ACES: Abrupt Changes in Ecosystem Services and Wellbeing in Mozambican Woodlands

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Sch of Geosciences

Abstract

ACES examines how woodland loss is changing ecosystem services and wellbeing of the rural poor in Mozambique. It aims to integrate this information in to land use policy and practice to alleviate rural poverty in Mozambique.

Poor rural households depend vitally on ecosystem services derived from African woodlands. However, little is known about the impacts of woodland loss and agricultural expansion on rural wellbeing. It is likely that gradual land-use change can cause abrupt changes to rural livelihoods, but the key ecological and social processes involved remain opaque.

At all levels of land use policy and practice, there is a clear need for empirical evidence on the impacts of land-use change on rural wellbeing. ACES will deliver such evidence, within a framework designed for, and by, those involved in land use decisions. It will do so through a novel mixture of stakeholder participation in the construction of Bayesian Belief Networks, the collection of large scale socio-ecological data sets along gradients of land-use change, and their quantitative and qualitative analysis, leading to the creation of future scenarios of the impacts of land-use change. These methods allow the incorporation of different types of knowledge, a systems approach to complex realities, and the co-production of outputs that maximise impact.

This work will move beyond the existing literature which describes how the rural poor rely on woodlands (Campbell and Byron '96) towards an integrated understanding of the socio-ecological processes at play. Our approach will inform debate and policy formulation that will directly influence the expansion of commercial agriculture, intensification of small-holder agriculture, rural development, and the likely trade-offs in management of woodlands for food, energy, timber, carbon and biodiversity.

The project will employ four post doctoral researchers from Mozambique and Zimbabwe who will work in close collaboration with cognate researchers from 2 UK Universities, led by an interdisciplinary team of scientists from Southern and Northern institutions. A steering committee of experienced scientists and practitioners from Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Brazil and Europe will provide strategic guidance and international policy linkages.

The project builds on decades of work at three sites in Mozambique, and long involvement in pro-poor science-based policy on land management in Mozambique. It leverages 6 other projects in Mozambique with a value of >£2.1M, and international projects >£30M. In particular, this project is closely linked to a £1.9M investment in pro-poor land use in our study area, allowing our research to have a direct impact, as well as attracting stakeholder interest and the development of communities of practice.

Planned Impact

Our goal is better land use management in African woodlands, which optimizes ecosystem services and rural wellbeing, in particular benefiting poor rural communities in Mozambique. To deliver this we need to catalyse the installation and implementation of better-informed land use policy at district, provincial and national levels. We therefore involve multiple stakeholders, such as government, civil society and private sector actors from the outset of the project. However, since national policies are highly influenced by international processes, we also need to involve stakeholders beyond Mozambique. Articulating what changes are needed requires decision makers to understand the likely ecosystem service impacts of current and proposed policies. This will be achieved by the production of scenarios detailing the impacts of realistic policy alongside detailed quantitative outputs. Clear articulation will be ensured through sequential, scenario-critiquing workshops from district to national level and the use of communications on scenario outcomes using visual, audio and published media for a range of audiences.

Underpinning the scenarios will be new knowledge on ecosystem service impacts of major land use changes such as agricultural expansion and deforestation. Generating this new knowledge will involve direct engagements with communities in the study sites who will then be in a position to use these insights to improve the practices over which they have direct control. But to influence land use policy beyond their control we will draw on the extensive experience of the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), to create impact-effective 'communities of practice' (CoP). These include the actors listed in the main document, who share a common interest in the topic. Experience of achieving impact suggests that CoPs are most effective when stimulated through three actions: sharing new evidence; strengthening capacity; active engagement: we will strive to integrate these elements to achieve impact. New evidence will become embedded in the various policy programmes of the members of these CoPs through participatory learning group approaches, in which peer-review is used to sure-up public commitments to create safe space, provoke dialogue, build constituency, wield evidence and ultimately effect policy change. The efficacy of change emerging from within such communities has been well documented, especially when sustained by external support.

Communities of Practice will be developed at the District, Provincial. National and International levels; at all three we will work extensively with our project partners (see Box 1 of the case for support for further details of stakeholders and partners). To be effective CoPs require 'cultivation' and shared trust - which is why we will build on the established IIED-coordinated Forest Governance Learning Group, Growing Forest Partnership, Forest Connect and South-South REDD+ platforms. The fostering and support of these communities of practice will be the primary responsibility of a Policy Impact Fellow based in Mozambique, and contracted by IIED, which has extensive expertise in participatory learning groups in sub-Saharan Africa. The Policy Impact Fellow will be responsible for convening the events fostering the CoPs, and have a significant budget for the scenario formulation process, attendance at events, and interaction with the media through community radio, print media, subtitled film and television. This work will be managed by Macqueen, Nhantumbo and Olsson. Other scientists within the project are committed to the CoPs and will be brought in to present and discuss evidence as and when required.

We will also foster impact through a range of high profile policy briefs, again leveraging IIED's considerable expertise in this area.
 
