Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of payment for wildlife conservation initiatives in Africa: Tanzania's wildlife Management Areas (PIMA)

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Anthropology

Abstract

Rural people across the global south are caught between competing land demands for large-scale cultivation, global conservation, and local needs. These can in theory be integrated locally through community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) and payments for ecosystem services (PES): where communities can decide on and benefit directly from natural resources, they may invest in and manage those resources in ways that are more socially and environmentally sustainable. CBNRM/PES initiatives are being rolled out across the global south, but there are conflicting views as to how well they work, for whom and under what circumstances. This is partly due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the ecosystem services (ES) and poverty alleviation (PA) outcomes involved, and the inevitable tradeoffs, but also to the hitherto limited use of either qualitatively or quantitatively rigorous impact evaluation approaches that are independent, control for confounding factors and ensure the voices of the most marginalized are heard. As well as being limited by generally weak research design, studies to date have often failed to account for the ways political sensitivities around changing access to and use of ecosystem services may compromise data quality and mask differentiated impacts.

PIMA seizes a unique policy moment, with Tanzania's poverty reduction strategy Mkukuta driving nationwide implementation of CBNRM/PES-based Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), and other countries in the region considering comparable initiatives. The WMAs comprise different ecosystems (rangeland, miombo), socio-political structures (long-established/ethnically uniform vs recent, heterogeneous constituent villages), and a broad range of ecosystem services (water-regulating and -supplying, provision of forest products, grazing, livestock, crop and wildlife production, cultural services both local and global (from locally significant social and ritual spaces, to heritage and tourism). Before/after, inside/outside comparison of social and ecological outcomes for established WMAs with matched non-WMA areas (within the same ecosystems) offers an ideal opportunity for rigorous impact evaluation. PIMA combines analysis of remotely-sensed, public-domain MODIS and NDVI data, with cutting edge study of governance, and new data from qualitatively and quantitatively rigorous, differentiated survey of livelihoods and resource use histories, structured within a before/after, control/impact (BACI) research design. PIMA brings together a powerful international research team to work with strongly-rooted civil society organizations to ensure research excellence and development impact.

Building on ongoing stakeholder engagement, with input sought from users, practitioners and policymakers at all stages pre- to post-project, PIMA ensures findings will be of direct use locally, nationally and internationally. PIMA 's framework and approach create channels for grassroots users to make experienced change in ecosystem services quality and quantity, and in poverty and wellbeing, more clearly heard by policymakers and practitioners, as well as highlighting tradeoffs and best practice lessons. Establishing what works, why and for whom will be of use not only to the one million rural people directly affected by WMAs, but will deliver insights and best practice lessons generalizable to the many millions more whose livelihoods and wellbeing are to be shaped by comparable CBNRM/PES initiatives. The findings delivered, and the mechanisms piloted, will give local users and national and international policymakers and practitioners the insights and tools to improve interventions through creating better upward and downward accountability. PIMA findings will be of use locally to rural people making collective and individual resource use decisions, through national levels, to international donors deciding how to invest scarce resources for ecosystem services and poverty alleviation.

Planned Impact

PIMA research findings will improve ecosystem services/ poverty alleviation (ES/PA) interventions by establishing what works, why and for whom in a central test case. PIMA will improve upward and downward accountability by creating ways for grassroots users to make clear their experience of intervention-associated changes in ES quality and quantity, poverty and wellbeing, and associated tradeoffs, and by giving policymakers, practitioners and donors the insights and tools to improve interventions.

PIMA's intended beneficiaries include:
(a) poor local people in the case study sites. WMAs already impact directly on one million rural people in Tanzania, and new WMAs in various stages of planning and implementation will affect a further 1.5 million rural Tanzanians. PIMA insights and best practice lessons will be generalizable to people in the many comparable ES/PA schemes being rolled out across the region and across the global south
(b) implementing organizations: PIMA is independent from but networked with NGO implementers involved in study WMAs, while other (non-study) WMA and CBNRM interveners/ practitioners participating in PIMA workshops include a wide range of NGOs (WWF, AWF, JBG/WCST, DHA, Africare, FZS, FarmAfrica) who operate internationally, and are keen to make interventions more effective
(c) researchers exploring the interplay of ecosystem services and poverty alleviation in East Africa and across the global south
(d) national/ global policy-makers, practitioners, donors, and the wider ESPA network
(e) investors including East Africa tour operating companies, carbon, REDD+ and other PES scheme entrepreneurs.

