Institutions for Urban Poor's Access to Ecosystem Services: A Comparison of Green and Water Structures in Bangladesh and Tanzania

Lead Research Organisation: Lancaster University
Department Name: Lancaster Environment Centre

Abstract

Bangladesh and Tanzania are two rapidly urbanising least-developed countries facing the prospect of poverty becoming an 'urban problem' well before 2050. Their growing urban populations living in low-income settlements rely for many fundamental services on two important ecosystems: urban green and water structures. These provide shelter, fuel, food, protection from extreme weather, access to safe drinking water, drainage, and flood and pollution prevention; however, they are also the source of 'disservices', such as harmful bacteria, which can lead to chronic ill-health.

In these low-income countries where state authority is weak, co-production (providing public services through collaboration between state agencies and citizen groups) and community collective action can together serve as building blocks for institutional effectiveness. Co-production requires consensus, which collective action can provide: their combination is thus a potentially rewarding - though little researched - approach to ensuring better access to ecosystem services for the urban poor.

Our research intends to identify policy-relevant design principles and operational practices for the institutional arrangements needed to produce ecosystem services which promote sustainable improvements in the wellbeing of the urban poor. We focus on services derived, and disservices resulting, from urban green and water structures in low-income settlements in Dhaka (Bangladesh) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). The similarities between these two cities will enable findings to be generalised, while their contrasts will allow us to develop a robust conceptual framework and test emerging hypotheses.

This project addresses three main questions:
1) What access and exposure do the urban poor have to green and water ecosystem services and risks?
2) What institutional arrangements structure that access at different scales?
3) Do co-production and collective action improve the urban poor's access to ecosystem services and create a basis for developing effective institutions?

We bring three main theoretical considerations to the study: urban ecosystems; the political ecology of urban change; and institutional diversity. The research is structured into four interconnected work packages: WP1 - Assessment of ecosystem services and disservices; WP2 - Mediating institutional structures; WP3 - Progressive institutional arrangements; and WP4 - Comparative analysis and impact dissemination.

Qualitative and quantitative data will feed into a comparative analysis and synthesis of findings which will provide rigorous new evidence on the institutional challenges facing associations of poor urban people, state and non-state agencies, and the knowledge community in their efforts to sustain and improve ecosystem processes and maintain and expand urban poor people's access to fundamental services across the city space. This knowledge will assist policy making and programme design by agencies in Bangladesh, Tanzania and beyond, and the urban poverty-ecosystem link will be introduced into the global policy arena at a time when post-MDGs negotiations are gathering pace. Project deliverables will include a book, top-level academic papers, policy and press briefings, dissemination seminars in Dhaka, Dar es Salaam, Manchester and London, international conference presentations, and active engagement with informal policy processes.

This research builds on two successful major projects, ClimUrb and CLUVA, placing it in a strong position to deliver policy-relevant evidence to targeted audiences. It adopts a multi-disciplinary, multi-context approach, bringing together a team of leading Bangladeshi, Tanzanian and UK researchers, and it will train and engage 20 promising young Bangladeshi and Tanzanian researchers. Through the implementation of a carefully developed impact strategy, the project will ensure that its benefits reach both academic and development beneficiaries.

Planned Impact

The ultimate beneficiaries of our research are poor urban residents in Bangladesh and Tanzania. This includes the current poor urban population and the tens of millions who will move to urban areas in the next few decades. We will co-produce knowledge about how their wellbeing strategies are linked to accessing services from urban green and water ecosystems, and the ways in which policies and institutions support or hinder such strategies.

We intend this to open up the political space for the ideas and preferences of the urban poor, encouraging them to form, participate in and consolidate collective action. Our involvement with grassroots organisations such as Nagar Daridra Basteebashir Unnayan Sangstha (NDBUS) in Dhaka and Shack/Slum Dwellers International in Dar es Salaam will be an important component of our impact strategy. The process of co-producing knowledge through interactions between scientists and community-based experts will create a 'dialectic platform' for poor people's expertise to inform the knowledge community. This will put research into use not least by empowering our community-based experts as agents for change.

We are also targeting the professions in Bangladesh and Tanzania. Through our activities with trainee researchers at partner universities and the involvement of think-tank and NGO case workers/municipal community officers, civil servants and members of civil society, we will raise awareness among professionals of the need to optimise poor people's access to ecosystem services, minimise potential disservices and engage with urban residents.

We will also target policy-making elites at three levels:
- At the local level we will engage with municipal civil servants and politicians during our research and invite their participation in local workshops and policy dialogues.
- Nationally, we will engage at ministerial and advisory levels through our final dissemination conferences, media coverage, and communication of academic and policy findings.
- Internationally, the dissemination of our findings through a book, high-level papers, conference presentations, BBC World Service broadcasts, press articles, website and social media will seek to influence the country strategies of international agencies in Bangladesh and Tanzania and in turn help shape the debate on sustainability and urban poverty.

In order to ensure the practical relevance of our proposed project, and to commence engagement with key policymakers, we have already undertaken the following activities with key beneficiaries:
- participatory data collection and analysis methods in both cities;
- feedback sessions at our case study sites;
- city dialogues with academics and policy makers, civil society organisations and representatives of low-income communities;
- and two half-day meetings with Bangladeshi researchers (Dhaka, February 2013) and African researchers (Manchester, March 2013).

We were able to do these activities thanks to our two existing (and successful) major projects - ClimUrb and CLUVA. ESPA will build directly on these research partnerships and policy uptake relationships. Our proposal is thus already strongly influenced by key beneficiary groups and target audiences. In addition, we will promote South-South collaboration through Bangladesh-Tanzania visits of experts with specialised knowledge.
Finally, we will train 20 promising young Bangladeshi and Tanzanian researchers in our project methodology and engage them to undertake data collection. We will support them on academic writing (directly and through our post-docs) and on working as part of a multidisciplinary team. We will extend our capacity-strengthening support to the organisations providing in-kind support to us.
We have allocated just over 10% project costs to fund impact related activities.
 