Description The project delivered significant new knowledge: Understanding how human well-being changes with land use intensification is key in the pursuit of global goals for development and sustainable production. Land use intensification has poorly understood consequences for the rural poor, as it may undermine the ecosystem services upon which they depend. We examined how wellbeing changed along three common Land use intensity pathways in Mozambique: smallholder commercial crop production, charcoal production, and subsistence crop cultivation. Those pathways are also found in other Sub-Saharan African Countries, so our findings resonate beyond Mozambique. Wellbeing improved with agricultural-based intensification pathways, whereas wellbeing did not change with intensification of charcoal production. Wellbeing for the poorest were dependent on accessible markets. Socio-economic benefits from agricultural intensification and expansion may overcome localised environmental trade-offs, but effective forest policies are needed to promote long-term wellbeing outcomes from charcoal production. Our findings specific to charcoal production are as follows: Charcoal is the main cooking energy source for people living in Maputo city. It is also a crucial source of income for rural producers in Mabalane district, a key supplier of Maputo's charcoal. But Mabalane's forests - which provide the wood for charcoal - also supply rural populations with construction materials, firewood and food. Our research shows that the lack of community management in Mabalane's charcoal trade has disadvantaged communities, widening income inequality and causing ecological depletion. To reverse these trends, we recommended that policymakers strengthen community management institutions, install sustainable management practices, review existing licensing schemes and seek affordable alternative energy sources. This will help ensure the charcoal trade operates in an inclusive and sustainable way. Our findings related to Soya farming are as follows: Agriculture is an important engine for economic growth in Africa, but effective agricultural strategies to support rural development and poverty alleviation are scarce. State investment in the small-scale farming sector is minimal and the entrepreneurial family farm sector remains underrepresented. Meanwhile, large-scale land investments are advocated as means to bring capital to rural areas and stimulate development. However, the investigation of soya production in Central Mozambique presented in ACES suggested that small-scale farming can produce similar profits to large-scale operations and better social outcomes. Concentrating only on large-scale investments can mean forgoing opportunities for rural development and poverty reduction. With the right support, poorer households can develop market-oriented farming that contributes to local value chains at many levels. As an interdisciplinary project, ACES had to develop significant innovative methods for research at the nexus of social and natural sciences (participatory rural appraisal along with ecological surveys), these methods are described in the various peer-reviewed publications that emerged as a result of the project.
A number of particularly noteworthy research networks/collaborations/partnerships also resulted from ACES's influence, noteworthy are the creation of a research station in Mabalane for testing approaches to improve forest management and charcoal production in Mozambique and the emergence of several international projects and collaborations (MIDLAND - https://erc-midland.earth/ and the NERC funded 'A Socio-Ecological Observatory for the Southern African Woodlands' project, to name but a few). Significant capacity building and increased research capability was generated from the various training delivered from local levels (in the different districts and to practitioners) to national levels.
Exploitation Route Energy; Agriculture, Environment, communities - academic and non-academic routes.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://miomboaces.wordpress.com/newsletters-and-publications-2/
 
Description Our goal was better land use management in African woodlands to optimize ecosystem services and rural wellbeing, in particular benefiting poor rural communities in Mozambique. To deliver this we catalysed the installation and implementation of better-informed land use policy at district, provincial and national levels. We therefore involved multiple stakeholders, incl. government, civil society and private sector actors from the outset of the project. We also involved stakeholders beyond Mozambique, since national policies are highly influenced by international processes. Through the delivery of evidence based policy briefs, meetings, workshops, training and one-to-one targetted interventions, we articulated our evidence of ecosystem service, and well-being impacts of current and proposed policies. Notably on the licensing processes for charcoal production. Those findings led to a direct change in national forest policy - from an increase in supervision for logging processes, to a reduction of licenses granted to large operators. We also developed scenarios detailing the impacts of realistic policy alongside detailed quantitative outputs. Learning and changes in attitudes was reported as a result of this work, which involved sequential, scenario- critiquing workshops from district to national level and the use of communications on scenario outcomes using visual, audio and published media for a range of audiences. Underpinning the scenarios was new knowledge on ecosystem service impacts of major land use changes. Generating this new knowledge involved direct engagements with communities in the study sites who are then be in a position to use these insights to improve the practices over which they have direct control. To influence land use policy beyond their control we drew on the extensive experience of the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), to create impact-effective 'communities of practice' (CoP). Communities of Practice were developed at the District, Provincial. National and International levels. Our Policy Impact Fellow was responsible for convening the events fostering the CoPs, for the scenario formulation process and for interaction with relevant policy decision makers and practitionners. Our work was presented in the media through community radio, print media and television. More recently, a field station was created to engage communities, students and practitioners in learning the most sustainable approaches for charcoal production.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Energy,Environment
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description  A training course on ecology techniques was conducted at the provincial and district levels in order to improve local capacity to assess the ecological capacity of the ecosystems. With the University of MAryland
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Improved local capacity to assess the ecological benefits provided by the ecosystems and their sustainable management. University of Eduardo Mondlane In collaboration with the University of Maryland
 
Description "Participatory research using Bayesian Belief networks and GIS". Mapping the lived environment. Participatory GIS for landscape and seascape. Student Workshop, 18-19 May 2016, University of Edinburgh. International Association for Landscape Ecology-UK.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact aleUK 2016 Student Workshop University of Edinburgh, 18-19 May 2016 Participatory GIS is the process of dealing with geographical information with community members and other stakeholders. People can be involved either in the production or use of geographical information.This ialeUK student workshop was for all who are interested in or already using participatory GIS methods in their research. It provided an opportunity for students to explore a range of techniques for producing and using GIS with people. tools for decision-making and spatial planning ecosystem service assessments and valuations collecting local or expert knowledge understanding landscape and seascape values Sessions with partners from Countryscape, University of Edinburgh, University of Manchester, University of York, Forest Research and NAFC Marine Centre put the training into policy, planning and practical contexts.
URL http://iale.uk/pgis
 
Description Created Mabalane Research Centre (MRC). The centre is funded by UNDP (for the research stations) and WWF for the capacity building. The purpose of the Centre is to develop sustainable charcoal production practices, based on the findings and recommendations of ACES. The Centre engages researchers, students (undergraduate and graduate students) and local communities
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Research stations established in the Mabalane district. The station was established by the DEF from the University of Eduardo Mondlane, infrastructure for teaching and accommodation is now available, and a nursery (where several charcoal production techniques are being tested for improved efficiency, and decreased deforestation impact). Improved kiln are also being tested. The department now conducts most of the field practicals with the students in this station. Funds for the establishment came from the UNDP and capacity building, from WWF.
 
