TRansfer - Exposure - Effects (TREE): integrating the science needed to underpin radioactivity assessments for humans and wildlife

Lead Research Organisation: NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
Department Name: Pollution (Lancaster)

Abstract

For all sources of radioactivity, radiological risk assessments are essential for safeguarding human and environmental health. But assessments often have to rely upon simplistic assumptions, such as the use of simple ratios in risk calculations which combine many processes. This pragmatic approach has largely arisen due to the lack of scientific knowledge and/or data in key areas. The resultant uncertainty has been taken into account through conservative approaches to radiological risk assessment which may tend to overestimate risk. Uncertainty arises at all stages of the assessment process from the estimation of transfer to human foodstuffs and wildlife, exposure and risk. Reducing uncertainty is important as it relates directly to scientific credibility, which will always be open to challenge given the highly sensitive nature of radiological risk assessment in society. We propose an integrated, multi-disciplinary, programme to assess and reduce the uncertainty associated with radiological risk assessment to protect human health and the environment. At the same time we will contribute to building the capacity needed to ensure that the UK rebuilds and maintains expertise in environmental radioactivity into the future.
Our project has four major and highly inter-related components to address the key goal of RATE to rebuild UK capacity and make a major contribution to enhancing environmental protection and safeguarding human health.
The first component will study how the biological availability of radionuclides varies in soils over time. We will investigate if short-term measurements (collected in three year controlled experiments) can be used to predict the long-term availability of radionuclides in soils by testing our models in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The second component will apply the concepts of 'phylogeny' and 'ionomics' to characterise radionuclide uptake by plants and other organisms. These approaches, and statistical modelling methods, are increasingly applied to describe uptake of a range of elements in plant nutrition, and we are pioneering their use for studying radionuclide uptake in other organisms and human foods. A particularly exciting aspect of the approach is the possibility to make predictions for any plant or animal. This is of great value as it is impossible to measure uptake for all wildlife, crops and farm animals. The third component of the work will extend our efforts to improve the quantification of radiation exposure and understanding of resultant biological effects by investigating the underlying mechanisms involved. A key aim is to see whether what we know from experiments on animals and plants in the laboratory is a good representation of what happens in the real world: some scientists believe that animals in the natural environment are more susceptible to radiation than laboratory animals: we need to test this to have confidence in our risk assessments. Together these studies will enable us to reduce and better quantify the uncertainties associated with radiological risk assessment.
By training a cohort of PDRA and PhDs our fourth component will help to renew UK capacity in environmental radioactivity by providing trained, experienced researchers who are well networked within the UK and internationally through the contacts of the investigators. Our students will be trained in a wide range of essential skills through their controlled laboratory studies and working in contaminated environments. They will benefit from being a member of a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to take placements with our beneficiaries and extensive range of project partners.
The outputs of the project will benefit governmental and non-governmental organisations with responsibility for assessing the risks to humans and wildlife posed by environmental radioactivity. It will also make a major contribution to improved scientific and public confidence in the outcomes of environmental safety assessments.

