Biogeochemical cycling of N-osmolytes in the surface ocean

Lead Research Organisation: Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Department Name: Plymouth Marine Lab

Abstract

Nitrogen-containing compounds, including glycine betaine (GBT), choline and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are ubiquitous in marine organisms. They are used by marine organisms as compatible solute in response to changes in environmental conditions, such as increasing salinity, because they do not interfere with cell metabolisms. They also have beneficial effects in protecting proteins against denaturation due to chemical or physical damages.

In the marine environments, these compounds are frequently released into the sea water due to the change of environmental conditions, such as viral attack or grazing. The released nitrogenous osmolytes serve as important nutrients for marine microorganisms, which can use them as carbon, nitrogen and energy sources. It is well known that the degradation of these nitrogenous osmolytes contribute to the release of climate-active gases, including volatile methylated amines. Methylated amines are important sources of aerosols in the marine atmosphere, which help to reflect sunlight and cause a cooling effect of the climate. There is an urgent need to understand the microbial metabolism of these compounds and their seasonal cycles in the marine water column, in order to better understand their role in marine biogeochemical cycles and their role in future climate change.

Built on the recent progress on the discovery of the new pathway of TMAO degradation in marine organisms and the development of a powerful liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of these nitrogenous osmolytes from the applicants' laboratories, this timely proposal aims to determine the seasonal cycle of nitrogenous osmolytes in the surface seawater and to address how these environmentally-relevant compounds are degraded and what are the major microorganisms that are involved in the process. The data generated will fill in a major gap in our knowledge of marine carbon and nitrogen cycles and the contribution of these compounds in future climate change through the release of climate-active molecules.

Using newly developed analytic techniques, we aim to determine the seasonal cycle of standing concentrations of nitrogenous osmolytes in the surface seawater and microbial oxidation activities. These data will be incorporated to a biogeochemical model for future prediction of biogeochemical cycles of N-osmolytes under climate change.

Using cultivated model organisms, we aim to define the key genes, enzymes and the metabolic pathways in GBT and TMAO degradation by marine planktonic microbes.

Using molecular and single cell manipulation techniques, we aim to further determine the key microbial players involved in the metabolism of nitrogenous osmolytes in surface seawater from the English Channel.

This work will generate novel knowledge about our understanding of microbial transformation of these nitrogen containing compounds, and will fill in a serious gap in knowledge of marine carbon and nitrogen cycles. The project is expected to further strengthen the UK as a leading country not only in the research of marine biogeochemical cycles and marine microbiology, but also in the development of cutting edge technology in environmental science.

Planned Impact

This project addresses fundamental questions relating to the marine biogeochemical cycles and climate-active gas emissions from the natural environment, both of which are crucial to our understanding of global biogeochemical cycles and in the drive for a more sustainable future. The work is therefore of the utmost relevance to NERC's strategic aims, particularly Biodiversity Science and Climate Change themes.

The proposal work relies on the recent development of the two new techniques, i.e. Raman microspectroscopy in combination with stable isotope labelling and liquid chromatography (LC) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) for quantifying N-osmolytes. The proposed work is therefore of direct relevance to the immediate science community and NERC's Technologies theme.

The main beneficiary of the knowledge generated from this study is anticipated to be public sectors focusing on marine ecosystems services and the scientific community working on marine aerosol research and marine microbes. Marine aerosols play an important role in the Earth system, not only in climate, but also in atmospheric chemistry and human health problems. Until recently, sea-salt formation from bubble bursting and dimethylsulfide (DMS) oxidation were thought to be the main sources of marine aerosols. There is growing evidence in the past five years that methylated amines play an important role in marine aerosol formation, in addition to DMS. Methylated amine concentrations measured over the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean have shown distinct seasonal variation and are directly linked to the primary productivity of phytoplankton. However, researchers working on atmospheric chemistry and modelling have not yet been able to pinpoint the origin of the methylated amines found in the marine atmosphere. There is a lack of communication to such a community which can be catalyzed through the proposed research and subsequent impact plan activities.

Our topic also has immediate general interest for the wider public, including general public, school pupils. With its relevance to climate and marine biology, this type of work is guaranteed to attract considerable attention in the media.
 