PIMA will clarify WMA impacts on ES-based livelihoods, tradeoffs, and their implications, making more clear the needs and priorities of poor people using savanna and miombo woodland ecosystems, and the feedback loops that transmit pressures on poor populations back to the ES on which they depend. PIMA will support poor people's livelihoods by making WMA-associated changes in their wellbeing visible to national and international policymakers and practitioners, making it easier for them to identify appropriate policy/governance structures to encourage socially and environmentally sustainable outcomes. Donors and investors will use PIMA findings to ensure their resources are invested to best effect, and in demonstrably ethical ways. Research into use thus builds on engagement of, feedback from, dissemination through and uptake by the networks of users outlined above. PIMA findings are likely to reveal a range of tradeoffs, as a result of WMA impacts on distribution of ES benefits among different groups (by age, sex, wealth and residential status), of differential outcomes on quality and quality of different ES, and on ES at the expense of PA or vice versa. Development partners will need to facilitate mechanisms for equitable, socially and environmentally sustainable compromises with respect to such tradeoffs; the ESPA Directorate will need to disseminate the working compromises attained.

South researchers will integrate their in-depth local knowledge into, and influence development of, new conceptual frameworks around socio-ecological processes. They will be exposed to new scientific and research funding and management skills. North researchers will learn from African partners' in-depth local social and ecological knowledge and expertise in developing work that is locally credible and relevant. Dovetailing North scientific and technical capacity with South expertise and local knowledge delivers impact greater than the sum of the individual parts. Western science is built in part on models evolved in more temperate social-ecological systems, not always appropriate for understanding sub/tropical systems. Local ecological knowledge not only increasingly informs emerging scientific models but gives insights relevant to increasingly unpredictable and variable contexts in UK and worldwide.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description 1. PIMA addressed three interlinked dimensions of WMA impacts: the nature, quantity and quality of ecosystem services benefits WMAs deliver; governance of ecosystem service benefits in terms of access and distribution; and resource use histories demonstrating effects of WMAs on livelihoods, poverty and wellbeing. We used a before/after, control/impact research design which makes it possible to pick apart changes due to the presence of a WMA, as opposed to other confounding factors. Key findings show:
2.
3. - These are very variable environments and the 7-year period from WMA inception to our review is insufficient to show clear directional changes in habitat or biodiversity ecosystem services.
4. - The frequency of consumption of domestic animal and bushmeat taken together is not significantly affected by WMAs, and shows a divergent pattern with (non-significant) positive effects in the south WMAs, and (non-significant) negative effects in the north. However, when the two types of meat are considered separately, north WMAs exert a significant positive effect on frequency of bushmeat consumption, and south WMAs a significant negative effect. The magnitude of the WMA-related decrease in the south is about half that of the WMA-related increase in the north. Although we have no formal evidence for this, it is possible that trophy hunting in the north is increasing and that the meat is distributed or sold in the communities whereas WMAs in the south generally have not seen a similar interest from investors (perhaps due to poor access and less visitor interest). It is also possible that South WMAs may have begun to exert increased control of illegal hunting, reducing the availability of bushmeat in the South communities. The combined result for both types of meat suggests that South people have increased domestic animal meat consumption through time, although the BACI effect is not significant. Further analysis is comparing these results to trends (including counterfactual trends) in tropical livestock equivalents owned per adult equivalent, and in the wildlife density overflight data