Description Influence on Forest management practices
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact ACES provided a list of key messages for the 'Programa Quinquenal do Governo (2015-2019) (:.... Melhorar as condições de vida do povo moçambicano pelo aumento do emprego, produtividade e competitividade, gerando rendas e criando riqueza para desenvolvimento equilibrado e inclusivo, através de envolvimento forte do sector familiar, especialmente os Jovens e Mulheres). The evidence provided helped address many irregularities found in the Forestry Sector on activities (e.g. charcoal, logging). In addition to the licensing process being modified, logging activities have been transformed, as additional resources have been allocated to increase supervision and the reduction logging licenses
URL http://jornaldomingo.co.mz/index.php/em-foco-top/8897-exploracao-florestal-aperta-o-cerco-ao-negocio...
 
Description Local Government stop to give licence to the operators of charcoal production in Mabalane district, Mozambique
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact ACES provided evidence that charcoal licensing to large operators provides limited outcomes for the rural poor resident in charcoal producing areas. The change in policy and licensing provision as a result of our work is improving the charcoal income generation for local villagers. Licensing system to the district is now under revisions as a result: taking the recommendations from ACES on areas that were not appropriate for licensing due to forest degradation. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dr3HU6VvJjw
 
Description Local training in Marrupa using ACES materials
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description MSc Thesis supervisions
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact 10 MSc theses utilising data or knowledge generated by the ACES project were successfully completed and supervised by ACES Team members at the University of Edinburgh.
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/geosciences/postgraduate/taught-masters
 
Description Policy Brief on Charcoal production
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description University of Eduardo Mondlane is contributing a review for the upcoming National Forest Policy. In this process ACES publication related to charcoal value chain issue have been used as information source.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact It is too early to say.
 
Description Use ACES forest data for thesis development.
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Name of student 1: Clodio Munguambe. His thesis title is: Status of miombo woodland species diversity along forest degradation gradient in Marrupa and Gurue districts. Name of student 2: Kelven Nercio De Manuel. Thesis title: Fragmentation and habitat losses driven by charcoal production in Mabalane district.
 
Description A Socio-Ecological Observatory for the Southern African Woodlands
Amount £253,894 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P008755/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 07/2020
 
Description Bequest and Centenary Agroforestry 89 Fund for funded support for early career researchers in forestry and ecological science
Amount £535 (GBP)
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 01/2016
 
Description Coping with El Nino in Tanzania: Differentiated local impacts and household-level responses
Amount £258,485 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P004725/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 04/2018
 
Description ERC - MIDLAND - Developing middle-range theories linking land use displacement, intensification and transitions in Mozambique
Amount € 1,498,420 (EUR)
Funding ID European Research Council, Grant Agreement 677140 
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 05/2016 
End 04/2021
 
Description Fullbright Scholar Programme - Natasa Ribeiro
Amount $70,000 (USD)
Funding ID https://www.cies.org/grantee/natasha-sofia-ribeiro 
Organisation US-UK Fulbright Commission 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 05/2018
 
Description ICF Social Protection and Climate Change in Mozambique
Amount £109,189 (GBP)
Funding ID ICF Social Protection and Climate Change in Mozambique http://www.opml.co.uk/projects/implementing-climate-sensitive-social-protection-mozambique-feasibility-and-design-study 
Organisation UK Department for International Development 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2015 
End 05/2016
 
Description Land-use intensification in forest-agriculture frontier landscapes: effects on ecosystem services and poverty alleviation (ESPA-Frontiers)
Amount £174,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P008356/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 12/2017
 
Description Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship
Amount € 170,000 (EUR)
Funding ID H2020-MSCA-IF-2017 AdaFarm 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2018 
End 06/2020
 
Description NERC Directed (Research Programme)
Amount £253,895 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P008755/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 01/2020
 
Description Nature's contribution to poverty alleviation, human wellbeing and the SDGs (Nature4SDGs)
Amount £323,845 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/S012850/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 02/2021
 
Title Causal diagrams linking rural well-being with forest ecosystem services in Mozambique (2014 and 2015) 
Description Data comprise causal diagrams which show links between aspects that influence the well-being of rural inhabitants (e.g. good quality of food, good family relationships, education, etc) with ecosystem services (e.g. food from trees, wood sticks for construction, firewood, wood for charcoal production, etc.) and their causes (e.g. change in land use) in rural Mozambique. Information was gathered at 20 workshops held in Maputo, Xai Xai, Lichinga, Quelimane, and at village level in the districts of Mabalane, Marrupa and Gurue in 2014 and 2015. The objective of the workshops was to examine aspects that influence well-being and their causes in the miombo woodland area of rural Mozambique. One of the objectives of the project was to construct Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) to model future land use change scenarios in rural Mozambique using a participatory approach, to evaluate the consequences of deforestation in the well-being of the rural population. The data were collected as part of the Abrupt Changes in Ecosystem Services and Wellbeing in Mozambican Woodlands (ACES) project and were funded by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme, funded by NERC, the Economic & Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Department for International Development (DfID), the three are government organizations from UK. The project was led by the University of Edinburgh, with the collaboration of the Universidad Mondlane, the IIED, and other organizations. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact model future land use change scenarios in rural Mozambique using a participatory approach, to evaluate the consequences of deforestation in the well-being of the rural population 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/14622c4b-8bd4-4624-8ea6-35da7da211cd
 