Title Filming on board Plymouth Quest 
Description Kelvin Boot accompanied Dr Airs on board the Plymouth Quest during a sampling expedition, and filmed her talking about the N-osmolyte project. This footage will form part of a film about the project which forms part of the impact plan. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Impacts will be development into project film and dissemination to public audiences 
 
Description We have determined the seasonal cycle of N-osmolytes at station L4, and A new formulation describing N-osmolytes production and fate has been implemented in ERSEM. We have discovered that N-osmolyte measurement is critically dependent on the sampling, sample handling methodology, and LC/MS methodology, which we have optimised and published (Beale and Airs 2016). We have examined the seasonal cycle and determined the key drivers with a modelling approach. N-osmolytes seasonality is to be driven by both nutrient limitation and phytoplankton succession. N-osmolyte enhanced production is triggered by internal N:C ratio >8. Summer phytoplankton groups such as dinoflagellates are likely to play a major role in N-osmolytes production (analogy with DMSP). Under nutrient replete conditions, N-osm. production is very low (production ranges from < 0.01 to > 5 nmol L-1 d-1). NosD concentrations range between 4 and 60% of NosP (but generally <20%). Phytoplankton lysis is the main source of NosD (2 times larger than the grazing mediated production). Cellular quota of N-osmolytes is an important parameter (especially the min quota) and needs to be investigated in specific experiments.
We have also collected samples throughout the seasonal cycle for DNA and RNA to determine the microbial populations utilising N-osmolytes through the season. These samples are being extracted and sequenced by the project team in Warwick. At regular points through the seasonal cycle, we have also determined the microbial N-osmolyte assimilation and dissimilation rates, also on water from station L4. We have also undertaken a metagenomics data-mining exercise which examines the abundance of genes encoding N-osmolyte breakdown in the marine environment (Jameson et al., 2016).
Exploitation Route Our findings have been used to measure N-osmolytes in the Southern Ocean within project PEGASO (Plankton-derived emissions of trace gases and aerosols in the Southern Ocean), and that data has been published in Scientific Reports (Dall'Osto et al. 2017). Our findings are also being used within the project SORPASSO (Surveying Organic Reactive gases and Particles Across the Surface Southern Ocean) within the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition, particularly informing sampling for N-osmolytes. Additionally, our data are directly informing the project NOSASSO (N-Osmolytes Across the Surface Southern Ocean), which adds value to our NERC funded research.
Sectors Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

 
Description Our findings contributed to a research presentation given at an event organised by the All Party Parliamentary Group for Polar Regions, held at the Royal Society
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description All Party Parliamentary Group for Polar Regions: invited to give a talk at an event for politicians, scientists and policy makers, held at the Royal Society
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Discovery grant
Amount £800,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P012671/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 04/2020
 
Description International Opportunities Fund - Pump Priming Plus
Amount £250,254 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P008526/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 01/2020
 
Description NERC Discovery
Amount £800,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/R010382/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2021
 
Description NERC Discovery Science (Scanlan)
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/N001974/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 07/2019
 
Description PhD studentship: Production of volatile nitrogen by marine algae: implications of a changing nutrient balance
Amount £11,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of East Anglia 
Department EnvEast NERC Doctoral Training Partnership
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Title Extraction modifications for osmolytes 
Description We have discovered that the proportion of salt in extracts is critical for reducing ion suppression during LC/MS analyses. We have determined what the limits are for the proportion of salt, and extended this to modify the extraction protocol for certain types of samples. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact One main impact is that it had enabled us to analyse samples collected on board the PEGASO cruise in the Antarctic in 2015. THese are important samples from a unique cruise where many atmospheric and waterside measurements were taken, and final datasets of great value are expected. 
 
Title New analytical method for GBT, choline and TMAO 
Description We have developed a new method for the analysis of choline, GBT and TMAO in seawater. This new method represents improvements in the compounds that can be detected, the limits of detection, linearity and reproducibility. The method is in preparation for publication. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The main impact is being able to analyse the three osmolytes with good sensitivity in one method. This will impact the success of current and future research projects, and further our understanding of osmolytes as important components in N and C cycles, and potentially influencing climate as sources of methyl amines. 
 
Title Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition sample set 
Description We have safely transported 1500 frozen samples from Antarctica to PML. These samples were collected during the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition, and are being analysed to determine the concentration of glycine betaine, choline and TMAO. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This is the first sample set of its type. 
 
Title L4 sampling log 
Description This is a record of all sterivex and cardfish samples taken at station L4, during the project. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Used by project members to prioritise and catalogue samples. 
 