While there are few clear WMA-related changes in ecosystem services, there were clear social and economic changes:-
5. - Change in wealth rank 2007-2014 for households in the highest-earning North WMA Burunge is clearly worse than for their matched non-WMA controls irrespective of wealth ranking in 2007. Moderate earner Enduimet (North) and non-earning South WMA households have benefitted relative to their matched controls. In the South WMAs this appears due to philanthropic interventions independent of these WMAs (see below)
6. - Change in wealth rank 2007-2014 for WMA households with at least one member in a village game scout role (generally chosen from poorer households) is clearly better than for their matched non-WMA controls. The concentration of WMA management and committee positions among rich households suggests that WMA governance facilitates capture of opportunities by those involved in management
7. - Overall, households in Burunge (the WMA with the highest tourism revenue) appear - paradoxically - to have lost out from WMA creation; while households in WMAs with less or no tourism revenue appear to have benefitted. This counterintuitive finding is thought to result from the opportunity costs of WMA restrictions; from state and WMA top-slicing of WMA revenue, which may make CBNRM into a punitive rural taxation system for WMAs earning revenue; by contrast conservation NGOs' philanthropic efforts have achieved some positive change in WMAs with no tourism revenue. Elite capture where revenues are high is also a possible factor.
8. - Household-level livelihoods data show that change in access to key resources (grazing, firewood, construction materials) 2007-2014, and changes in crop damage during that time, are clearly worse for WMA than non-WMA control households
9. - Detailed analysis for changes in women's wellbeing focused on the competing hypotheses (1) that as pro-poor, community based natural resource management initiatives with a focus on women's empowerment, WMAs would improve the position of Tanzanian rural women; or conversely (2) that as commonly poorer and more marginalised members of these societies, women's access to resources, ability to use those resources, and the significance of that access and use to women as individuals and as members of society, would all be adversely impacted by WMAs. PIMA findings are clearly consistent with the second hypothesis.
- WMA governance is characterised by lack of meaningful inclusion and participation in relevant decision-making processes pertaining to WMA establishment (to do it or not, to join a WMA or not), WMA design (land use planning and zoning; devising a regime of rules, regulations, restrictions; revenue collection, sharing and expenditure), and WMA management (elite capture, weak accountability to member villages, not flexible to accommodate for local needs for change of WMA design).
Exploitation Route With the help of ESPA's Impact team, we are working with USAID to build on these findings to try to change Tanzanian government thinking about how best to manage WMAs
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/pima/
 
Description Findings have been used to inform two major USAID- funded interventions in Tanzania. The first is the $12million intervention spearheaded by the Nature Conservancy (with other conservation, research and business organisations). They are using PIMA NE/L00139X/1 findings to (a) reconsider and revise their theory of change (b) revise their baseline (and subsequent) survey (c) revise their proposed project implementation. PIMA NE/L00139X/1 findings are also currently being used to inform the USAID $50million PROTECT project. in addition to correspondence in which they acknowledge the influence of PIMA NE/L00139X/1, we were invited to present findings in detail at the May 2016 ministerial-level workshop in Dar es salaam, at which PIMA and PROTECT were the two main research and conservation collaborations, alongside Tanzanian state presence. USAID and ESPA are in discussion as to how USAID can use PIMA findings and approach to improve their own research in this area and as to how we can jointly move to change the thinking of the Tanzanian state as to how to manage this nationwide programme better for social and environmental outcomes.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Adviser, Swiss National Scientific Research Foundation, Research for development
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL http://www.snf.ch/en/funding/programmes/r4d-programme/Pages/default.aspx
 
Description Critical evaluation of survey instrument for $12million USAID-funded project in Tanzania Maasailand
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL http://allafrica.com/stories/201602081811.html
 
Description ESRC Expert advisory group on international development
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
 