Title Household composition, income and assets survey data (including environmental product collection) from Mabalane, Gurue and Marrupa districts, Mozambique in 2014 and 2015 
Description This dataset includes data collected as part of the Abrupt Changes in Ecosystem Services (ACES) project on the composition, income (including consumption and sale of environmental resources), ownership of assets (e.g. farming equipment, household furnishings and own transport) and wellbeing of respondent households in rural Mozambique. Data are also included from a participatory wealth ranking exercise carried out in each village. Data were collected in a total of 27 villages: 7 villages in Mabalane District in Gaza Province, 10 villages in Gurué District in Zambezia Province and 10 villages in Marrupa District in Niassa Province. Data collection was carried out in 2014 and 2015, using a one-off environmentally-augmented household income and assets survey administered by enumerators in the locally appropriate language. The objective of the ACES project was to explore interactions between woodland change, ecosystem services and wellbeing in rural Mozambican households. The study used a space-for-time substitution approach, with villages in each district chosen to represent different points on gradients of land use intensity with respect to the dominant land use types in each district (charcoal production in Mabalane, commercial agriculture in Gurué and subsistence agriculture in Marrupa). Data were collected primarily by researchers based in the School of Geosciences at the University of Edinburgh and at the University of Eduardo Mondlane in Mozambique. All the data collected using the household survey are included in this dataset barring those data which would compromise the anonymity of respondents, such as the names and household coordinates of those interviewed. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Local tree names, uses and species identification in Mozambique 
Description Local tree names, uses and species identification in Mozambique 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact No impacts yet 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/52371ef0-855f-40c8-8567-f8965f9cbf03
 
Title Qualitative data from Mabalane on the Charcoal Value Chain 
Description Qalitative data from Mabalane on the Charcoal VAlue Chain 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact No impacts yet 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/documents/56bae7ce-4798-41a4-b702-2f847952f7ae
 
Title Qualitative data on socio-economic characteristics from seven villages in Mabalane, Mozambique 
Description This dataset contains the transcripts of interviews and discussion groups from seven villages in the Mabalane district, Gaza province, Mozambique. The seven villages were selected from a forest degradation gradient running from villages with abundant undisturbed forest areas to those with degraded forests, mainly driven by charcoal production. The villages had similar infrastructure, soils, rainfall, and vegetation types. The dataset contains information on seasonality, how availability and use of products from the forest has changed over time (trend analysis), wealth ranking within the villages and differences between wealth statuses, and profiles/characteristics of each village. Interviews were conducted with groups in each village or the leader of the village, between May and September 2014. Data were collected as part of a project funded under the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact No impacts yet 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/49a70237-c579-4669-b126-3f23d494aba6
 
Title Qualitative data on socio-economic characteristics from ten villages in Gurue, Mozambique 
Description This dataset contains the transcripts of interviews and discussion groups from ten villages in the Gurue district, Zambezia province, Mozambique. The ten villages were selected from a land scarcity gradient running from villages with abundant land to those with intense land constraints, mainly driven by expanding agricultural activities and population density. The villages had similar infrastructure, soils, rainfall, and vegetation types. The dataset contains information on participatory mapping of the village characteristics, seasonality, how agricultural activity has changed over time (trend analysis), wealth ranking within the villages and differences between wealth statuses, and profiles/characteristics of each village. Interviews were conducted with groups in each village or the leader of the village, between July and December 2015. Data were collected as part of a project funded under the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact No impacts known 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/f82f7ad8-0e98-41cb-951e-be64ffd36078
 
Title Rural smallholder agricultural field management surveys across Mozambique 
Description This dataset comprises 259 smallholder agricultural field surveys collected from twenty-six villages across three Districts in Mozambique, Africa. Surveys were conducted in ten fields in each of six villages in Mabalane District, Gaza Province, ten villages in Marrupa District, Niassa Province, and ten villages in Gurue District, Zambezia Province. Data were collected in Mabalane between May-Sep 2014, Marrupa between May-Aug 2015, and Gurue between Sep-Dec 2015. Fields were selected based on their age, location, and status as an active field at the time of the survey (i.e. no fallow fields were sampled). Structured interviews using questionnaires were conducted with each farmer to obtain information about current management practices (e.g. use of inputs, tilling, fire and residue management), age of the field, crops planted, crop yields, fallow cycles, floods, erosion and other problems such as crop pests and wild animals. The survey also includes qualitative observations about the fields at the time of the interview, including standing live trees and cropping systems. This dataset was collected as part of the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) funded ACES project , which aims to understand how changing land use impacts on ecosystem services and human wellbeing of the rural poor in Mozambique. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not available yet 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/78c5dcee-61c1-44be-9c47-8e9e2d03cb63
 
Title Scenarios of future land use change in Mozambique (2014 and 2015) 
Description Data comprise scenarios of how land use can be in the future and how will it affect ecosystem services in rural Mozambique. The scenarios were constructed from information gathered at five workshops held in Maputo, Xai Xai, Quelimane and Lichinga in 2014 and 2015. The objective of the workshops was to examine aspects that influence well-being (e.g. ecosystem services) and their causes (e.g. change in land use) in the Miombo woodland area of rural Mozambique and identify actions that could contribute to poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation. The final objective was to construct scenarios of how the land use can be in Mozambique in the future (2035). The data were collected as part of the Abrupt Changes in Ecosystem Services and Wellbeing in Mozambican Woodlands (ACES) project and were funded by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme, funded by NERC, the Economic & Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Department for International Development (DfID), the three are government organizations from UK. The project was led by the University of Edinburgh, with the collaboration of the Universidad Mondlane, the IIED, and other organizations. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact identify actions that could contribute to poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation. to construct scenarios of how the land use can be in Mozambique in the future (2035). 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/97c65c35-1db5-49d5-8ee0-ae5c7b699634
 