Title Changing policy and practice to improve lives in Dhaka's slums 
Description This is short video where Manoj Roy (PI of EcoPoor project) discusses EcoPoor Project's objectives, methods and importance. This is hosted at ESPA Directorate. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact The video is useful to researchers and potential research users to understand the rationale and importance of the EcoPoor project. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZA1AmpoB73k&list=PLu4ugJo_67JoD68zOB-52prIxr4D9Yu5B&index=1
 
Title Manoj Roy on housing for poor in Dhaka 
Description In this video Major Roy (PI of EcoPoor project) talks about how Dhaka is going through a crisis about housing for the urban poor. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact This video is hosted at the must circulated publication house: Down to Earth at Centre for Science and Environment, India. 
URL http://www.downtoearth.org.in/video/manoj-roy-on-housing-for-poor-in-dhaka-52902
 
Description Bangladesh and Tanzania are two rapidly urbanising least-developed countries facing the prospect of poverty becoming an 'urban problem' well before 2050. Their growing urban populations living in low-income settlements rely for many fundamental services on two important ecosystems: urban green and water structures. These provide shelter, fuel, food, protection from extreme weather, access to safe drinking water, drainage, and flood and pollution prevention; however, they are also the source of 'disservices', such as harmful bacteria, which can lead to chronic ill-health. In these low-income countries where state authority is weak, co-production (providing public services through collaboration between state agencies and citizen groups) and community collective action can together serve as building blocks for institutional effectiveness. Co-production requires consensus, which collective action can provide: their combination is thus a potentially rewarding approach to ensuring better access to ecosystem services for the urban poor. Answering the Research Questions:
1. What access/exposure do the urban poor have to ecosystem services/risks? Water structures emerged as more important than green structures to case study population. The main risk is exposure to poor quality water caused by poor sanitation and hygiene; access to municipal water supply is increasing but not uniform. Although deprioritised, poor people harness a range of services (especially cultural ecosystem services) from urban green structures. Detailed analysis reveals a gradual decline in the quantity and quality of urban green structure-derived services for the urban poor.
2. What institutional arrangements structure their access at different levels? Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are the most immediate and important organisations that dwellers of informal settlements have access to. Municipal services are increasing but tenure security remains as a major barrier. Problems identified (e.g. unsafe water) often remain unsolved mainly because the facilities constructed by these organisations lack full integrity to prevent contamination of water. Also population density in Dhaka is very high and overwhelms the system. More pressure leads to increased dilapidation of infrastructure.
3. How can collective action and coproduction improve the urban poor's access to ecosystem services and create a basis for developing effective institutions? The risk perception by the grassroots organisations, civil society organisations, market intermediaries, as well as external service providers matters. If NGOs, for example, find a settlement too risky to invest in, they will deprioritise and not support that settlement. People on the ground have to come together to minimise risks (internally) to encourage further/continued support externally.
Exploitation Route Potential Actions/Policy Message:
1. Risk mitigation is crucial but tipping points may be identified. Policy messages: (1a) 'Act before the Tipping Point' campaign is needed in Dar (involving urban planning and local government bodies with budget). Dar es Salaam is far less densely populated than Dhaka; targeted actions now can prevent the need for major actions later; and (1b) 'The Finger in the Dyke will not work' in Dhaka (meaning wide-ranging policies are needed; only targeted actions [e.g. flood-protection] will not work).
2. Reduce risk to manageable levels to foster collective action. Policy message: carefully distinguish between contexts - e.g. Hanna Nassif settlement (Upper) in Dar es Salaam is a viable community development organisation unit. In contrast, being highly vulnerable, Hanna Nassif settlement (Lower) needs to be part of a different collective action structure.
3. Better results can be expected in lower risk/greater opportunity contexts. Policy message: approach the new generation of 'Leave No-one Behind' aid projects cautiously. These will need experiments/ time to adopt proven models and higher unit costs.
4. Effective collective action is possible (e.g. Hanna Nassif settlement in Dar es Salaam and Gabtoli settlement in Dhaka) but models that reduce risk of early collective action failure must be pursued. Policy message: Validation of Slum/Shack Dwellers International (SDI) approach involving, (i) group formation around local resources; (ii) collective savings and loans (avoid micro-finance approaches); (iii) empowerment through data collection, documentation and empowerment; and (iv) community identified priorities for action.
5. Safeguarding the 'Last 100 Metres (L100M)' of potable water provisioning is needed [L100M refers to the small space around people's homes where water is carried from the standpipe to the home]. Policy messages: (5a) promote innovative models of education to ensure that invisible faecal contamination is (metaphorically) 'made visible' to ordinary people and those tasked with water provision; and (5b) bring cleaner water, but also contain, collect and treat sewage to ensure environmental and household improvements.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

