weather station installed on the glacier, and 3) a broadband seismometer installed on the ice. The collaboration enhances the outcomes from the SAFIRE project and will, in due course, be able to explain why Greenland outlet glaciers are the fastest and most dynamic on Earth.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Subglacial Access and Exploration 
Organisation Ohio State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution In this collaboration, the Cambridge group contributes with logistical access to Store Glacier, a fast-flowing outlet glacier in West Greenland, which is also the target of the Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE) funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. Dr. Coen Hofstede (Alfred Wegener Institute) contributed to the project by carrying out a seismic survey near the drill site where PI (Christoffersen) and his team gained access to the glaciers bed. Prof. Jason Box (GEUS) contributed with equipment for an automatic weather station, set up on the glacier. Dr. Jake Walter at University of Texas, Austin, contributed with a broadband seismometer, which was deployed on the glacier.
Collaborator Contribution In 2014, Dr. Coen Hofstede (Alfred Wegener) joined the field team and contributed with a seismic survey (German equipment) from which soft basal sediment could be identified. The mapped presence of soft sediment will guide the extraction of sediment samples from boreholes drilled to the bed of the glacier in 2015. Prof. Jason Box (GEUS) and Jake Walter (University of Texas, Austin) contributed with scientific instruments (automatic weather station, time-lapse cameras, seismometer) and Dr. Ian Howat provided Worldview high-resolution satellite imagery.
Impact This collaboration has been successful in that joint objectives for fieldwork in 2014 was achieved. The outcomes include data from 1) a comprehensive seismic survey on Store Glacier, 2) an automatic weather station installed on the glacier, and 3) a broadband seismometer installed on the ice. The collaboration enhances the outcomes from the SAFIRE project and will, in due course, be able to explain why Greenland outlet glaciers are the fastest and most dynamic on Earth.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Subglacial Access and Exploration 
Organisation Swansea University
Department College of Science
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution In this collaboration, the Cambridge group contributes with logistical access to Store Glacier, a fast-flowing outlet glacier in West Greenland, which is also the target of the Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE) funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. Dr. Coen Hofstede (Alfred Wegener Institute) contributed to the project by carrying out a seismic survey near the drill site where PI (Christoffersen) and his team gained access to the glaciers bed. Prof. Jason Box (GEUS) contributed with equipment for an automatic weather station, set up on the glacier. Dr. Jake Walter at University of Texas, Austin, contributed with a broadband seismometer, which was deployed on the glacier.
Collaborator Contribution In 2014, Dr. Coen Hofstede (Alfred Wegener) joined the field team and contributed with a seismic survey (German equipment) from which soft basal sediment could be identified. The mapped presence of soft sediment will guide the extraction of sediment samples from boreholes drilled to the bed of the glacier in 2015. Prof. Jason Box (GEUS) and Jake Walter (University of Texas, Austin) contributed with scientific instruments (automatic weather station, time-lapse cameras, seismometer) and Dr. Ian Howat provided Worldview high-resolution satellite imagery.
Impact This collaboration has been successful in that joint objectives for fieldwork in 2014 was achieved. The outcomes include data from 1) a comprehensive seismic survey on Store Glacier, 2) an automatic weather station installed on the glacier, and 3) a broadband seismometer installed on the ice. The collaboration enhances the outcomes from the SAFIRE project and will, in due course, be able to explain why Greenland outlet glaciers are the fastest and most dynamic on Earth.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Subglacial Access and Exploration 
Organisation University of Texas at Austin
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution In this collaboration, the Cambridge group contributes with logistical access to Store Glacier, a fast-flowing outlet glacier in West Greenland, which is also the target of the Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE) funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. Dr. Coen Hofstede (Alfred Wegener Institute) contributed to the project by carrying out a seismic survey near the drill site where PI (Christoffersen) and his team gained access to the glaciers bed. Prof. Jason Box (GEUS) contributed with equipment for an automatic weather station, set up on the glacier. Dr. Jake Walter at University of Texas, Austin, contributed with a broadband seismometer, which was deployed on the glacier.
Collaborator Contribution In 2014, Dr. Coen Hofstede (Alfred Wegener) joined the field team and contributed with a seismic survey (German equipment) from which soft basal sediment could be identified. The mapped presence of soft sediment will guide the extraction of sediment samples from boreholes drilled to the bed of the glacier in 2015. Prof. Jason Box (GEUS) and Jake Walter (University of Texas, Austin) contributed with scientific instruments (automatic weather station, time-lapse cameras, seismometer) and Dr. Ian Howat provided Worldview high-resolution satellite imagery.
Impact This collaboration has been successful in that joint objectives for fieldwork in 2014 was achieved. The outcomes include data from 1) a comprehensive seismic survey on Store Glacier, 2) an automatic weather station installed on the glacier, and 3) a broadband seismometer installed on the ice. The collaboration enhances the outcomes from the SAFIRE project and will, in due course, be able to explain why Greenland outlet glaciers are the fastest and most dynamic on Earth.
Start Year 2014
 