Title Social data on human wildlife conflict in ten rural communities of Marrupa, Northern Mozambique 
Description This dataset includes the transcript of discussion group activities on Human Wildlife conflict, conducted with ten rural communities in Marrupa District, Niassa (Northern Mozambique). It also comprises the results of semi-structured interviews conducted individually in three of the ten selected communities. The ten villages were selected from a forest cover gradient running from villages with a higher forest cover to those within degraded forest areas and consequently low cover. The villages had similar infrastructure, soils, rainfall, and vegetation types. The dataset contains information on the occurrence of conflict with both vertebrate and invertebrate wild species, mitigation strategies, conflict seasonality and trends, but also its impact on agricultural production and livestock rearing. The discussion groups were conducted with six to ten people and the presence of the leader of each village, between May and July 2015. Data were collected as part of a project funded under the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not available 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/7bd2e230-c219-4017-9914-b5cfd83a4eae
 
Title Soya value chain in central Mozambique 
Description This dataset contains the transcripts of interviews and discussion groups on the current soya production from ten villages in the Gurue district, Zambezia province, Mozambique. The ten villages were selected from different stages of a land scarcity gradient running from villages with abundant land to those with intense land constraints, mainly driven by expanding agricultural activities and population density. The villages had similar infrastructure, soils, rainfall, and vegetation types. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with village small-scale soya producers, emergent soya farmers, managers of commercial soya producing operations, district officer, technicians of NGOs, formal and informal traders between July and December 2015. Data were collected as part of a project funded under the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not available yet 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/18c8cbf3-ed55-4065-b52b-b2a4c2ffdf1c
 
Title Structure and composition of woodlands across Mozambique 
Description This dataset contains quantitative measurements of woodland structure and composition sampled in twenty-seven different villages across three Districts in Mozambique, Africa. Data were collected from 431 plots where tree stem structure and composition, litter and grass biomass, coarse woody debris, and canopy cover data were recorded. Woodlands within seven villages in Mabalane District, Gaza Province, ten villages in Marrupa District, Niassa Province, and ten villages in Gurue District Zambezia Province were sampled. Data were collected in Mabalane between May-Sep 2014, Marrupa between May-Aug 2015, and Gurue between Sep-Dec 2015. This dataset was collected as part of the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) funded ACES project , which aims to understand how changing land use impacts on ecosystem services and human wellbeing of the rural poor in Mozambique. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not available yet 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/70b5cdda-72df-4007-b10e-d75b4046e603
 
Title Woody biomass maps of Mabalane, Gurue, and Maruppa, Mozambique 
Description The data consist of woody biomass maps of three study areas - Mabalane, Gurue, and Maruppa in Mozambique. Each area map comprises three Geotiff layers stacked in the order band 1= 2007, band 2 = 2010, band 3 = 2014. Each pixel is an aboveground woody biomass in tonnes of carbon per hectare (ha). For the biomass maps -18.00000 means no data. Due to noise, it is possible to have negative biomass estimates. Individual layers can extracted for year specific analyses. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact For global understanding of biomass changes over time. Maps are built from three ALOS PALSAR scenes per year for 2007, 2010 and 2014. These are HV backscatter in power units (not dB). Late dry season images were acquired from two tracks. These are calibrated, terrain corrected and despeckeled (using a 3x3 GammaMAP filter) using SNAP version 2.0 and exported at 15 m pixel size. Each scene was then georeferenced to a mosaicked, pansharpened Landsat 8 image acquired from Sept 2014 using ENVI v 4.8. The georefenceing used manually selected reference tie points distributed around the image. Geo reference each scene before mosaicking. Coregistering doesn't work- in SNAP with reasonable setting it seemed to make no difference. ALOS 2 is better located than ALOS 1. If you use this data you need to acknowledge JAXA and ESA, who supplied the images, as follows: JAXA kindly provided the ALOS PALSAR data through the 4th Research Agreement for the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (PI No. 1152). ESA also provided ALOS data via Category-1 Proposals 7493 and 18624. ESPA needs to be acknowledged separately. 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/6a8b07f9-552e-408c-8351-595ee6a7fc5f
 
Title Woody biomass maps of Mabalane, Gurue, and Maruppa, Mozambique 
Description The data consist of woody biomass maps of three study areas - Mabalane, Gurue, and Maruppa in Mozambique. Each area map comprises three Geotiff layers stacked in the order band 1= 2007, band 2 = 2010, band 3 = 2014. Each pixel is an aboveground woody biomass in tonnes of carbon per hectare (ha). For the biomass maps -18.00000 means no data. Due to noise, it is possible to have negative biomass estimates. Individual layers can extracted for year specific analyses. Data were collected as part of the Abrupt Changes in Ecosystem Services and Wellbeing in Mozambican Woodlands (ACES) project under the ESPA programme 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description Collaboration with Universidade Zambeze and Universidade Lurio 
Organisation Eduardo Mondlane University
Country Mozambique 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Enabled students and lecturers to take part in project activities. Three MSc thesis were produced as a result.
Collaborator Contribution Students and lecturers from the universities took part in project activities.
Impact Three MSc thesis and establishing relationships with local universities.
Start Year 2015
 
Description DFID literature review 
Organisation Government of the UK
Department Department for International Development (DfID)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Dr Ryan and Dr Fisher coordinated a literature review and used their ongoing work in Southern Mozambique as part of ACES to help inform the shape of a proposal for or a DFID-funded wood fuels programme, which will focus on charcoal value chains and contain a mix of on the ground demonstrations of sustainable value chains, a component focusing on research, and a component aimed at changing hearts and minds of regional and international policy makers, all closely linked together.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Ryan will seek input from DFiD regarding a proposal submitted to the ESPA Regional Opportunities Fund: Small Grants Scheme for a project that would demonstrate that charcoal production in southern Mozambique can be sustainable and improve rural livelihoods in the long term
Impact n/a
Start Year 2015
 