URL http://www.espa.ac.uk/projects/ne-l001616-1
 
Description Our findings are being used through direct impact processes (engaging with project design and national strategies), informal processes (PI's frequent meetings with senior policy makers in Bangladesh and Tanzania) and contributions to public understanding (Newspaper Roundtable Discussion). Our approach to impact is through coproduction - jointly producing knowledge with partner research institutions, NGOs/CBOs and communities - so we do not claim to be the sole agent of impact in any of our examples. Our research has made it clear that the potential benefits of improved water supply are severely compromised by faecal contamination at a critical zone around the point of use inside slums - referred to as 'the last 100 metres (L100M)'. We have picked this particular finding to influence policy, through building partnerships (in our GCRF project on The Last 100 Metres) with several high profile NGOs and industry partners (including WaterAid Bangladesh, Centre for Science and Environment [CSE, India], BRAC Tanzania and British Water), organising a Newspaper Roundtable in Dhaka with key stakeholders, and speaking at a prestigious, invited policy event at The Palace of Westminster. We have also been successful to transfer our methods and findings to other parts of the developing world - across Africa, by being directly involved in a 4 year £6.8 million GCRF growing research capacity to meet the challenges faced by developing countries project RECIRCULATE -Driving eco-innovation in Africa: Capacity-building for a safe circular water economy. West African institutions we are currently collaborating with include: Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Ghana, University of Benin Nigeria, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, African Technology Policy Studies Network Kenya, The National Commission for Science and Technology Malawi, and The Copperbelt University Zambia. To these high-end policy people and academic community, we've outlined these ways forward: 1. Set the 'L100M' space as our unit of focus [note: L100M refers to the small space around people's homes where water is carried from the standpipe to the home]. This is, firstly, to ensure that the localised sources of contaminants are properly managed - e.g. mending leaking toilets, achieving full containment and safe removal of faecal wastes and desisting from open defecation; and secondly, to ensure the integrity of the community-based water dispensing facilities (i.e. underground reservoir and hand-pumps). We must 'develop' the new generations of community-based WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) engineers to support activities on the ground, because currently the municipalities are not providing qualified engineers to install equipment within low-income settlements. 2. Develop innovative 'education pathways' to ensure that invisible faecal contamination is (metaphorically) 'made visible' to ordinary people and those tasked with water provision. People do not know about the contamination because it is not visible; they assume it is clean. This 'visibility' could be scientific, perhaps involving classroom experiments so that school children can help educate parents. But it could also involve appropriate art or cultural practices. We must ask how the solving of sanitation issues can be turned into a point of interest for politicians, the media, local actors, international organisations etc. What is needed is a sanitation strategy that - like the provision of water - is a cause for celebration and pride. This must work up from the local level by bringing the politicians in. WaterAid, one of our collaborating NGOs, have sourced additional funding to make this particular observation/finding to be part of their work. They have produced a street drama - Water is Life - which is being mounted in Dhaka's low-income settlements. 3. Conduct more experiments to improve models and find ways to implement proven strategies in the most cost effective ways. Better results can be expected in lower risk/greater opportunity contexts. Therefore, we must build on what is already in place. This means working with slums and their organisations that are already 'mobilised'. By working together, we can develop ways to harness agencies in co-production in order to fix problems by adjusting existing infrastructure and practices. And we can learn how to successfully expand and scale up - without repeating earlier mistakes. In summary, we are at an important point in our continued journey of developing what could be termed a 'WASH Vaccine' [WASH is s short for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene]. This is no quick fix injection, but a concerted and sustainable set of actions to prevent faecal contamination within slum communities that could ultimately save millions of lives. By regarding this as a kind of vaccine, we are suggesting that proven actions must be repeated and revitalised - just as with other vaccines. We use the analogy of vaccines to stress that interventions need to be paid for and repeated annually, i.e. water and sanitation infrastructures need to be maintained regularly and paid by the government, NGOs and other development partners.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description EcoPoor Key Findings - presentation to DFID India
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Research Networks in South Asia: Analysing International Research Collaborations in Afganistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and SriLanka
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://sydney.edu.au/global-health/news-events/2015/British-Council-report-final-2014-May.pdf
 
Description Why We Do Not Have Data on the Physical Environment in African and Asian Cities
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact The article has been reported (page 28) of ESPA Directorate Annual Report 2015.
URL http://www.espa.ac.uk/files/espa/ESPA_2014-15_Annual_Report_Final_0.pdf
 
Description 'The Last 100 Metres': Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements
Amount £359,991 (GBP)
Funding ID GF160000 
Organisation The British Academy 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 03/2018
 
Description An Assessment of 'Livability' in the Private Low-income Urban Informal Settlements: A comparison of Dhaka and Delhi
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lancaster University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2018
 
Description Sinking Citizens:A Study of Africa's Flood-displaced Urban Poor
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EAA7469 
Organisation Lancaster University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description The rise of private slum developers in Bangladesh and India: heroes or villains?
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Funding ID PM140171 
Organisation The British Academy 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2015 
End 02/2018
 