Planned Impact

Nuclear new-build and waste disposal require rigorous safety assessments of effects on the biosphere and human health to underpin decisions which often involve public consultation. The credibility of scientific evidence is open to challenge given the sensitive nature of radiological risk assessment. The publicity (www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-10819027) associated with scientific dispute on the environmental effects of radiation hinders informed debate on nuclear issues and will impinge upon the economic competitiveness of the UK by delaying decisions on future energy supplies and disposal. Unbiased scientific opinion, based on rigorous research, and demonstration of fitness for purpose of assessment approaches will aid debate in the UK and overseas thereby directly supporting the public, regulators and industry.
This project addresses 4 of the 5 priority areas identified by the RATE programme ensuring we will make major contributions to the programme's objectives. We will produce capacity that will benefit the RCUK Energy Plan whilst producing innovative, excellent science that will also underpin the commercial sector.
The consortium partners represent a significant proportion of current UK capability in the key radioecological fields identified by RATE. As part of the project, 4 PDRAs and a cohort of 7 PhD students with the skills to build on this capacity will be trained, enhancing the UK research capability and providing skilled practitioners for industry/regulators. Our summer school at Chernobyl and training programme will be open to PhD students from all RATE consortia, the European STAR radioecology Network of Excellence and our project partners.
NDA and EA will benefit from reduced uncertainty in wildlife and human assessment models. Key radionuclides identified in geological repositories assessments are the focus of soil-plant biogeochemical studies and development of phylogenetic models to predict activity concentrations in wildlife and human foodchain models. New data and phylogenetic-ionomic models will significantly improve transfer models for Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). They also have the potential to identify suitable surrogates for protected species for environmental monitoring and to be applicable to human and environmental assessment.
In particular EA will also benefit from the effects data obtained for some RAPs which will help fitness-for-purpose assessment of the ICRP's Derived Consideration Reference Levels. An improved understanding of biological effect mechanisms of radiation will be gained including the evaluation of trans-generation effects and how this may impact on populations. These outputs will feed into the derivation of robust, scientifically defensible numeric criteria for use in wildlife dose assessments at an international level and will expand basic knowledge on chronic low level radiation effects.
SEPA will benefit from improved approaches and reduced/quantified uncertainties for environmental and human foodchain assessments. Equivalent overseas agencies will similarly benefit through our input to key international organisations. For instance, the IAEA and ICRP who provide the guidance and recommendations on radiation protection used to define regulation at European and national levels. International guidance for ensuring the environment is protected from releases of radioactive substances is still developing and the outputs from TREE will provide key inputs. Close engagement of consortium members with national and international agencies and other beneficiaries will ensure that impacts will be realised immediately. Benefits will continue to be realised, and project outputs exploited, as international organisations and national regulators develop recommendations and decisions are made on nuclear related issues using the improved knowledge from this project.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Chernobyl our natural laboratory 
Description Short video of our work in Chernobyl 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Generally well received [will potentially be used as an example of good practice in CEH scicom training courses] 
URL https://youtu.be/Jp2R8--E1pY
 
Description We have found that numbers of large mammals in the areas affected by radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident are similar to those in nature reserves. We have also found that within the Chernobyl zone, mammal abundances are similar in the most contaminated areas when compared to the least contaminated areas. However, whilst wildlife at Chernobyl appears to be thriving, radiation effects are observable in some species in the most contaminated parts of the CEZ. Our results also suggest that internal benchmark dose rates need to be reviewed.
Exploitation Route These results will provide key supporting evidence to organisations regulating nuclear licensed sites and radioactive waste management. They are further being taken forward through Smith's participation in the Radiation Effects on the Environment workshop in Miami 2015, the findings of which will be used by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and the participation of Copplestone and Beresford in ICRP Task Groups.
Sectors Energy,Environment

URL https://tree.ceh.ac.uk/content/tree-publications-and-datasets
 
Description Extensive media coverage worldwide
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Other
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description ICRP
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact The work in the TREE project has been used to date within the International Commission on Radiological Protection Committee 5 on Environmental Protection. So far the work has influenced the approaches being recommended for protection of the environment in existing exposure situations. Plans are underway for TREE outputs to be used in the development of the ICRP's Reference animals and plants.
URL http://www.icrp.org
 
Description Modelling radionuclide transfer from waste repository to plants
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Our work on the RATE programme has involved Radioactive Waste Management Ltd from the start. As a co-funder they have helped shaped our research direction. We have generated data and predictive frameworks that will help them make the case for a secure nuclear waste repository - a key factor in the UK's energy strategy. It will help them understand and lessen any environmental impact there may be from nuclear waste repository. The details of how exactly this will be manifest will become clear over the next feww years as waste repository moves beyond the construction phase.
 
Description Participation in UN IAEA working group
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Participation in an advisory committee - ICRP (2016)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Since 1928, ICRP has developed, maintained, and elaborated the International System of Radiological Protection used world-wide as the common basis for radiological protection standards, legislation, guidelines, programmes, and practice. ICRP has published more than one hundred reports on all aspects of radiological protection. Most address a particular area within radiological protection, but a handful of publications, the so-called fundamental recommendations, each describe the overall system of radiological protection. The International System of Radiological Protection has been developed by ICRP based on (i) the current understanding of the science of radiation exposures and effects and (ii) value judgements. These value judgements take into account societal expectations, ethics, and experience gained in application of the system. The outputs from the TREE project are now being incorporated into our current understanding of the radiation exposures and effects on wildlife and being used to influence new guidelines and recommendations.
URL http://www.icrp.org
 
Description The effects of radionuclides released to the environment
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Our work on the RATE programme has involved the Environment Agency from the start. As a co-funder they have helped shaped our research direction. We have generated data and predictive frameworks that will help them protect the environment from the effects of ionising radiation - a key factor in the UK's energy strategy. It will help them understand and lessen any environmental impact there may be from the nuclear industry. The details of how exactly this will be manifest will become clear over the next few years as the results of the RATE programme are manifest in policy.
 