Description Training trainers on methodologies used and developed by the ACES project 
Organisation World Wide Fund for Nature
Country Switzerland 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution ACES team members provide the training.
Collaborator Contribution WWF finances the training
Impact Training biophysical methodology used in ACES project
Start Year 2017
 
Description 3 National Radio Interviews 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Following the National final workshop (March 2017) and the Awareness for action workshop, where our key research findings were presented, and awareness for action discussed we were interviewed on 3 radio programmes . On average 30 people attended each workshop and the TV and radio are of national outreach. Dates of airing: Radio Mocambique (8 March Maputo - interview at the conference); 12 June (Xai Xai. Program Noticias de Gaza from Radio Mocambique) and 11 July Gurue (from Radio comunitaria de Gurue) .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 3 National TV interviews about project findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Following our final project workshop in Maputo (March 2017) and the regional awareness for action workshop (Led by Luis Artur), where our key research findings were presented and awareness for action discussed, we 3 TV interviews. On average 30 people attended each workshop and the TV are of national outreach. The dates of airing are 8 March (Program Bom dia Mocambique); 22 March (Programa Tudo as 10) and 12 June (interview in Gaza- Xai-Xai)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description 3 village workshops in Gurue 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Team gained input for BBNs.

Participants asked for further info about the project. Formalise list of households?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 3 village workshops in Mabalane 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Input for constructing local BBNs.

The participants shared information about their dependence on the forest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description 3 village workshops in Marrupa, Niassa province, Mozambique 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In 3 of the surveyed villages by ACES we developed workshops to obtain the local understanding on the dependence of their well-being on ecosystem services (through a causal diagram that will be used to construct the BBNs).


People were very interested in the presentations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description A national inception workshop - August 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A national inception workshop took place in August 2014, with participation of national and provincial stakeholders representing government, international and national NGOs. A participatory process used in this and subsequent meetings in Gaza (2014) and Zambezia and Niassa in 2015 led to the definition of welbeing used in this project, the selection of ecosystems services considered, as well as the interventions and policies that could be adopted or influenced to ensure the sustainable use and management of natural resources for poverty reduction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://miomboaces.files.wordpress.com/2014/08/aces-presentation-web.pdf
 
Description ACES project introduction Newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This Newsletter was distributed to all our stakeholders, via IIED's communication channels and partners. It summarises the project and it's objectives. Following the distribution, through snowball effects, we have integrated other stakeholders in our impact processes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://miomboacespt.files.wordpress.com/2016/09/aces-newsletter-02-2015.pdf
 
Description Abrupt Changes in Ecosystem Services and Wellbeing in Mozambican Woodlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Introductory talk to our new ESPA project ACES, which drew strongly in terms of collaboration and intellectual development from the previous framework project.

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Application of Bayesian belief networks to ESPA systems (training in BBN Edinburgh) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A novel development for wider application of Bayesian Belief Networks to socio-ecological systems. Cross-training was provided to PDRA and researchers working on such topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Awareness for Action Workshops (3 regional workshops) - Luis Artur 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The purpose was to present key research findings and create awareness for action. we had 3 regional workshops and 3 radio and 3 TV interviews. On average 30 people attended each workshop and the TV and radio are of national outreach
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BBN and scenario workshop in Xai Xai 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We obtained information to build BBNs and scenarios.

We obtained information to build BBNs and scenarios, and participants were interested to hear about the results of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Case study for the World Atlas on Desertification, EU JRC - EU Joint Research Centre: online interactive map 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Provided communication of the charcoal study in Mabalane, providing a case study for the World Atlas on Desertification (WAD) for coupled-human and natural systems in African woodlands. The latest WAD3 portrays the dynamic human footprint on Earth and its consequences for the land resources, and identifies areas of concern where multiple lines of evidence converge that suggest potential problems so that they might be confirmed and suggest actions to reverse, arrest, or adapt to them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://wad.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
 
Description Course taught on Environmental Education: Ecotourism Institute, they teaching wildlife method assessment and participatory approach used by ACES. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The purpose of the event was to engage students and university staff (University Eduardo Mondlane) of the relevance on environmental education based on ACES results
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description District level dissemination of regionally relevant results in Mabalane (2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact District level dissemination of regionally relevant results in Mabalane (2015) focusing on Charcoal. The participants were really engaged in discussions related to our findings on the charcoal production value chain, more specifically, in our improved understanding of the process, actors, benefits and role of institutions, policy and legislation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://miomboaces.files.wordpress.com/2016/03/briefing-paper-march-2016-portuguese.pdf
 
Description District level dissemination of results was undertaken in Gurue and Marrupa 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact District level dissemination of results in Gurue and Marrupa with a focus on soya production in Gurue District (Zambezia) and tobacco production in Marrupa District (Niassa)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description District level trainings in Mabalane on methodologies used during the implementation of this project to enable the district planning teams to embed some of these into the decentralized planning process. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact district level trainings in Mabalane and Marrupa on methodologies used during the implementation of this project to enable the district planning teams to embed some of these into the decentralized planning process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Ecosystem services for Nature, People and Prosperity Stellenbosch, South Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Contribution to Sessions on Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation - Sophia Baumert
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.espconference.org/espconference2015/wiki/127455/book-of-abstracts#.Wp_2sZPFLBJ
 