Description Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India 
Organisation Durham University
Department Department of Theology and Religion
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am co-I in a research collaboration bid that the team has just submitted to "RCUK-NIUA Joint Network on Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India" call entitled: Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India in February 2016. The result in due in April 2016.
Collaborator Contribution University of Sussex is the lead institution in the above grant application.
Impact The collaborating team has submitted a grant proposal. The details are: Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India (ES/P000568/1).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India 
Organisation Institute of Development Studies
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am co-I in a research collaboration bid that the team has just submitted to "RCUK-NIUA Joint Network on Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India" call entitled: Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India in February 2016. The result in due in April 2016.
Collaborator Contribution University of Sussex is the lead institution in the above grant application.
Impact The collaborating team has submitted a grant proposal. The details are: Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India (ES/P000568/1).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India 
Organisation London School of Economics and Political Science (University of London)
Department Department of Economic History
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am co-I in a research collaboration bid that the team has just submitted to "RCUK-NIUA Joint Network on Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India" call entitled: Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India in February 2016. The result in due in April 2016.
Collaborator Contribution University of Sussex is the lead institution in the above grant application.
Impact The collaborating team has submitted a grant proposal. The details are: Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India (ES/P000568/1).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India 
Organisation Royal Holloway, University of London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am co-I in a research collaboration bid that the team has just submitted to "RCUK-NIUA Joint Network on Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India" call entitled: Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India in February 2016. The result in due in April 2016.
Collaborator Contribution University of Sussex is the lead institution in the above grant application.
Impact The collaborating team has submitted a grant proposal. The details are: Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India (ES/P000568/1).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India 
Organisation University College London
Department Division of Infection and Immunity
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am co-I in a research collaboration bid that the team has just submitted to "RCUK-NIUA Joint Network on Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India" call entitled: Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India in February 2016. The result in due in April 2016.
Collaborator Contribution University of Sussex is the lead institution in the above grant application.
Impact The collaborating team has submitted a grant proposal. The details are: Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India (ES/P000568/1).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India 
Organisation University of Sussex
Department Department of Chemistry
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am co-I in a research collaboration bid that the team has just submitted to "RCUK-NIUA Joint Network on Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India" call entitled: Network for Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India in February 2016. The result in due in April 2016.
Collaborator Contribution University of Sussex is the lead institution in the above grant application.
Impact The collaborating team has submitted a grant proposal. The details are: Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation in India (ES/P000568/1).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Sinking Citizens 
Organisation Ardhi University
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am the founder and director of this collaboration, which aims to develop a research programme around deepening problems of flooding facing poor urban people in the global south. Abstract: IPCC AR5 confirms urban climate change risks are often acute for those who live in informal settlements and in hazardous areas such as low-lying flood-prone areas. While scholarship on urban flooding is growing, research as well as policy has to date concerned itself little about urban poor's 'hidden/shadow spaces of suffering', and their 'full social cost'. Existing studies tend to focus on the actual spatial extend of the flood and concerns people that are affected within. Stories of those are displaced involuntarily, short/longer term, are at best collected partially from those who still live in or near the affected area. Studies that try to track those who are displaced are rare. We simply don't know how far people to cope or to acquiescence, who they get support from, how long do they stay there/with them and what the cumulative direct and indirect social cost of such displacement. This represents a major gap in our understanding of the true impacts of urban flood on poor urban people. The seed-corn project aims to develop an interdisciplinary methodology to map this hidden/shadow space of flood suffering and to estimate the social cost of urban flooding in Africa's growing informal settlements. The specific objectives are: (a) understanding the causes and consequences of flooding; (b) capturing the full extent of people's displacement because of flooding; and (c) contributing to better flood forecast, preparation and (mitigation/adaptive) action. Pilot studies will be undertaken in selected slums in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (taking the advantage of two on-going projects, namely EcoPoor; and The Last 100 Metres).
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators are contributed in the following capacities: 1) Lancaster University: It has provided with a seedcorn funding of £5,000 to develop the project and to undertake some pilot data collection from Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Myself (affiliated with Lancaster Environment Centre) and Dr Maria Angela Ferrario (Department of Computing and Communications) are designing the research (in-kind contributions). We are also at the final stage of recruiting a Lancaster University-funded PhD project, which we will jointly supervise. 2) Lancaster University Ghana will nominate a co-supervisor for the above PhD student (if/when recruited), through in-kind contribution. 3) Ardhi University colleague Dr Guido Uhinga is spearheading the pilot data collection in Tanzania, through in-kind contribution.
Impact Potential short-term impacts include: development of focussed grant application idea; capacity building of African scientist; better awareness of affected communities and policy makers. In longer-term, through securing further funding, the project is likely to lead to a computerised/digital platform to capture long-term trends across Africa and better awareness of the "hidden cost" of flooding to Africa's growing poor urban population.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Sinking Citizens 
Organisation Lancaster University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am the founder and director of this collaboration, which aims to develop a research programme around deepening problems of flooding facing poor urban people in the global south. Abstract: IPCC AR5 confirms urban climate change risks are often acute for those who live in informal settlements and in hazardous areas such as low-lying flood-prone areas. While scholarship on urban flooding is growing, research as well as policy has to date concerned itself little about urban poor's 'hidden/shadow spaces of suffering', and their 'full social cost'. Existing studies tend to focus on the actual spatial extend of the flood and concerns people that are affected within. Stories of those are displaced involuntarily, short/longer term, are at best collected partially from those who still live in or near the affected area. Studies that try to track those who are displaced are rare. We simply don't know how far people to cope or to acquiescence, who they get support from, how long do they stay there/with them and what the cumulative direct and indirect social cost of such displacement. This represents a major gap in our understanding of the true impacts of urban flood on poor urban people. The seed-corn project aims to develop an interdisciplinary methodology to map this hidden/shadow space of flood suffering and to estimate the social cost of urban flooding in Africa's growing informal settlements. The specific objectives are: (a) understanding the causes and consequences of flooding; (b) capturing the full extent of people's displacement because of flooding; and (c) contributing to better flood forecast, preparation and (mitigation/adaptive) action. Pilot studies will be undertaken in selected slums in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (taking the advantage of two on-going projects, namely EcoPoor; and The Last 100 Metres).
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators are contributed in the following capacities: 1) Lancaster University: It has provided with a seedcorn funding of £5,000 to develop the project and to undertake some pilot data collection from Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Myself (affiliated with Lancaster Environment Centre) and Dr Maria Angela Ferrario (Department of Computing and Communications) are designing the research (in-kind contributions). We are also at the final stage of recruiting a Lancaster University-funded PhD project, which we will jointly supervise. 2) Lancaster University Ghana will nominate a co-supervisor for the above PhD student (if/when recruited), through in-kind contribution. 3) Ardhi University colleague Dr Guido Uhinga is spearheading the pilot data collection in Tanzania, through in-kind contribution.
Impact Potential short-term impacts include: development of focussed grant application idea; capacity building of African scientist; better awareness of affected communities and policy makers. In longer-term, through securing further funding, the project is likely to lead to a computerised/digital platform to capture long-term trends across Africa and better awareness of the "hidden cost" of flooding to Africa's growing poor urban population.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Sinking Citizens 
Organisation Lancaster University, Ghana
Country Ghana 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am the founder and director of this collaboration, which aims to develop a research programme around deepening problems of flooding facing poor urban people in the global south. Abstract: IPCC AR5 confirms urban climate change risks are often acute for those who live in informal settlements and in hazardous areas such as low-lying flood-prone areas. While scholarship on urban flooding is growing, research as well as policy has to date concerned itself little about urban poor's 'hidden/shadow spaces of suffering', and their 'full social cost'. Existing studies tend to focus on the actual spatial extend of the flood and concerns people that are affected within. Stories of those are displaced involuntarily, short/longer term, are at best collected partially from those who still live in or near the affected area. Studies that try to track those who are displaced are rare. We simply don't know how far people to cope or to acquiescence, who they get support from, how long do they stay there/with them and what the cumulative direct and indirect social cost of such displacement. This represents a major gap in our understanding of the true impacts of urban flood on poor urban people. The seed-corn project aims to develop an interdisciplinary methodology to map this hidden/shadow space of flood suffering and to estimate the social cost of urban flooding in Africa's growing informal settlements. The specific objectives are: (a) understanding the causes and consequences of flooding; (b) capturing the full extent of people's displacement because of flooding; and (c) contributing to better flood forecast, preparation and (mitigation/adaptive) action. Pilot studies will be undertaken in selected slums in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (taking the advantage of two on-going projects, namely EcoPoor; and The Last 100 Metres).
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators are contributed in the following capacities: 1) Lancaster University: It has provided with a seedcorn funding of £5,000 to develop the project and to undertake some pilot data collection from Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Myself (affiliated with Lancaster Environment Centre) and Dr Maria Angela Ferrario (Department of Computing and Communications) are designing the research (in-kind contributions). We are also at the final stage of recruiting a Lancaster University-funded PhD project, which we will jointly supervise. 2) Lancaster University Ghana will nominate a co-supervisor for the above PhD student (if/when recruited), through in-kind contribution. 3) Ardhi University colleague Dr Guido Uhinga is spearheading the pilot data collection in Tanzania, through in-kind contribution.
Impact Potential short-term impacts include: development of focussed grant application idea; capacity building of African scientist; better awareness of affected communities and policy makers. In longer-term, through securing further funding, the project is likely to lead to a computerised/digital platform to capture long-term trends across Africa and better awareness of the "hidden cost" of flooding to Africa's growing poor urban population.
Start Year 2016
 