Description DIAMOND Synchrotron Beamtime
Amount £54,000 (GBP)
Funding ID SM17075-1 
Organisation STFC Laboratories 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 03/2018
 
Description Environmental Radioactivity Network Small Projects
Amount £19,760 (GBP)
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Description NERC Innovation Follow on Fund
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/R009619/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 04/2019
 
Description NERC Metabolomics Birmingham
Amount £33,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 04/2019
 
Description NERC Urgency Grant
Amount £51,970 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P015212/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 10/2017
 
Title Novel molecular tool for species identification for the model organism (Drosophilid) 
Description RFLP method for distinguishing between Drosophila melanogaster amd Drosophila simulans, which are commonly found in similar distributions and share a number of morphological characteristics. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This work has not generated notable impacts yet, it has been presented in talks and will be published in 2017 which will hopefully lead to impacts in the future. 
 
Title Radionuclide Transfer Predictor 
Description (The 'type of research tool or method' options above could do with some serious improvement). Our novel method predicts radionuclide transfer into organisms for which uptake has never been measured. Current models depend on constants of proportionality between compartments that have been measured. We compile existing data using linear mixed models approaches, benchmark the outputs against International Atomic Energy Agency recommendations and then use benchmark species in a given ecosystem to predict transfer for other species. the predictions are based in significant part on phylogenetic influences on transfer we have identified. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Radioactive Waste management Ltd and the Environment Agency will incorporate it into their capabilities for predicting radionuclide movement in the environment. 
 
Title Database of uptake of Tc-99 and Se-75 by plants 
Description Results of a large comparative experiment on Tc and Se transfer into plants 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact In the process of publication - will be openly accessible in 2018. 
 
Title Iodine soil-plant transfer database 
Description A collation of experimental and literature data fur use in meta-analysis of iodine transfer from soil to plant 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Published work from it but not having notable impact yet 
 
Title Screening parameter values 
Description Derivation of screening parameter values for IAEA generic screening models for assessing exposure to the public. A database on transfer to animal products has been enhanced and quality cointrolled . A relationship between true true absorbtion in ruminants and transfer coefficients for a range of elements/ radionuclides has been successfully derived. The relationship has been used as the basis to derive transfer parameters for elements/ radionuclides where there is no data on the basis of ICRP gut absorbtion values. This constitutes a novel way to fill missing data gaps. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Conservative animal product transfer parameters were compiled and derived and supplied to the IAEA for use in the new generic screening models for assesing exposures to the public. The screening models are used extensively by member states to assess exposure to the public fcrom regulated releases. They will be finalised and published in 2015. 
 
Description International collaborations on developing taxonomic models 
Organisation International Atomic Energy Agency
Country Austria 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Collaborating on the development of taxonomic models of radionuclide transfer for marine and freshwater ecosystems.
Collaborator Contribution Staff time and datasets
Impact n/a
Start Year 2014
 
Description International collaborations on developing taxonomic models 
Organisation International Commission on Radiological Protection
PI Contribution Collaborating on the development of taxonomic models of radionuclide transfer for marine and freshwater ecosystems.
Collaborator Contribution Staff time and datasets
Impact n/a
Start Year 2014
 
Description International collaborations on developing taxonomic models 
Organisation Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA)
Country Norway 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Collaborating on the development of taxonomic models of radionuclide transfer for marine and freshwater ecosystems.
Collaborator Contribution Staff time and datasets
Impact n/a
Start Year 2014
 
Description Morphometric and growth analysis of Arabidopsis plants exposed to ionising radiation 
Organisation Belgian Nuclear Research Centre
Country Belgium 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Two visits to SCK during which TREE PhD student helped to train researchers at SCK how to use LAMINA software
Collaborator Contribution Two visits to SCK, including one for a eeek, during which they training a TREE PhD student (Nicol Caplin) to model growth in MatLab and how to analyse for antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis using an array of enzyme assays
Impact None yet - scientific publications in time.
Start Year 2016
 