Description Engagement with the wider Faculty at the University of Zimbabwe and training of postgraduate students 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Involvement of faculty and university staff in developing ACES objectives, in engaging in activities, and in disseminating results (many outcomes of ACES are relevant to other SSA countries). Training provided to students in the research methods used and developped by ACES
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
 
Description Field work meeting in Xai Xai: introduction to ACES, and definition of charcoal research objectives - May 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One of the project's implementation strategies has been to engage stakeholders throughout the project in order to maximise relevance and impact on the ground. This entailed meetings from national to local levels. The first meeting took place in Xai-Xai in May 2014, where wider project was described, the work to be conducted in the region introduced and the objectives defined in collaboration with the main stakeholders in Gaza province (government, NGOs, iNGOs and civil society - before the start of the pilot field work in Mabalane District). The main outcome of this workshop was the early engagement of the stakeholders for long term collaboration in the project, as well as interest generated and buy-in on the topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://miomboaces.files.wordpress.com/2014/08/aces-presentation-web.pdf
 
Description Inception workshop in Maputo 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The participants were informed about the project and researchers obtained data for BBN and scenario creation.

The participants asked what alternatives could be for charcoal production in Mabalane.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Initiation of MIDLAND collaboration 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A new project looking at ecosystem changes has been developed together with the university of Louvre in Belgium. For this endeavor, the ACES experience was presented to develop the new project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://erc-midland.earth/
 
Description Luis Artur visit to Mabalane 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Luis Artur went back to Malabane to present preliminary results. MSc students went back to carry out additional analyses on the charcoal chain.

Requests for additional information, providing MSc students with the opportunity to carry out research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Maputo final stakeholder workshop - March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The ACES project ended in 2017 and a final stakeholders workshop was held in Maputo on 8th and 9th of March of 2017. The purpose was to analyse the implications of project results in the land use policies and practices to ensure sustainable use and improvement of welbeing. Therefore the specific objectives for this meeting were to discuss:
The contribution of ecosystems services to poverty reduction;
The effects on availability of ecosystems services, land use and land cover change;
The policy implications and possible innovative and practical interventions to ensure ecosystems services can enable the achievement of the government objective of erradicating poverty and promoting prosperity and sustainable development;
Follow-up actions to effectively support sustainable land use practices including the role of research.
The approach of the workshop was to use the results of ACES to stimulate an informed debate on MZ land use implications but more importantly to bring perspectives of policy makers, academia/research, practitioners including private sector and land users. A facilitated discussion enabled active participations of all stakeholders attending the meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://docs.google.com/document/d/1BuoHtdFTSWidtRzwh6oZdJFHK9438G6oB-9qBJgRpxM/edit
 
Description National Radio Debate - Mozambique 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A debate at the national radio station aiming to discuss issues about the charcoal value chain. ACES team members as well as professionals of different sectors: government,private, NGOS were present and discussed how research results from ACES could contribute to improve national policies and practices.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description National stakeholder workshop on biomass energy and scenario development - March 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In March 2016, a national stakeholder workshop was held to share some of the project results particularly on biomass energy and preliminary findings of the ecological and scenario development. This was followed by public debates on the national radio and television to engage the wider public on discussing the implications and solutions to current charcoal production and supply.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dr3HU6VvJjw
 
Description National workshop in Maputo, Mozambique 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The aim of the workshop was to construct and validate scenarios of future land use change in Mozambique. Participants came from the national government (forestry and planning bodies) and national and international NGOs.

The meetings with focal ministries at national level has been enabling the sharing of findings and joint analysis of policy implications and responses/courses of action.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Newspaper article about findings of ACES and resulting policy changes at the national level in Mozambique 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A National news article was written following ACES end of project workshop, summarising the project findings as well as regulatory framework changes implemented as a result of ACES's recommendations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://jornaldomingo.co.mz/index.php/em-foco-top/8897-exploracao-florestal-aperta-o-cerco-ao-negocio...
 
Description Operationalising the ecosystem service concept 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussion of research undertaken in the ESPA framework project, as well as FP7 project - OPERAS.

Presentation to the Community on Ecosystem Services conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Policy Brief: Cadeias de fornecimento de carvão vegetal de Mabalane para Maputo: quem beneficia? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Portuguese version of policy brief entitled: Charcoal supply chains from Mabalane to Maputo: Who benefits?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://pubs.iied.org/17350PIIED/?k=mozambique
 
Description Policy Brief: Making the links between woodlands and wellbeing: a multi-stakeholder approach 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This newsletter was published by IIED (ACES team members), whose distribution channels are considerable. The loss of woodland in Mozambique is more than an environmental issue. Choices about land use - whether made locally, provincially or nationally - affect the availability of water, firewood, fertile land and other 'ecosystem services' delivered by woodlands. In this brief. we discuss that when these services underpin food security and routes out of poverty, what happens to woodlands becomes as much about people. We also provide pointers discussing the links between land use and the wellbeing of rural communities, their lack of recognition and agreement and how policymakers can balance the dual needs of human development and environmental stewardship.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://pubs.iied.org/17297IIED/
 
Description Policy Brief: Small-scale soya farming can outperform large-scale agricultural investments 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Agriculture is an important engine for economic growth in Africa, but effective agricultural strategies to support rural development and poverty alleviation are scarce. State investment in the small-scale farming sector is minimal and the entrepreneurial family farm sector remains underrepresented. Meanwhile, large-scale land investments are advocated as means to bring capital to rural areas and stimulate development. However, the investigation of soya production in Central Mozambique presented here suggests small-scale farming can produce similar profits to large-scale operations and better social outcomes. Concentrating only on large-scale investments can mean forgoing opportunities for rural development and poverty reduction. With the right support, poorer households can develop market-oriented farming that contributes to local value chains at many levels.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://pubs.iied.org/17417IIED/?k=Mozambique
 