Description The Last 100 Metres: Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements 
Organisation Ardhi University
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am leading this international and multi-disciplinary collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators has contributed in securing and in implementing a prestigious research project: "The Last 100 Metres" (sponsored by British Academy under its GCRF Sustainable Development scheme). The project is founded upon the key findings of our "EcoPoor: Institutions for Urban Poor's Access to Ecosystem Services" project. It aims to transform infrastructure and practice to prevent drinking water contamination by sewage in slums of Dhaka and Dar es Salaam. It will also build South-South and North-South partnerships with local, regional and international stakeholders to initiate a research-led 'Safeguarding the last 100 metres' campaign to achieve SDGs targets 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3.
Impact The collaboration has led to securing the following research grant: "The Last 100 Metres": Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements (British Academy GCRF Sustainable Development scheme, £460,000; 2016-2018.
Start Year 2016
 
Description The Last 100 Metres: Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements 
Organisation BRAC Tanzania
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am leading this international and multi-disciplinary collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators has contributed in securing and in implementing a prestigious research project: "The Last 100 Metres" (sponsored by British Academy under its GCRF Sustainable Development scheme). The project is founded upon the key findings of our "EcoPoor: Institutions for Urban Poor's Access to Ecosystem Services" project. It aims to transform infrastructure and practice to prevent drinking water contamination by sewage in slums of Dhaka and Dar es Salaam. It will also build South-South and North-South partnerships with local, regional and international stakeholders to initiate a research-led 'Safeguarding the last 100 metres' campaign to achieve SDGs targets 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3.
Impact The collaboration has led to securing the following research grant: "The Last 100 Metres": Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements (British Academy GCRF Sustainable Development scheme, £460,000; 2016-2018.
Start Year 2016
 
Description The Last 100 Metres: Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements 
Organisation BRAC University
Country Bangladesh 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am leading this international and multi-disciplinary collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators has contributed in securing and in implementing a prestigious research project: "The Last 100 Metres" (sponsored by British Academy under its GCRF Sustainable Development scheme). The project is founded upon the key findings of our "EcoPoor: Institutions for Urban Poor's Access to Ecosystem Services" project. It aims to transform infrastructure and practice to prevent drinking water contamination by sewage in slums of Dhaka and Dar es Salaam. It will also build South-South and North-South partnerships with local, regional and international stakeholders to initiate a research-led 'Safeguarding the last 100 metres' campaign to achieve SDGs targets 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3.
Impact The collaboration has led to securing the following research grant: "The Last 100 Metres": Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements (British Academy GCRF Sustainable Development scheme, £460,000; 2016-2018.
Start Year 2016
 
Description The Last 100 Metres: Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements 
Organisation British Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I am leading this international and multi-disciplinary collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators has contributed in securing and in implementing a prestigious research project: "The Last 100 Metres" (sponsored by British Academy under its GCRF Sustainable Development scheme). The project is founded upon the key findings of our "EcoPoor: Institutions for Urban Poor's Access to Ecosystem Services" project. It aims to transform infrastructure and practice to prevent drinking water contamination by sewage in slums of Dhaka and Dar es Salaam. It will also build South-South and North-South partnerships with local, regional and international stakeholders to initiate a research-led 'Safeguarding the last 100 metres' campaign to achieve SDGs targets 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3.
Impact The collaboration has led to securing the following research grant: "The Last 100 Metres": Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements (British Academy GCRF Sustainable Development scheme, £460,000; 2016-2018.
Start Year 2016
 
Description The Last 100 Metres: Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements 
Organisation Centre for Science and Environment
Country India 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am leading this international and multi-disciplinary collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators has contributed in securing and in implementing a prestigious research project: "The Last 100 Metres" (sponsored by British Academy under its GCRF Sustainable Development scheme). The project is founded upon the key findings of our "EcoPoor: Institutions for Urban Poor's Access to Ecosystem Services" project. It aims to transform infrastructure and practice to prevent drinking water contamination by sewage in slums of Dhaka and Dar es Salaam. It will also build South-South and North-South partnerships with local, regional and international stakeholders to initiate a research-led 'Safeguarding the last 100 metres' campaign to achieve SDGs targets 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3.
Impact The collaboration has led to securing the following research grant: "The Last 100 Metres": Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements (British Academy GCRF Sustainable Development scheme, £460,000; 2016-2018.
Start Year 2016
 