Description National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 
Organisation National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU)
Country Ukraine 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution External supervision of a MSc students in Ukraine, working together to collect and analyse sediment and water samples from lakes within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, specifically the extraction and identification of Daphnia ephippia. Anticipated joint publications will arise from this.
Collaborator Contribution Through the provision of MSc students undertaking survey work across the lakes within the Chernobyl exclusion zone and specifically collection and analysis of sediment cores and water samples from lakes within the Chernobyl exclusion zone to determine their radionuclide content.
Impact Exchange of data and information on the lakes so far. The collaboration is extending into summer 2017 and potentially beyond.
Start Year 2016
 
Description TREE 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council
Department Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contribute to work packages with these collaborators on the TREE consortium. Collaborate at multiple levels - sharing expertise, joint planning, joint supervision and joint publishing. reciprocal lab visits.
Collaborator Contribution As above
Impact as in outputs
Start Year 2013
 
Description TREE 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contribute to work packages with these collaborators on the TREE consortium. Collaborate at multiple levels - sharing expertise, joint planning, joint supervision and joint publishing. reciprocal lab visits.
Collaborator Contribution As above
Impact as in outputs
Start Year 2013
 
Description TREE 
Organisation University of Plymouth
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contribute to work packages with these collaborators on the TREE consortium. Collaborate at multiple levels - sharing expertise, joint planning, joint supervision and joint publishing. reciprocal lab visits.
Collaborator Contribution As above
Impact as in outputs
Start Year 2013
 
Description TREE 
Organisation University of Portsmouth
Department School of Earth & Environmental Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contribute to work packages with these collaborators on the TREE consortium. Collaborate at multiple levels - sharing expertise, joint planning, joint supervision and joint publishing. reciprocal lab visits.
Collaborator Contribution As above
Impact as in outputs
Start Year 2013
 
Description TREE 
Organisation University of Salford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contribute to work packages with these collaborators on the TREE consortium. Collaborate at multiple levels - sharing expertise, joint planning, joint supervision and joint publishing. reciprocal lab visits.
Collaborator Contribution As above
Impact as in outputs
Start Year 2013
 
Description TREE 
Organisation University of Stirling
Department Biological and Environmental Sciences
PI Contribution We contribute to work packages with these collaborators on the TREE consortium. Collaborate at multiple levels - sharing expertise, joint planning, joint supervision and joint publishing. reciprocal lab visits.
Collaborator Contribution As above
Impact as in outputs
Start Year 2013
 
Title Virtual Chernobyl 
Description This was part funder by a NERC 50th anniversary summer of science grant plus additional funding was secured from University of Salford to develop 'Virtual Chernobyl' as part of our public engagement activity around the WP3 work. Whilst in Chernobyl we captured 360 degree video which was then used in the development of an interactive virtual reality experience that allows audiences to explore Chernobyl and our WP3 science in a unique and engaging way. 
Type Of Technology Physical Model/Kit 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact 520 participants at July 15 event (most staying for over 30 minutes) and approximately 2000 visitors at the Manchester Science Festival in October 15. Virtual Chernobyl has also been showcased at NERC-CEH (Nov 15), the IAEA in Vienna (Nov 15) and at a capacity building event in Japan (Feb 16). Further events are planned, including an event at NERC Swindon in March 16 and an exhibition at the Museum of Science & Industry (April 16). The April 16 event is timed to coincide with the 30th Anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. 
 
Description A Pint of Science - Portsmouth 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk at "Pint of Science" event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Animal Planet TV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Animal Planet TV programme item - 'Wild in the Danger Zone' , Adelaide Lerebours (Portsmouth University)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Article for Online Science publication 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An article for a science publication 'ResearchFeatures'. Open access, aimed at scientifically interested audience including practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://researchfeatures.com/2017/11/30/chernobyl-disaster-zone/
 
Description Article on the impact of Chernobyl on wildlife 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article for "Project Syndicate" published in 13 newspapers and magazines worldwide including China Daily, The Korea Times, Times of Oman, Arab News.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2016-01/11/content_23251313.htm
 
Description BBC Environment reporter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact BBC Environment reporter
-Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Camera Trap work as a picture story, Mike Woods
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-32452085
 
Description BBC Interview Nov 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with BBC environment reporter (Mark Kinver) on TREE project and the exposure of wildlife to radioactivity, Mike Woods (University of Salford)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-30197341
 
Description BBC Interview to promote 3-day public engagement event at MOSI 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview to promote 3-day public engagement event at MOSI (BBC Radio Manchester)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BBC Podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A 30 minute interview podcast in the BBC Science Focus magazine website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.sciencefocus.com/article/science-focus-podcast-how-plants-can-survive-space-missions-and-...
 