Description ESRC International Development Expert Group
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Since 2005, the ESRC has committed approximately £40 million to development research, leveraging an additional £160 million from DFID and other funders, including other UK Research Councils. ESRC-DFID funded research has been commissioned across three programmes: the Joint Fund for Poverty Alleviation, the Growth Research Programme, and the Raising Learning Outcomes in Education Systems Programme. Our ESRC-DFID joint schemes fund world-class research on a broad range of topics to enhance the quality and impact of social science, and contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (formerly the Millennium Development Goals). A key feature of these initiatives is that they are open to research organisations from anywhere in the world as bid leaders. Over 200 research projects have been funded under the partnership since 2005. A report produced by an Expert Advisory Group in 2014 (PDF, 970Kb) outlines challenges and future priorities in international development research. In order to meet these challenges we aim to maintain and develop our outstanding working relationship with DFID, but also seek out new partnerships and collaborations. Through this we hope to continue to deliver research which has far-ranging and diverse impacts on the research community, on policymakers and practitioners, and on the lives of poor people in some of the world's poorest countries.
URL https://esrc.ukri.org/research/international-research/international-development
 
Description ESRC Strategic Advisory Network
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact ESRC SAN guides investment for ESRC's part in UKRI. as such we steer the training of young researchers; scope research calls (internal to ESRC; and in conjunction with UKRI/GCRF) fund the best research in social sciences and in interdisciplinary collaboration internationally and with other research councils, industry and third sector partners; maintain and develop longitudinal and other data collection and retrieval systems which are the go-to sources underpinning government policy and investment etc.
URL https://esrc.ukri.org/about-us/governance-and-structure/strategic-advisory-network
 
Description Invitation to advise USAID on research design and methodology
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Member of both ESRC's Research Committee, and of ESRC's International Development Expert Group (EIDEG),
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://www.esrc.ac.uk/about-us/governance-and-structure/advisory-committees/research-committee/
 
Description Member, ESRC Research Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Membership of guiding panel, and Citation in policy document: FAO's technical guide on Governance in Pastoral lands
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.fao.org/publications/card/en/c/cfec9870-d873-4dd4-b7e8-1d61fe3eb501/
 
Description Panel member, indicators for SDGs relating to indigenous people and local communities' tenure of, access to and use of common property resources
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL http://www.unep.org/post2015/Portals/50240/Documents/Indicator_Workshop_3-5_December_2014.pdf
 
Description UNEP Senior Expert member: integrated measures for monitoring
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
URL http://unep.org.uneplive
 
Description ESPA postdoctoral fellowship
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RIR reference ER1091/JCP; UCL ref 65680 Award code: ABJV 
Organisation Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2014 
End 02/2017
 
Description ESPA synthesis
Amount £125,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P008097/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description NERC DFID Collaboration El Nino 2016
Amount £300,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P004725/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 12/2017
 
Description NERC DTP studentship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation University College London 
Department Faculty of Social & Historical Sciences
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 03/2018
 
Description Open access publications award
Amount £4,326 (GBP)
Funding ID OAG-2012-114 
Organisation Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2014 
End 12/2014
 
Description Pathway to Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Elimination - methods for complex ecosystems
Amount £457,199 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P023002/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 04/2019
 
Title Survey of the impacts of an environmental intervention on household wealth, livelihoods and wellbeing in Tanzania 
Description This dataset is part of the Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme through its grant NE/L00139X/1 Poverty and Ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania's Wildlife Management Areas. These data represent the central quantitative datasets from a mixed method, quasi-experimental study of the effects of an environmental intervention (national implementation of Wildlife Management Areas - WMAs) on Tanzania's rural population. The study focused on changes in wealth, livelihoods and wellbeing 2007-2014 for households in villages that are members of a WMA, compared to households in matched control villages that are not in WMAs, and causal attribution of those changes. The study covered 6 of the then 18 WMAs, (3 in northern rangelands and 3 in southern Miombo woodlands), and surveyed a total of 47 villages (both 'inside' WMAs and matched 'outside' non-WMA villages). In all, 13,578 households in these villages were wealth ranked on locally derived, village-specific criteria for both 2014/5 and (by recall) for 2007. From this sample frame we surveyed a stratified random sample of 1924 household heads (including 187 female heads of household) and 945 wives of household heads. Questions to household heads addressed household composition, land and livestock assets, resource use, income generating activities and income portfolios, participation in decision-making in natural resources management, and perceived benefits and costs of conservation, at the time of the 2014/5 survey and also by recall for 2007. Related questions addressed women's perceptions of changes since 2007 in access to land and natural resources, production, income-generating activities, human-wildlife conflict, participation in WMA management; and overall costs and benefits of WMAs. Though there is also considerable qualitative data, much of this is politically sensitive and therefore not deposited here: interested researchers may contact the PI for partial access. Environmental data not already in the public domain are being deposited in the NERC Environment Information Data Service. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The data became available through UK Datashare in February 2018 and has already begun to be accessed by other researchers. it also forms the basis of a forthcoming data descriptor paper in the journal Nature Scientific data (paper has completed review process and will form part of a special collection dedicated to ESPA projects, expected pulbication summer 2018. 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/852960/
 