Description The Last 100 Metres: Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements 
Organisation Dushtha Shasthya Kendra
Country Bangladesh 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am leading this international and multi-disciplinary collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators has contributed in securing and in implementing a prestigious research project: "The Last 100 Metres" (sponsored by British Academy under its GCRF Sustainable Development scheme). The project is founded upon the key findings of our "EcoPoor: Institutions for Urban Poor's Access to Ecosystem Services" project. It aims to transform infrastructure and practice to prevent drinking water contamination by sewage in slums of Dhaka and Dar es Salaam. It will also build South-South and North-South partnerships with local, regional and international stakeholders to initiate a research-led 'Safeguarding the last 100 metres' campaign to achieve SDGs targets 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3.
Impact The collaboration has led to securing the following research grant: "The Last 100 Metres": Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements (British Academy GCRF Sustainable Development scheme, £460,000; 2016-2018.
Start Year 2016
 
Description The Last 100 Metres: Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements 
Organisation University of Dhaka
Country Bangladesh 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am leading this international and multi-disciplinary collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators has contributed in securing and in implementing a prestigious research project: "The Last 100 Metres" (sponsored by British Academy under its GCRF Sustainable Development scheme). The project is founded upon the key findings of our "EcoPoor: Institutions for Urban Poor's Access to Ecosystem Services" project. It aims to transform infrastructure and practice to prevent drinking water contamination by sewage in slums of Dhaka and Dar es Salaam. It will also build South-South and North-South partnerships with local, regional and international stakeholders to initiate a research-led 'Safeguarding the last 100 metres' campaign to achieve SDGs targets 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3.
Impact The collaboration has led to securing the following research grant: "The Last 100 Metres": Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements (British Academy GCRF Sustainable Development scheme, £460,000; 2016-2018.
Start Year 2016
 
Description The Last 100 Metres: Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements 
Organisation University of Manchester
Department School of Environment, Education and Development
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am leading this international and multi-disciplinary collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators has contributed in securing and in implementing a prestigious research project: "The Last 100 Metres" (sponsored by British Academy under its GCRF Sustainable Development scheme). The project is founded upon the key findings of our "EcoPoor: Institutions for Urban Poor's Access to Ecosystem Services" project. It aims to transform infrastructure and practice to prevent drinking water contamination by sewage in slums of Dhaka and Dar es Salaam. It will also build South-South and North-South partnerships with local, regional and international stakeholders to initiate a research-led 'Safeguarding the last 100 metres' campaign to achieve SDGs targets 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3.
Impact The collaboration has led to securing the following research grant: "The Last 100 Metres": Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements (British Academy GCRF Sustainable Development scheme, £460,000; 2016-2018.
Start Year 2016
 
Description The Last 100 Metres: Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements 
Organisation WaterAid
Department WaterAid Bangladesh
Country Bangladesh 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am leading this international and multi-disciplinary collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators has contributed in securing and in implementing a prestigious research project: "The Last 100 Metres" (sponsored by British Academy under its GCRF Sustainable Development scheme). The project is founded upon the key findings of our "EcoPoor: Institutions for Urban Poor's Access to Ecosystem Services" project. It aims to transform infrastructure and practice to prevent drinking water contamination by sewage in slums of Dhaka and Dar es Salaam. It will also build South-South and North-South partnerships with local, regional and international stakeholders to initiate a research-led 'Safeguarding the last 100 metres' campaign to achieve SDGs targets 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3.
Impact The collaboration has led to securing the following research grant: "The Last 100 Metres": Safeguarding Potable Water Provisioning to Urban Informal Settlements (British Academy GCRF Sustainable Development scheme, £460,000; 2016-2018.
Start Year 2016
 