Description Berlingske article 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Berlingske article by Marianne Fajstrup via Facebook about TREE research - animals. Very high click rate and Facebook interest, leading to a TV item.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://l.facebook.com/l/JAQFmIUqHAQFXMsuZREtb6DTWR8G-XjV9QOeG4f4uHApR7Q/www.b.dk/viden/se-de-fantast...
 
Description Berlingske article 1 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Berlingske article by Marianne Fajstrup via Facebook about TREE research - scientific paper from Current Biology. Very high click rate and Facebook interest, leading to a TV item.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://l.facebook.com/l/SAQEA1iI0AQHLLj0SStpPXSuXnXBMIk7bHRS4tJg_H11XZA/www.b.dk/viden/mennesker-er-...
 
Description Bumblebee Working Group at University of Sussex 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenting and collating information related to conservation of bumblebees and research into environmental impacts on them. A number of questions and discussions arose from this work, established new network links to other researchers subsequently used in the project and increased interest in the work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description COGER 2016 (two talks) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation to research students and academics along with some policy makers and industry participants. The presentations sparked questions and has led to further work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description COGER Presentations 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 2014 - Session at the conference to introduce the projects involved in the NERC RATE Programme. Six presentations were made describing TREE activities which stimulated much discussion.
2015 - Several oral presentations plus poster presentations made during the conference representing recent work on TREE. Presentations:
Shaw, G. Izquierdo, M., Bailey, L., Crout, N., Sanders, H. and Young, S. Predicting 77Se, 99Tc and 129I dynamics in soils - short term results.
H. Sanders. Interactions Between Anionic Radionuclides (129I, 79Se and 99Tc) and Geocolloids.
Alex Ford. Assessing the bioavailability of radionuclides in contaminated soils using the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) technique.
Neil Fuller. The Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation on Crustacean Species: Combining Lab and Field Studies.
N.A. Beresford, M.D. Wood, S. Gashchak, E.A. Gulyaichenko, C.L. Barnett, A. Caravaggi. Use of wildlife camera traps within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

Wider knowledge of TREE within relevant UK science community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Channel 4 News, July 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Channel 4 filming of the TREE Research in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone followed by Channel 4 news report, Mike Woods. Channel 4 News - piece (5 minutes) on wildlife in the CEZ aired Tuesday 14th July 2015 and available via catch-up for 7 days
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Chernobyl 30th Anniversary event at MSI 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 3-day public engagement event at the Museum of Science and industry in Manchester to coincide with the Chernobyl anniversary.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Chernobyl bears 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Publication of footage of brown bears in CEZ. Nick Beresford (CEH) and Mike Woods (University of Salford). Numerous Chernobyl Bears stories and articles published on the web by different news media groups followed, plus various radio interviews.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-30197341
 
Description Chernobyl summer school 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A Summer School was held in the Chernobyl exclusion zone for 20 PhD students in September 2015. This was so successful that options are being explored for further similar events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Contribution to BBC Hindi article [tourism in Chernobyl] 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Quotes in a BBC on-line article re tourism in Chernobyl
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.com/hindi/international-42443784
 
Description Danish News TV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Online interest lead to a news item on Danish national television.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://l.facebook.com/l/eAQGc_d3_AQGYFRVocx4SS0ZCNQxAzKS9HapUPJRLkLdArw/https%3A%2F%2Fwww.dr.dk%2Ft...
 