Description Kenya Rangelands Coalition 
Organisation TanSat (CarbonSat) mission
Country China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Mohammed Said and Aidan Keane participated in August 2011 inception meeting of KRC, designed to represent interests of Southern Kenya drylands users Partly on the basis of this early engagement, Katherine Homewood was invited onto the advisory panel of KRC/ ACC and McGill University's 'Canopy of Conservation' project, now ongoing.
Collaborator Contribution Participation in project meetings ensure communication, dissemination and feedback with this user network Although initial engagement pre dates the PIMA project, these contacts were and remain vital pre- and post-project activities ensuring effective research design and ultimately ensuring dissemination and impact
Impact information flow; dissemination to and feedback from user groups
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pastoralist Civil Society Organisations 
Organisation PINGOS Pastoralist Integrated NGOs Forum
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution this organisation represents an important network of Tanzanian pastoralist community and civil society groups with which we engage in the course of formulating our research, carrying it out, disseminating and seeking feedback on the findings. we have contacted them, visited them in Arusha and discussed the research issues, approach and findings with them on several occasions
Collaborator Contribution This organisation is an important channel for engagement and communication among pastoralist communities in Tanzania. ResearchFish queries the fact that the start date of the collaboration pre-dates the start date of this award to which the collaboration is attributed. I must make it clear that with this type of collaboration there is very significant pre-project investment in engaging users and partners, in order to ensure the best possible conditions for project collaboration and lasting impact. it was in anticipation of working with PINGOS and on the basis of pre project work engaging in the collaborative relationship that we were able to submit a successful grant application and a genuinely engaged impact pathway and, more importantly, achieve genuine societal impact.
Impact Informal but essential engagement and communication
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pastoralist Women's council 
Organisation Pastoral Women's Council of Tanzania
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution 1. 2015-6: we contributed a volunteer (Masters graduate related to project research group) who is now based in a remote location in Maasailand and helps with administrative matters. 2. 2016-7: PWC is a collaborating partner on a further ESPA-funded award (IMPACTS: PI Emily Woodhouse: Homewood Co-I, acting PI during Woodhouse's maternity leave)
Collaborator Contribution 1. PWC Staff attend our project workshops and conferences, contribute to formulating research issues and approach, and to discussing and disseminating findings. they have extended this role into unfunded partnership in a new ESPA-funded collaboration (IMPACTS; PI Woodhouse) 2. PWC are a grassroots organisation of considerable local significance in supporting issues of women's livelihoods and wellbeing in the north of Tanzania, where PIMA has operated and where engagement and impact continue to play out. they provide an important channel for discussing and evaluating project findings dissemination and feedback 3. ResearchFish queries the fact that the start date of the collaboration pre-dates the start date of this award to which the collaboration is attributed. I must make it clear that with this type of collaboration there is very significant pre-project investment in engaging users and partners, in order to ensure the best possible conditions for project collaboration and lasting impact. it was in anticipation of working with PWC and on the basis of pre project work engaging in the collaborative relationship that we were able to submit a successful grant application and a genuinely engaged impact pathway and, more importantly, achieve genuine societal impact.
Impact multi disciplinary ongoing collaboration on research formulation and user engagement gender, community and development aspects
Start Year 2012
 