Title Model formulation describing N-osmolyte dynamics 
Description A new model formulation describing N-osmolytes compounds production and fate has been implemented in ERSEM 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Although results are still preliminary, the above cited model provided the first numerical simulation describing N-osmolyte seasonal cycle in the Western English Channel (L4 site) 
 
Title Quality assured N-osmolyte dataset 
Description This final dataset is a quality assured output. All reported values are within system LOD's for analytes, and full calibration checks for operation of the LCMS have been carried out. 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These data have underpinned the modelling aspect of the project. Our capacity has also led to new collaborations, and further research funding. 
 
Title Seasonal cycle of TMAO concentrations at station L4 of the Western Channel Observatory 
Description First seasonal cycle of TMAO measurements in the marine environment. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These data have informed modelling approaches, and have resulted in new collaborations and further funding. 
 
Title Seasonal cycle of choline concentrations at station L4 of the Western Channel Observatory 
Description First seasonal cycle of choline concentrations in the marine environment. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This dataset has informed modelling approaches for N-osmolytes, and has resulted in new collaborations and further funding. 
 
Title Seasonal cycle of glycine betaine concentrations at station L4 of the Western Channel Observatory 
Description Seasonal cycle of GBT concentrations at L4 sampling site 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This data has enabled development of a model describing drivers of GBT seasonal concentrations. The capacity to measure N-osmolytes has also led to new international collaborations and further funding, which is reported in other sections. 
 
Title Simulation of the sysonal cycle of N-osmolytes in the Western English Channel (L4 station) and comparison with observations 
Description Model simulation describing N-osmolytes in the Western English Channel. The simulation includes the year 2016 in which observational data were available for comparison 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This is the first N-osmolyte simulation carried out with a complex marine ecosystem model (ERSEM). The analysis of the simulation and the comparison with the data allowed a mechanistic interpretation of the dynamics underpinning N-osmolyte seasonality. A manuscript is in preparation. 
 
Title Sterivex sample set from WCO 
Description We have collected weekly Sterivex and Card-FISH samples from the Western CHannel Observatory which will be used to determine the microbes which produce N-osmolytes, and their activity. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact DNA/RNA dataset. 
 
Title WCO osmolyte data 
Description We are collecting seasonal data on the concentrations of glycine betaine, choline and TMAO at time series station L4. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact First seasonal data of Osmolytes in the marine environment, which will inform a modelling approach to determine the drivers of the distributions. 
 
Description Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition Project SORPASSO: SImo et al. 
Organisation Middle East Technical University
Department Institute of Marine Sciences
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Instigated the proposal and helped to assemble team. Key player in completing and submitting the proposal. Trained Dr Holly Pearson to take part in the expedition and collect N-osmolyte samples.
Collaborator Contribution Led the proposal.
Impact FUnding of project SORPASSO within Antarctic CIrcumnavigation Expedition,
Start Year 2016
 
Description Bergen collaboration 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Department Institute of Marine Sciences
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Shipping of kit to Bergen for experiment. Analysis of samples for N-osmolytes. Data interpretation.
Collaborator Contribution Sampling opportunity in international Bergen experiment looking at biological and physical control of trace gas and precursor production.
Impact Still in progress
Start Year 2017
 