Description Documentary for BBC4 - Inside Chernobyl's Mega Tomb 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact TREE WP3 work featured in a documentary made by Windfall films on the development of Chernobyl's 'New Safe Confinement'. Screened on BBC4 (21st Dec 16 and repeated on 22nd Dec 16)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08650s6
 
Description IAEA MODARIA STAR Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 2 presentations given relating to TREE WP2:
Wood MD, Beresford NA, Copplestone D, Howard BJ, Yankovich TL. Terrestrial concentration ratio database: Analyses by wildlife groups and RAPs. N.A. Beresford, M.D. Wood, T. Yankovich, C.L. Barnett, N. Willey, B. Penrose. Wildlife Transfer Database - REML analyses
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview BBC Radio Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview re Chernobyl associated with Chernobyl 30th anniversary
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview Talk Radio 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview re Chernobyl exclusion zone
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for ABC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview for the Red Symons breakfast show on ABC (Australian Broadcasting Company), Mike Woods
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview for Animal Planet Documentary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Inteview with Adelaide Lerebours (postdoc) for documentary broadcast on Animal Planet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for BBC Earth magazine article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview/comments on article on the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.
The article was summarised in Waitrose magazine [which has a larger readership c. 400,000 than BBC Earth]
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interview for National Public Radio, U.S.A. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview on "Living on Earth" for U.S. National Public Radio.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://loe.org/shows/segments.html?programID=16-P13-00018&segmentID=4
 
Description Interview for New Scientist magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview for feature article in New Scientist
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for Outdoor Photography 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for article in Outdoor Photography re the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone ['Back from the Brink']
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interview with ABC Radio Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with ABC Radio Australia - Chernobyl wildlife paper published in Current Biology, Jim Smith
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview with BBC world service 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with BBC World Service - Chernobyl wildlife paper published in Current Biology, Jim Smith
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview with CBC Radio Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with CBC Radio Canada - Chernobyl wildlife paper published in Current Biology, Jim Smith
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview with CNN 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with CNN - Chernobyl wildlife paper published in Current Biology, Jim Smith
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://edition.cnn.com/videos/world/2015/10/07/chernobyl-wildlife-growth-james-smith-intv.cnn
 
Description Interview with Sky News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with Sky News - Chernobyl wildlife paper published in Current Biology, Jim Smith
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://news.sky.com/gallery/1564241/wildlife-thriving-at-chernobyl
 
Description Interview with US national public radio 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with US National Public Radio - Chernobyl wildlife paper published in Current Biology, Jim Beasley (US Co-author with Jim Smith)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interviews for Der Spiegel, BBC Earth, Spektrum (Germany), Semana (Latin America), Korber-Stiftung (Germany), Publico (Portugal), FOCUS on 30th Anniversary of Chernobyl 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media interviews on the 30th Anniversary of the Chernobyl accident.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Joint EPSRC Geowaste/ NERC RATE meeting Feb 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Opportunity for poster presentations form 9 PhD and PDRA TREE students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://wiki.ceh.ac.uk/pages/viewpage.action?atl_token=ca5c02f95c88a14058fbad567bb8b4eb3e08f681&page...
 
Description Lo Rise Winter School Jan 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Introduction to environmental protection and TREE, with presentations by TREE members including practical demonstrations of using the ERICA tool.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://wiki.ceh.ac.uk/pages/viewpage.action?atl_token=ca5c02f95c88a14058fbad567bb8b4eb3e08f681&page...
 
Description Manchester Science Festival 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Display and demonstration at the Platform for Investigation (PI) event at the Museum Of Science and Industry as part of Manchester Science Festival (Funded through NERC Summer Science grant). Demonstration of Virtual Chernobyl Experience. 520 participants at July event (most staying for over 30 minutes).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Media interviews/press release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release on paper and Science Media Centre media briefing which led to coverage by hundreds of media outlets worldwide including CNN, BBC, Sky News, US National Public Radio, Canadian National Radio, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Financial Times, Guardian, Independent, New Scientist, National Geographic, Washington Post, Le Figaro, El Pais, China Daily and many more. Audience reach greater than 100 million.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://edition.cnn.com/videos/world/2015/10/07/chernobyl-wildlife-growth-james-smith-intv.cnn
 
Description Newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular six monthly newsletters to disseminate project information.