Description Poverty Conservation Learning Group 
Organisation Poverty Conservation Learning Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution KH joined the Poverty Conservation Learning Group http://povertyandconservation.info/. KH co authored chapter in PCLG book Homewood K, P. Chenevix-Trench and D.Brockington (2013) Pastoralism and conservation: who benefits? In D.Roe, M.Walpole and J.Elliott (eds) Biodiversity Conservation and Poverty Alleviation. Informed by BEST, though based primarily on prior work
Collaborator Contribution PCLG provides a network of considerable international and multilevel reach which is active in disseminating findings and garnering feedback from user groups. they are performing this role for the present PIMA project but also for subsequent ESPA_funded work (IMPACTS project: PI Emily Woodhouse)
Impact information, dissemination and critical feedback network of user groups at the conservation/development interface
Start Year 2011
 
Description Tanzania Natural Resource Forum membership 
Organisation Tanzania Natural Resource Forum (TNRF)
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Tanzania Natural Resource Forum (TNRF) is a Tanzanian network organisation registered in 2006 as a Non-Governmental Organization. TNRF seeks to change policy and practice for the better in Tanzania?s natural resource sector so that livelihoods and conservation outcomes are improved. It is a demand-driven and growing multidisciplinary network of more than 3,800 members and partners working to bridge the gap between people?s local natural resource management needs and national natural resource management priorities, laws and programs. TNRF focuses on facilitating dialogue, advancing community based natural resource management, promoting sound and fair land based investments, and communicating about climate change.) BEST members are building on this new partnership to develop new research with a strong pathway to impact
Collaborator Contribution TNRF were funded partners in the application phase and during the lifetime of the PIMA award. They managed the recruitment, training and personnel management for the large scale household wealth ranking (n~13500 households) and livelihoods surveys (n~2000).
Impact The research was successfully completed and results are being written up and published. preliminary dissemination has been carried out through TNRF's ministerial level meeting in Dar es Salaam in May 2016, which showcased PIMA findings to an audience which included GTZ, USAID, EU and other donors as well as senior figures from the Department of Wildlife, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism
Start Year 2013
 
Description Green economy in the South conference in Dodoma, Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jevgeniy Bluwstein, RA on PIMA project, presented paper

Research findings reached Tanzanian and other african researchers and practitioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://greeneconomyinthesouth.wordpress.com
 
Description discussant in Cambridge University workshop 'The Wealth Economy: Natural and Social Capital.' led by Prof Diana Coyle 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact exploratory workshop, convening 20-25 experts to help brainstorm and develop better metrics of social and natural assets
for integration into national statistics; significant potential for policy impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bennettinstitute.cam.ac.uk/blog/measurements-better-future/
 
Description Arusha opening workshop 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact some 50 people, including Tanzania's deputy Director for wildlife, attended this inception workshop. the workshop brought together international and Tanzanian researchers, as well as international conservation NGOs, Tanzanian civil society organisations and pastoralist spokespersons, Tanzanian government officers and scientific civil service representatives. this was an opportunity for all these groups to put forward their (polarised, conflicting) views on the issues around wildlife management areas in Tanzania, and on the PIMA project's approach to evaluating social and ecological outcomes of these management areas. as such it represented an extremely important engagement activity with key stakeholders, whose perspectives and insights are essential to shaping the research and whose coming together at this workshop represented a first step in finding some level of negotiated understanding.

numerous spin-off events in terms of collaborative links, both formal and informal, with Tanzanian and other researchers; one of my Masters' students was offered an internship with the Tanzanian Pastoralist Women's Council and is now contributing to their advocacy and administration; numerous collaborative links developed with international and national conservation NGOs; etc
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/pima/materials
 
Description BES 2014 annual symposium : considering the future of conservation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Anthony Dancer (RA) presented a poster on "do community-conserved areas in Tanzania achieve conservation goals"

Dancer selected for NERC-DTP PhD studentship
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.britishecologicalsociety.org/events/current_future_meetings/2014-annual-symposium/
 
Description BES 2014 symposium: Considering the future of conservation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact AK presented a poster on the PIMA project

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.britishecologicalsociety.org/events/current_future_meetings/2014-annual-symposium/
 