Description The Rise of Private Slum Developers in Bangladesh and India: Heroes or Villains? (PSlums) 
Organisation BRAC University
Country Bangladesh 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The initiative has put together a research proposal on the above topic to British Academy International Partnership and Mobility Scheme (IPM 2014), in which Manoj Roy (PI of EcoPoor project) is the principal investigator. The grant application has been successful: award no.: PM140171.
Collaborator Contribution The initiative has put together a research proposal on the above topic to British Academy International Partnership and Mobility Scheme (IPM 2014). The grant application has been successful: award no.: PM140171. The collaborators are contributing in the following capacity: 1. Centre for Science and Environment is India coordinating institute and host of the PSlums project Co-I Dr Suresh Kumar Rohilla 2. School of Planning and Architecture is implementing the Indian component of the PSlums project 3. BRAC University is implementing the Bangladesh component of the PSlums project
Impact The collaboration has been successful in securing the following grant: Project name: PSlums: The Rise of Private Slum Developers in Bangladesh and India: Heroes or Villains? (Grant ref.:PM140171) Sponsor: British Academy, International Partnership and Mobility Scheme (IPM 2014) Summary: This initiative will build on and expand a recently initiated collaboration concerned with the prospects and limitations of private developers of low-income shelters in South Asian megacities. The aim is to: strengthen research capacity; develop and pilot novel interdisciplinary methods; and generate further funds. The research focus is original, as most knowledge about low-income settlements in South Asia originates from "owned" settlements - often called "public settlements", as the land is officially public land. But the future growth of low-income shelters will be increasingly on private land, with rented dwellings. Using a Dhaka-Delhi comparative study, this research will harness new forms of evidence to identify and promote most scalable practices. The team involves researchers at different stages of academic ladder: from early career to world-leading experts. The team has already proven its potential to be sustainable by: generating seed-corn funds; building partnerships with on-going projects, and securing a fully-funded PhD studentship.
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Rise of Private Slum Developers in Bangladesh and India: Heroes or Villains? (PSlums) 
Organisation Centre for Science and Environment
Country India 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The initiative has put together a research proposal on the above topic to British Academy International Partnership and Mobility Scheme (IPM 2014), in which Manoj Roy (PI of EcoPoor project) is the principal investigator. The grant application has been successful: award no.: PM140171.
Collaborator Contribution The initiative has put together a research proposal on the above topic to British Academy International Partnership and Mobility Scheme (IPM 2014). The grant application has been successful: award no.: PM140171. The collaborators are contributing in the following capacity: 1. Centre for Science and Environment is India coordinating institute and host of the PSlums project Co-I Dr Suresh Kumar Rohilla 2. School of Planning and Architecture is implementing the Indian component of the PSlums project 3. BRAC University is implementing the Bangladesh component of the PSlums project
Impact The collaboration has been successful in securing the following grant: Project name: PSlums: The Rise of Private Slum Developers in Bangladesh and India: Heroes or Villains? (Grant ref.:PM140171) Sponsor: British Academy, International Partnership and Mobility Scheme (IPM 2014) Summary: This initiative will build on and expand a recently initiated collaboration concerned with the prospects and limitations of private developers of low-income shelters in South Asian megacities. The aim is to: strengthen research capacity; develop and pilot novel interdisciplinary methods; and generate further funds. The research focus is original, as most knowledge about low-income settlements in South Asia originates from "owned" settlements - often called "public settlements", as the land is officially public land. But the future growth of low-income shelters will be increasingly on private land, with rented dwellings. Using a Dhaka-Delhi comparative study, this research will harness new forms of evidence to identify and promote most scalable practices. The team involves researchers at different stages of academic ladder: from early career to world-leading experts. The team has already proven its potential to be sustainable by: generating seed-corn funds; building partnerships with on-going projects, and securing a fully-funded PhD studentship.
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Rise of Private Slum Developers in Bangladesh and India: Heroes or Villains? (PSlums) 
Organisation School of Planning and Architecture Delhi
PI Contribution The initiative has put together a research proposal on the above topic to British Academy International Partnership and Mobility Scheme (IPM 2014), in which Manoj Roy (PI of EcoPoor project) is the principal investigator. The grant application has been successful: award no.: PM140171.
Collaborator Contribution The initiative has put together a research proposal on the above topic to British Academy International Partnership and Mobility Scheme (IPM 2014). The grant application has been successful: award no.: PM140171. The collaborators are contributing in the following capacity: 1. Centre for Science and Environment is India coordinating institute and host of the PSlums project Co-I Dr Suresh Kumar Rohilla 2. School of Planning and Architecture is implementing the Indian component of the PSlums project 3. BRAC University is implementing the Bangladesh component of the PSlums project
Impact The collaboration has been successful in securing the following grant: Project name: PSlums: The Rise of Private Slum Developers in Bangladesh and India: Heroes or Villains? (Grant ref.:PM140171) Sponsor: British Academy, International Partnership and Mobility Scheme (IPM 2014) Summary: This initiative will build on and expand a recently initiated collaboration concerned with the prospects and limitations of private developers of low-income shelters in South Asian megacities. The aim is to: strengthen research capacity; develop and pilot novel interdisciplinary methods; and generate further funds. The research focus is original, as most knowledge about low-income settlements in South Asia originates from "owned" settlements - often called "public settlements", as the land is officially public land. But the future growth of low-income shelters will be increasingly on private land, with rented dwellings. Using a Dhaka-Delhi comparative study, this research will harness new forms of evidence to identify and promote most scalable practices. The team involves researchers at different stages of academic ladder: from early career to world-leading experts. The team has already proven its potential to be sustainable by: generating seed-corn funds; building partnerships with on-going projects, and securing a fully-funded PhD studentship.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Contamination of Drinking Water by Sewage in the Informal Settlement: An International Dialogue on Dar-es-Salaam 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The above International Dialogue was arranged so that a team of inter-disciplinary scholars may reaffirm our EcoPoor project's key findings, whilst also discuss our approach for the Last 100 Metres (L100M) project, which builds on the EcoPoor findings. A brief outline of the two projects is noted below:

Since 2013, as part of our ESPA funded EcoPoor programme, we have been conducting research to identify policy-relevant design principles and operational practices for the institutional arrangements needed to produce ecosystem services which promote sustainable improvements in the wellbeing of the urban poor. Our focus has been on services derived, and disservices resulting, from the urban environment in low-income settlements in Dhaka (Bangladesh) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Very recently (December 2016), the British Academy (UK) has awarded us another important project to build on the key findings of the EcoPoor project. This new project, which we are calling The Last 100 Metres (L100M), will examine how to transform infrastructure and practice to prevent the contamination of drinking water by sewage in the informal settlements of Dar-es-Salaam and Dhaka.

The Dialogue was held on 21st February 2017 and was structured as below:
9:00 Arrival and coffee
9:30-11:00 EcoPoor key findings
- Welcome from Ardhi University
- EcoPoor programme' main question
- Ecosystem services and disservices
- Ecopoor's main message
- Q&A
11:00-11:30 Coffee
11:30-12:45 Introducing the 'Last 100Metres' project
- Objectives
- What we want to do and how
- Community & stakeholder involvement: which began by asking the participating community members to talk about their views, followed by a facilitated discussion on 3-4 key questions- this was translated in Swahili.
12:45-1:45 LUNCH
1:45 CLOSE OF INTERNATIONAL DIALOGUE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Contamination of Drinking Water by Sewage in the Informal Settlements: An International Dialogue on Dhaka 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The above International Dialogue was arranged so that a team of inter-disciplinary scholars may reaffirm our EcoPoor project's key findings, whilst also discuss our approach for the Last 100 Metres (L100M) project, which builds on the EcoPoor findings. A brief outline of the two projects is noted below:

Since 2013, as part of our ESPA funded EcoPoor programme, we have been conducting research to identify policy-relevant design principles and operational practices for the institutional arrangements needed to produce ecosystem services which promote sustainable improvements in the wellbeing of the urban poor. Our focus has been on services derived, and disservices resulting, from the urban environment in low-income settlements in Dhaka (Bangladesh) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Very recently (December 2016), the British Academy (UK) has awarded us another important project to build on the key findings of the EcoPoor project. This new project, which we are calling The Last 100 Metres (L100M), will examine how to transform infrastructure and practice to prevent the contamination of drinking water by sewage in the informal settlements of Dar-es-Salaam and Dhaka.