Description Genes to Gases Workshop 
Organisation University of East Anglia
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Had idea of workshop, consulted UK network, workshop co-convener, presented talk, and led discussion session.
Collaborator Contribution Workshop organiser and co-convener
Impact The Genes to Gases workshop was held in June 2017, at the University of East Anglia. The workshop was multidisciplinary, included researchers from all over the UK, and covered biogeochemistry of trace gases and their precursors (measurement); genes, metabolic pathways, enzymes involved in their production, and modelling. A small group also discussed ideas for a large grant.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Genes to Gases Workshop 
Organisation University of Essex
Department Institute for Social and Economic Research, Essex
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Had idea of workshop, consulted UK network, workshop co-convener, presented talk, and led discussion session.
Collaborator Contribution Workshop organiser and co-convener
Impact The Genes to Gases workshop was held in June 2017, at the University of East Anglia. The workshop was multidisciplinary, included researchers from all over the UK, and covered biogeochemistry of trace gases and their precursors (measurement); genes, metabolic pathways, enzymes involved in their production, and modelling. A small group also discussed ideas for a large grant.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Large international network collaborating as project partners for IOF pump priming plus award 
Organisation Curtin University
Department Health Psychology and Behavioural Medicine
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Brought network together, led proposal, organising international data workshop 2018.
Collaborator Contribution Letters of support promising in kind support and provision of data and expertise (international partners). Sequencing and bioinformatics processing of DNA and RNA. Analysis of methylamines. Workshop attendance.
Impact Collaboration is multidisciplinary: remote sensing and bio-optics; southern ocean nutrient sources and microbial community composition; Southern Ocean bacteria, viruses and influence of metal availability; aerosol climate affects; Southern Ocean carbon export production; bioinformatics; modelling; organic reactive trace gases.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Large international network collaborating as project partners for IOF pump priming plus award 
Organisation Duke University
Department Cassar Lab
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Brought network together, led proposal, organising international data workshop 2018.
Collaborator Contribution Letters of support promising in kind support and provision of data and expertise (international partners). Sequencing and bioinformatics processing of DNA and RNA. Analysis of methylamines. Workshop attendance.
Impact Collaboration is multidisciplinary: remote sensing and bio-optics; southern ocean nutrient sources and microbial community composition; Southern Ocean bacteria, viruses and influence of metal availability; aerosol climate affects; Southern Ocean carbon export production; bioinformatics; modelling; organic reactive trace gases.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Large international network collaborating as project partners for IOF pump priming plus award 
Organisation Paul Scherrer Institute
Department Division of Biology and Chemistry
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Brought network together, led proposal, organising international data workshop 2018.
Collaborator Contribution Letters of support promising in kind support and provision of data and expertise (international partners). Sequencing and bioinformatics processing of DNA and RNA. Analysis of methylamines. Workshop attendance.
Impact Collaboration is multidisciplinary: remote sensing and bio-optics; southern ocean nutrient sources and microbial community composition; Southern Ocean bacteria, viruses and influence of metal availability; aerosol climate affects; Southern Ocean carbon export production; bioinformatics; modelling; organic reactive trace gases.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Large international network collaborating as project partners for IOF pump priming plus award 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Country European Union (EU) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Brought network together, led proposal, organising international data workshop 2018.
Collaborator Contribution Letters of support promising in kind support and provision of data and expertise (international partners). Sequencing and bioinformatics processing of DNA and RNA. Analysis of methylamines. Workshop attendance.
Impact Collaboration is multidisciplinary: remote sensing and bio-optics; southern ocean nutrient sources and microbial community composition; Southern Ocean bacteria, viruses and influence of metal availability; aerosol climate affects; Southern Ocean carbon export production; bioinformatics; modelling; organic reactive trace gases.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Large international network collaborating as project partners for IOF pump priming plus award 
Organisation University of Cape Town
Department Department of Chemical Engineering
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Brought network together, led proposal, organising international data workshop 2018.
Collaborator Contribution Letters of support promising in kind support and provision of data and expertise (international partners). Sequencing and bioinformatics processing of DNA and RNA. Analysis of methylamines. Workshop attendance.
Impact Collaboration is multidisciplinary: remote sensing and bio-optics; southern ocean nutrient sources and microbial community composition; Southern Ocean bacteria, viruses and influence of metal availability; aerosol climate affects; Southern Ocean carbon export production; bioinformatics; modelling; organic reactive trace gases.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Large international network collaborating as project partners for IOF pump priming plus award 
Organisation University of Geneva
Department Faculty of Sciences
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Brought network together, led proposal, organising international data workshop 2018.
Collaborator Contribution Letters of support promising in kind support and provision of data and expertise (international partners). Sequencing and bioinformatics processing of DNA and RNA. Analysis of methylamines. Workshop attendance.
Impact Collaboration is multidisciplinary: remote sensing and bio-optics; southern ocean nutrient sources and microbial community composition; Southern Ocean bacteria, viruses and influence of metal availability; aerosol climate affects; Southern Ocean carbon export production; bioinformatics; modelling; organic reactive trace gases.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Large international network collaborating as project partners for IOF pump priming plus award 
Organisation University of Plymouth
Department School of Biological Sciences and Marine Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Brought network together, led proposal, organising international data workshop 2018.
Collaborator Contribution Letters of support promising in kind support and provision of data and expertise (international partners). Sequencing and bioinformatics processing of DNA and RNA. Analysis of methylamines. Workshop attendance.
Impact Collaboration is multidisciplinary: remote sensing and bio-optics; southern ocean nutrient sources and microbial community composition; Southern Ocean bacteria, viruses and influence of metal availability; aerosol climate affects; Southern Ocean carbon export production; bioinformatics; modelling; organic reactive trace gases.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Large international network collaborating as project partners for IOF pump priming plus award 
Organisation University of Warwick
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Brought network together, led proposal, organising international data workshop 2018.
Collaborator Contribution Letters of support promising in kind support and provision of data and expertise (international partners). Sequencing and bioinformatics processing of DNA and RNA. Analysis of methylamines. Workshop attendance.
Impact Collaboration is multidisciplinary: remote sensing and bio-optics; southern ocean nutrient sources and microbial community composition; Southern Ocean bacteria, viruses and influence of metal availability; aerosol climate affects; Southern Ocean carbon export production; bioinformatics; modelling; organic reactive trace gases.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Moorea collaboration 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Department Institute of Marine Sciences
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision and shipping of kit for sampling in Moorea. Analysis of samples for N-osmolytes
Collaborator Contribution Sampling in research campaign in Moorea, looking at range of trace gases, their precursors, and their biological and physical control.
Impact Still in progress
Start Year 2017
 