Description Cambridge UCCRI graduate conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 50 new PhD students attended my opening plenary for this conference on interdisciplinary methods in conservation research

subsequent correspondence with individual PhD students on their research and approaches
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://research-institute.conservation.cam.ac.uk/grad-conf
 
Description Cambridge University public seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ca 35 participants (practitioners, academics and industry) attended for a presentation to Cambridge University Geography department on "women, wellbeing and wildlife management areas", presenting the findings from our PIMA project NE/L00139X/1 This rigorous causal evaluation of the impacts of a conservation intervention on married women in rural North and South Tanzania reveals problematic shortfalls in the state theories of change, including negative impacts on a number of dimensions of women's participation, income generation, access to resources, physical security and crop damage associated with the wildlife management areas, pointing the way to policy and practice changes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://talks.cam.ac.uk/talk/index/118012
 
Description Concrete cases and teaching materials for an MSc course in Political Ecology attended by 40 students at University of Copenhagen fall 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Concrete cases and teaching materials for an MSc course in Political Ecology attended by 40 students at University of Copenhagen fall 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conference presentation at Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute (TAWIRI) 11th Scientific Conference on 'People, Livestock and Climate change: Challenges for sustainable biodiversity conservation', Arusha, Tanzania, 6-8 December 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Tanzanian ECR Francis Moyo presented a full paper on wildlife management areas "WMAs and human-wildlife conflicts", co-authored by all UK, Danish and Tanzanian co-investigators on the PIMA project. The main audience constituted Tanzanian government wildlife and and community development policymakers and practitioners, and Tanzanian and international wildlife conservation and community development researchers. The presentation went well, with many questions particularly from people interested in PIMA's rigorous quasi-experimental methodology, including technical issues around the selection of control villages, making for especially robust findings. Combined with our dissemination of an ESPA-produced policy briefing on PIMA's research findings and their implications for policy, and together with our intensive work disseminating results in study villages, PIMA findings are entering debate and negotiations between local users, government authorities, and wildlife tourism entrepreneurs as to the ways Tanzania's WMAs can be better co-managed for social as well as environmental sustainability
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ESPA Social Surveys workshop 23-24 Oct 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Martin Reinhardt Neilsen presented and discussed issues and challenges in designing household survey for the PIMA project

researchers developed and shared insights on improved methods
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.espa.ac.uk/news-events/events/thu-2014-10-23-1000/espa-social-surveys-event
 
Description ESPA science conference 2013 plenary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 50-100 ESPA researchers from around the world attended the plenary and the lively panel discussion with other keynote speakers that followed. Videostreaming ensured a wider audience

Numerous invitations for further plenary talks and invited keynotes. I was also invited to become a member of the ESRC Expert Advisory Group for International Development, and external examiner for University of Cambridge Conservation Leadership MPhil programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.espa.ac.uk/news-events/events/espa-2013-conference
 
Description Green Economy in the South conference, Dodoma, Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presented by DR Martin Reinhardt Neisen on PIMA project approach and methods

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://greeneconomyinthesouth.wordpress.com
 
Description PIMA field stakeholder engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I accompanied field teams in Ngabulo, Katikati and other villages in and around Makame WMA, holding talks and semi structured interviews with village government, local leaders and community members

1. leaders able to outline research aims and methods to villagers
2. ward- and village-level consent for research to proceed (household and individual level consent obtained separately)
3. local feedback incorporated into research design
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description PIMA-JBteam field stakeholder engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact field research team visited villages in and around four southern and two northern WMAs. in each village, discussions were held with the village government, local leaders and community members

1. leaders able to outline aims and methods of research to local community
2. local feedback on issues and approach incorporated into research design
3. ward- and village- level consent obtained for research to proceed (household and individual level consent obtained separately)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/pima/materials
 
Description PIMA: field stakeholder/user engagement activities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact PIMA researchers visited villages in and around Enduimet WMA and the incipient Lake Natron WMA. in each village, we held talks with village government, local leaders and community members, discussing research issues and approaches. local feedback has played an important part in shaping our research design.