Title 2D iceberg calving parameterisation for the Elmer/ICE finite element package 
Description A 2D iceberg calving parameterisation was implemented in the Full Stokes Elmer/ICE (open source) finite element package. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The model can be used at no cost by those using the Elmer/ICE model to study glaciers numerically. 
URL http://elmerice.elmerfem.org/
 
Title 3D calving parameterisation for the Full Stokes Elmer/ICE (open source) finite element package. 
Description A 3D iceberg calving parameterisation was implemented in the Full Stokes Elmer/ICE (open source) finite element package. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The 3D iceberg calving parameterisation can be used by anyone working with the Elmer/ICE (open source) finite element package. 
URL https://github.com/ElmerCSC/elmerfem/tree/elmerice
 
Title Subglacial hydrology implemented the Community Ice Sheet Model v 2.0 (CISM2) 
Description A new scheme for 'subglacial hydrology' was implemented into the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM). This model development has allowed routing of water in the CISM. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact This model development has provided key new insights to the subglacial hydrology of ice sheets. Peer-reviewed articles based on outputs from the model include 1) the first quantitative assessment of the hydrologic budget of Antarctic ice streams, and 2) a novel new assessment of the Greenland Ice Sheet's sensitivity to climate change. Bougamont, M., P. Christoffersen, A. L. Hubbard, A. A. Fitzpatrick, S. H. Doyle, and S. P. Carter, Sensitive response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to surface melt drainage over a soft bed, Nature Communications, 5, 5052-5052, doi:10.1038/ncomms6052, 2014. HIGH IMPACT RESEARCH OUTPUT WITH ALTMETRIC SCORE OF 144 ONE MONTH AFTER PUBLICATION. OUTCOME REPORTED IN 17 NEWS OUTLETS. Christoffersen, P., *M. Bougamont, S. P. Carter, H. A. Fricker, and S. Tulaczyk, Significant groundwater contribution to Antarctic ice streams hydrologic budget, Geophysical Research Letters, 41(6), 2003-2010, doi:10.1002/2014gl059250, 2014. SELECTED AS RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT BY AGU EDITORS AND FEATURED AS RESEARCH SPOTLIGHT IN EOS NEWSLETTER. 
URL http://oceans11.lanl.gov/cism/
 
Description Hosted 2 day visit by Greenlandic delegation including 18 children and staff from the Uummannaq Children's Home. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A delegation of 18 children and staff from the Uummannaq Children's Home was invited to Cambridge and the Scott Polar Research Institute during 26-27 September 2017. The delegation made cultural performances seen by more than 800 school children at two state primary schools in Cambridge. The group also performed for around 100 people attending the opening of a new exhibition at the Polar Museum in Cambridge entitled 'Uummannaq: a century of exploration in Greenland'. The visit was arranged and hosted by Dr Poul Christoffersen and was a core part of his 2017 outreach programme. The Uummannaq Children's Home is a sanctuary for early harmed children and young people aged 0 to 18 years, and persons with disabilities related to care failure. A core element of their mission is to help the children gain confidence and self-esteem through music, film-making and cultural (Inuit) performances at home and abroad.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://bhjumq.com/UummannaqChildrensHome.htm
 
Description Science talks for primary school groups 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact These 'science talks' are offered to primary school groups visiting the Scott Polar Research Institute and the Polar Museum. The talks are based largely on my own research and are aimed to spark the childrens' imagination and their interest in the 'natural environment' and 'science' in general.

According to feedback from teachers, the visits significantly change the children's understanding of science and polar environments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
URL https://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/groupvisits/
 
Description Science talks for students taking A-levels 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact As a part of the 'Research Cambridge' summer school, A-level students from Singapore visited the Scott Polar Research Institute, to hear about research in polar regions. The visit (2 hours) included human as well as physical science talks and a tour of the institute.

The talks were unique in that the students from Singapore had very little direct knowledge of the polar regions. The talks stimulated a lot of questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
URL https://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/groupvisits/
 
Description e-displays for the Polar Museum in Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science e-displays are available for all visitors of the Polar Museum. The displays are based on research projects and include results from numerical ice sheet modelling, modelling of permafrost as well as fieldwork in the polar regions.

The Polar Museum is visited by 40,000+ people per year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2017