Description Policy brief: Charcoal supply chains from Mabalane to Maputo: who benefits? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This newsletter was published by IIED (ACES team members), whose distribution channels are considerable. The brief discusses charcoal as the main energy source for people living in Maputo city and summarises our research results showing that the lack of community management in Mabalane's charcoal trade has disadvantaged communities, widening income inequality and causing ecological depletion. To reverse these trends, we recommend that policymakers strengthen community management institutions, install sustainable management
practices, review existing licensing schemes and seek affordable alternative energy sources. This will help ensure the charcoal trade operates in an inclusive and sustainable way.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://pubs.iied.org/17350IIED/
 
Description Presentation at 11th International Conference on Community-Based Adaptation (CBA11) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This presentation was made in Uganda at the 11th Conference on Community Based Adaptation. The conference was designed for practitioners, policymakers, planners and donors working on community-based adaptation at all levels and scales. The event enhanced the capacity of stakeholders to work together to improve the livelihoods of those most vulnerable to climate change. 300 people attended the conference. The objective was to elucidate the relevance of ecosystems for disaster and poverty reduction
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.iied.org/11th-international-conference-community-based-adaptation-cba11
 
Description Presentation at International, stakeholders, Africa-focussed conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Presentation to diverse audience of our results on charcoal production and recommendations for policy interventions needed to make it work in Mozambique.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310981082_Charcoal_production_for_sustainable_development_W...
 
Description Project Flyer: Abrupt Changes in Ecosystem Services and Well-being (ACES) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This Flyer was distributed on IIED's distribution channels and reached a varied audience. It provides an overview of the project Abrupt Changes in Ecosystem Services (ACES), a three-year (2014 -2017) research project being implemented in Mozambique that examines how woodland loss is changing ecosystem services (ES) and wellbeing of rural poor in the country. It will integrate this new information into land use policy and practices.

This flyer provides introductory information on the plans, five work packages and a brief introduction to the partners working on the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://pubs.iied.org/G03905/?k=Mozambique&p=4
 
Description Province workshop in Lichinga, Mozambique 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We held a province workshop in Lichinga (capital of Niassa province) on 4 and 5 August 2015. The aim of the workshop was to construct and validate scenarios of future land use change in Niassa province and a causal diagram for the Marrupa case study. Participants came from the provincial government (agriculture, forestry and planning bodies), protected areas personnel, national and international NGOs, civil society organizations, universities and private companies.

The workshop brought a new opportunity for reflecting on potential impacts of policy choices in the long term. It was evident that participants value the process of construction of the BBN and the scenario. The request during the meeting was for training in the use of the participatory tools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Provincial workshop in Quelimane 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Input gained for BBNs and scenarios.

Dissemination of project information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Stakeholder led creation of scenarios on Land-Use, ecosystem services and human wellbeing. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-creation of a framework to analyze key relationships between land use, ES and wellbeing of greatest relevance to the rural poor, civil society, private businesses and decision makers in Mozambique. Also developed plausible future scenarios of and use in Mozambique. These scenarios articulated ways in which rural poverty can be alleviated by the optimal management of landscapes to support ES and human wellbeing. This generated considerable awareness of intricate relationships between these different components of the socio-ecological system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017
 
Description Stakeholder meeting in Xai Xai 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Stakeholders were made aware of what the project's aims were and what we were planning to do in the region.

Stakeholders wanted to know more about the purpose and benefits of the project. There was also a request for training on tools or training of officers on provincial levels. Some participants asked for training on BBNs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Stakeholder meetings in Xia Xia and Maputo 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Team members met with provincial officials in Xia Xia to describe ACES objectives and activities; team members presented results to stakeholders in Maputo.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2016,2017
URL https://miomboaces.files.wordpress.com/2014/08/aces-presentation-web.pdf
 
Description UEM workshops in Lichinga 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Sharing information about the project.

Potentially establishing a community of practice where UEM could go back to communicate results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2015
 
Description Website for dissemination of ACES activities/findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The website was created to communicate and exchange processes, findings and presentations with our stakeholders. The end users have regularly used the resource to refer to the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017
URL https://miomboacespt.wordpress.com/sobre/
 
Description Workshops with National and Regional Stakeholders in Gaza province 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The purposes of the workshops described below were to engage a diverse group of stakeholders in land use policy. Our workshops were very well attended, and the topics generated a large suite of outcomes: from capacity building on the topic of ecosystem services and linkages to well being, to direct changes in policies related to charcoal production (energy) and soy, and other agricultural production. More specifically, 1. In Gaza province: the Local Government modified their forest policy (as it relates to Forest Management plans and charcoal production) following ACES results' presented as part of these workshops/project;
2. Niassa province: Marrupa district is characterised by sparse population densities, and isolation from the rest of the country. There are historically underdevelopped commercial markets in this region. Subsistence agriculture is the predominant land use change. Results from ACES project were presented as part of the workshops held locally, and since, the local schools are using ACES material (how ecosystem services, agricultural production, and well-being are closely related). delivered during workshop for teaching activities
3. National level: Biomass energy policy is currently being modified due to the results of ACES findings and recommendations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
 
Description World Forestry Congress, Durban 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ACES team engagement with practitioners (through participations in workshops, presentations, posters) highlighting the early outcomes of ACES.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.fao.org/about/meetings/world-forestry-congress/programme/en/
 
Description district level trainings in Marrupa on methodologies used during the implementation of this project to enable the district planning teams to embed some of these into the decentralized planning process. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact district level trainings in Marrupa on methodologies used during the implementation of this project to enable the district planning teams to embed some of these into the decentralized planning process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016