Requests from others not involved directly with the project to be kept informed of its activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL https://wiki.ceh.ac.uk/display/NRT/NERC+RATE+TREE+Home
 
Description Participation in IAEA working group advising Fukushima Prefecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International Atomic Energy Agency expert group advising Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, on remediation and monitoring of the radioactively contaminated areas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at COGER 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on TREE WP2 activities at 2016 COGER meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation of TREE results at Chernihiv (Ukraine) workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of TREE WP2, 3 and 4 results during an international workshop held in the Ukraine discussing radiation effects on wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

Will be 2-5 TREE related papers in a special issue of J. Environ. Radioact. as a consequence of involvement in the workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.radioecology-exchange.org/content/workshops
 
Description Presentation on Spanish sampling site at international meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of results from the TREE WP2 site in Spain at the International Conference on Radioecological Processes (Seville 6-9 Nov 2016).
Paper invited for a special issue of J. Environ. Radioactivity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://congreso.us.es/radecolconp2016/
 
Description RATE Final Impact Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A dissemination of results to end users - the Environment Agency and Radioactive waste Management Ltd - in a workshop over three days to which a wide range of politicians (it was in westminster), industry, the media and anyone interested was invited.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/rate/finalScienceMeeting.html
 
Description Radiation protection workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Environmental radiation protection capacity building workshops, based around TREE research, for Japanese Government (Feb 2015; Feb 2016) and EC/IAEA (Sept 2015).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Radio Interview Talk Radio 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on "The Unexplained", Talk Radio
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Radio Television Suisse interview 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Radio Television Suisse interview - TREE work in the CEZ. Mike Woods
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Re-screen of documentary on BBC4 - Inside Chernobyl's Mega Tomb 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Documentary featuring TREE WP3 work repeated on BBC4 on 14.01.17 and due to screen on PBS in the US during Spring 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08650s6
 
Description Science media centre press briefing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Science Media Centre press briefing/release for on-line publication of collaborative research with Belarussian colleagues, - Large Mammals in the CEZ - Current Biology Magazine, Jim Smith (Portsmouth University). Reported in most major UK national newspapers including FT, Guardian, Independent, Times and in English and foreign language media worldwide through Reuters and Associated Press. Large international media interest, including front page online items in The Independent, BBC Science and The Telegraph. Front page and top highlights story online with The Guardian. Front page and top recommended story online for the New Scientist.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn28281-wildlife-is-thriving-around-chernobyl-since-the-people-...
 
Description Social media activities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Posting of pictures on social media showing activities e.g. @Radioecology exchange #ChernobylDiaries. Used by students at summer school in Chernobyl, created Twitter following using the #ChernobylDiaries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://twitter.com/radioecology
 
Description TREE Annual Meeting 2 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The second NERC, RWM, EA and STFC funded review of progress on research that has included radiological research utilising material from the Chernobyl vicinity was held on 23 & 24 November at CEH Wallingford
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://wiki.ceh.ac.uk/pages/viewpage.action?atl_token=ca5c02f95c88a14058fbad567bb8b4eb3e08f681&page...
 
Description TREE annual meeting 1 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The first NERC, RWM, EA and STFC funded review of progress on research that has included radiological research utilising material from the Chernobyl vicinity was held on 24 November at Manchester University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://wiki.ceh.ac.uk/pages/viewpage.action?atl_token=ca5c02f95c88a14058fbad567bb8b4eb3e08f681&page...
 
Description TREE outreach event with potential endusers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Outreach event to communicate TREE to potential end users - industry and regulators from UK and Europe
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description TREE outreach workshop for the Environment Agency 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Discussion of the TREE project with the Environment Agency who are one of the projects end users
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Two talks - December 2016 Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Internal seminar given to academic staff, technical staff, postgraduate students and open to undergraduate students within the School of Natural Sciences. Approximately 70 people attended. The presentation sparked questions, discussion and debate over recent research findings and there have been continued interaction with colleagues within the School.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Wales TV Item 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact TV item on Good Evening Wales - Sight of bears in the wood in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, Nick Beresford
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Open access Wiki based website set up to disseminate project information and outputs. With links to radioecology blogs and careers opportunities and the provision of educational material and resources.

A number of media enquiries have been directed at the website with some content (photographs) being put on the site in discussions with media. Large public and media interest in photographs and live cameras.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015
URL https://wiki.ceh.ac.uk/display/NRT/NERC+RATE+TREE+Home
 
Description Workshop: TREE-ALLIANCE workshop on Radiation effects studies conducted in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop bringing together researchers who have worked in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) over the last 5 years [also attended by NERC, EA and Radioactive Waste Management Ltd].
Agreement to prepare (i) statement paper; (ii) meta-database on CEZ studies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://radioecology-exchange.org/content/workshops