The Dialogue was held on 7th January 2017 and was structured as below:

9:30 am arrival & coffee for 10am start
10:00-10:15 Welcome from Khiarul Islam (Country Representative, WaterAid Bangladesh).
10:15-11:00 Project Backdrop (Manoj Roy & James Rothwell) (including Q&A)
11:00-11:45 What we want/need to do - methodology and approach (including Q&A)
11:45-12:30 Rapid selection of a short list of candidate settlements (involving agreement on indicators)
12:30-1:15 LUNCH
1:15 - 2:15 Group work: three groups: (1) settlement mapping, GIS/GPS capture, and social survey; (2) environmental monitoring; and (3) action research protocol. Further details will be discussed and agreed upon at the start of the session. The groups will have to present their work on both Dhaka (detailed) and Dar versions (draft).
2:15-2:30 Coffee
2:30-3:30 Group work presentation
3:30-4:15 Sketching out the business plan
4:15-4:30 Plan for 8th and 9th Jan (rapid visits to candidate settlements - may be in two groups)
5:00pm Close
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description EcoPoor Dialogue on Dhaka 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact BRAC University and its collaborators in the EcoPoor project organised a half a day workshop on 28th July, 2015 at BRAC University in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The main objective of the workshop is two-fold:

·To engage with key local stakeholders to discuss and validate the emerging findings of the project; and
·To devise a strategy to disseminate these findings aimed at influencing future policies and practice to promote sustainable improvements in the wellbeing of the poor from urban ecosystem services in Dhaka and beyond.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description EcoPoor International Dialogue on Dar es Salaam 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Ardhi University and its collaborators in the EcoPoor project organised a half a day workshop on 24th July, 2015 at Blue Pearl Hotel Ubungo Plaza in Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The main objective of the workshop is two-fold:

·To engage with key local stakeholders to discuss and validate the emerging findings of the project; and
·To devise a strategy to disseminate these findings aimed at influencing future policies and practice to promote sustainable improvements in the wellbeing of the poor from urban ecosystem services in Dar es Salaam and beyond.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description EcoPoor International Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Since 2013, as part of our ESPA funded EcoPoor programme, we have been conducting research to identify policy-relevant design principles and operational practices for the institutional arrangements needed to produce ecosystem services which promote sustainable improvements in the wellbeing of the urban poor. Our focus is on services derived, and disservices resulting, from the urban environment in low-income settlements in Dhaka (Bangladesh) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Our data collection is completion and analysis has begun. This workshop has been arranged so that a team of inter-disciplinary scholars may validate and reaffirm EcoPoor emerging findings.

The workshop included the following programme:
•Day 1 (18th Jan): Workshop on 'Understanding EcoPoor Data' in which our UK/Bangladesh/Tanzania research leads will present the synthesized data.
•Day 2 (19th Jan): Workshop on 'EcoPoor Key Findings' where our research leads will present the key findings based on the synthesized data presented in Day 1.
•Day 3 (20th Jan): Workshop on 'Dhaka-Dar Comparison' in which invited experts will chair and facilitate discussions to compare/contrast Dhaka and Dar on key EcoPoor research themes. The closing session will discuss the 'major academic papers' emerging from the study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Proceedings of EcoPoor Research Framework Workshop, Dhaka 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The EcoPoor Dhaka Research Framework Workshop was held on 6th March 2014. It followed two start-up project meetings (in November and December 2013) involving the principal investigator and members of the Dhaka team. It was held immediately after the Dar Framework Workshop on 3rd March 2014. As with the Dar Workshop, the objectives of the Dhaka workshop were to:

• Reflect on what we know about urban poverty and urban ecosystems in Dhaka;
• Sharpen the EcoPoor research framing;
• Select four case study settlements; and
• Identify an initial set of design principles characterising progressive institutional structures.

These objectives reflect the overall research questions of the EcoPoor project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://ecopoor.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Proceedings-of-EcoPoor-Research-Framework-Dhaka-Worksh...
 
Description Proceedings of Research Framework Workshop, Dar es Salaam 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Dar es Salaam Research Framework Workshop was organised to discuss the project in greater details and make significant progress towards its implementation in Dar es Salaam. The Workshop was held on 3rd March 2014. It was held immediately before the Dhaka Workshop held on 6th March 2014. The specific aims of the Dar Workshop were to:

• Reflect on what we know about urban poverty and ecosystems in Dar es Salaam;
• Sharpen the EcoPoor research framing;
• Select four case study settlements (building on field visits during March); and
• Identify an initial set of design principles characterising progressive institutional structures.

The workshop was a day-long event hosted by Ardhi University - EcoPoor project's lead institution in Tanzania. 15 members of the Bangladesh, Tanzania and UK teams attended the workshop (see Annex 1 in the proceedings). There were four sessions covering the four main tasks of the EcoPoor project: contextualising the EcoPoor project in Dar; methodology; selection of case study settlements; and forward planning. The sessions started with thematic presentations, followed by moderated discussions around a set of core questions (see Annex 2 for Workshop Programme). The presentations can be downloaded from the EcoPoor website. The rest of the report presents a detailed account of the discussion that took place in the four sessions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://ecopoor.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Proceedings-of-EcoPoor-Research-Framework-Dar-es-Salaa...