1. leaders able to outline research aims and methods to villagers
2. ward- and village-level consent for research to proceed (household and individual level consent obtained separately)
3. local feedback incorporated into research design
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/pima/materials
 
Description Participation in an activity, workshop or similar - invited presentation on 'Social Impacts of Tanzania's Wildlife Management Areas' at Aarhus University Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity group, Department of Biosciences, 6 Feb 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Katherine Homewood gave invited presentation on PIMA findings to Aarhus department of BioSciences Research Group with specialised research interests on human-environment interactions in the section (http://bios.au.dk/en/about-bioscience/organisation/ecoinformatics-and-biodiversity/)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Political Ecology programme opening workshop, SOAS 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Katherine Homewood presented invited keynote on "environmentally sustainable futures in East African rangelands", triggering lively discussion

considerable interest aroused, resulting in invitations to speak at Cambridge UCCRI (September 2014), Cambridge Conservation seminar (Feb 2015) and UCL's international 3-day event launching ABaCuS (Anthropology, behaviour and cultures of sustainability) Feb 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description School visit and talk (Frederiksberg, Denmark) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 25 Danish primary school pupils attended a talk and Q&A session around conservation and development in Tanzania
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Tansley Workshop, Silwood 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Aidan Keane presented a paper on "connecting evaluation and conservation through systems thinking", discussing how evaluations are carried out in other fields

research interest
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.environmentalevaluators.net/london2014/
 
Description Tanzania Natural Resources 3rd National CBNRM Forum 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact TNRF's 3rd National CBNRM Forum showcased PIMA findings to a ministerial-level audience which also hosted USAID, GTZ, EU and other donors, sparking discussion and policymaker debate around the need for re-thinking Tanzania's national Wildlife Management Area policy and practice. there are ongoing discussions between PIMA and USAID informing USAID's subsequent research and practice in Tanzania
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.tnrf.org/en/content/proceedings-3rd-national-cbnrm-forum-2016
 
Description Wellcome Trust scientific conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact lively presentation, conversation and debate, with considerable audience participation

subsequently contacted by students and aspiring science writers to develop topic further
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.wellcomecollection.org/what's-on/events/animals-v-people.aspx
 
Description ZSL symposium 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presented by Anthony Dancer, RA employed on PIMA project: Do community-conserved areas in Tanzania achieve conservation goals?

invited to present at BES 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.zsl.org/science/what's-on/symposium-remote-sensing-for-conservation
 
Description field dissemination to study villages 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dissemination visits were carried out in all 42 study villages (WMA and non-WMA controls). in each case village government as well as a broad cross section of concerned citizens participated, with meetings including anywhere from 15-45 people, men and women and youth representatives. Study results relevant to the area in question were presented and discussed and local feedback sought. people were extremely appreciative of this exercise and in several cases project personnel carrying out the dissemination were told this helped villages arrive at their own decisions over land use and also that it helped in negotiations with state and entrepreneurs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://ucl.ac.uk/pima
 
Description invited presentation on 'Social Impacts of Tanznaia's Wildlife Management Areas' at Global South Studies Centre Cologne SHIFTING BIO-CULTURAL FRONTIERS, RE-TERRITORIALIZATION AND GLOBAL ENTANGLEMENTS IN CONSERVATION AREAS OF SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited presentation to a workshop audience of researchers, practitioners and policymakers. triggered debate around pros and cons of alternative national models of CBNRM (especially Tanzania vs Namibia on the one hand and Kenya on the other)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://gssc.uni-koeln.de/node/1376
 
Description posting on the Danish national newspaper Politiken entitled 'Elefanter på rov i landsbyen', September 25, 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact posting on the Danish national newspaper Politiken entitled 'Elefanter på rov i landsbyen', September 25, 2015. Circulation 90,000; readership 500,000. Danish national interest in International conservation and development; particular niche interest expressed by Danish hunters
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description two field course trips (May 2015, March 2016) to Burunge WMA by 15-18 students as part of an course on the MSc programme in Global Development at University of Copenhagen. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact two field course trips (May 2015, March 2016) to Burunge WMA by 15-18 students as part of an course on the MSc programme in Global Development at University of Copenhagen.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016