Description NAAMES collaboration microlayer sampling 
Organisation University of California, Irvine
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Shipping of microlayer samples from Woods Hole to the UK. Analysis of microlayer samples for N-osmolytes. Data interpretation with international team.
Collaborator Contribution The partners collected microlayer samples for us on board the NAAMES cruise (September 2017) in the North Atlantic. This was an add-on opportunity, and there is a team of international researchers analysing microlayer samples for their specialist parameters, enabling better understanding of the air-sea interface.
Impact Still in progress
Start Year 2017
 
Description Schafer et al, Arctic proposal 
Organisation University of Essex
Department School of Biological Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed essential track record, to proposal planning, costing and writing.
Collaborator Contribution Led proposal (Schafer); contributed essential expertise (Steinke, McGenity, Hughes, Lohan, Chen)
Impact Submission of proposal to NERC Arctic call
Start Year 2015
 
Description Schafer et al, Arctic proposal 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed essential track record, to proposal planning, costing and writing.
Collaborator Contribution Led proposal (Schafer); contributed essential expertise (Steinke, McGenity, Hughes, Lohan, Chen)
Impact Submission of proposal to NERC Arctic call
Start Year 2015
 
Description Schafer et al, Arctic proposal 
Organisation University of Warwick
Department School of Life Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed essential track record, to proposal planning, costing and writing.
Collaborator Contribution Led proposal (Schafer); contributed essential expertise (Steinke, McGenity, Hughes, Lohan, Chen)
Impact Submission of proposal to NERC Arctic call
Start Year 2015
 
Description Schafer et al, Arctic proposal 
Organisation University of York
Department Department of Chemistry
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed essential track record, to proposal planning, costing and writing.
Collaborator Contribution Led proposal (Schafer); contributed essential expertise (Steinke, McGenity, Hughes, Lohan, Chen)
Impact Submission of proposal to NERC Arctic call
Start Year 2015
 
Description Todd et al Discovery grant: A multidisciplinary study of DMSP production and lysis - from enzymes to organisms to process modelling. 
Organisation University of East Anglia
Department School of Environmental Sciences UEA
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Preparation of proposal; track record for proposal; reponse to reviewers comments.
Collaborator Contribution Leader of proposal.
Impact Proposal submitted to NERC discovery, scored 8 for science excellence, ansfunded: A multidisciplinary study of DMSP production and lysis - from enzymes to organisms to process modelling. Collaboration is multidisciplinary: Analytical chemistry, molecular biology, environmental chemistry, biochemistry; crystallography
Start Year 2015
 
Description AME Sweden 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on "Biogeochemical cyclin of choline and glycine betaine (GBT) in surface seawater of the Western English Channel given to Aquatic Microbial Ecologists at international meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description All Party Parliamentary Group for Polar Regions: Invited talk at event held at Royal Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited to give a talk at an event at the Royal Society hosted by the All Party Parliamentary Group on the Polar Regions. The event was attended by politicians, policy makers, and other scientists. The event was to showcase the UK involvement in the International Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Convening Genes for Gases workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Convening workshop to be held in June 2017 entitled "Genes to Gases" for the UK community studying the biogeochemistry of trace gases and the microbial enzymes and pathways involved in their formation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description GRC Applied and Environmental Microbiology: High affinity uptake of choline and glycine betaine by bacteria in surface seawater. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of research on the high affinity uptake of choline and glycine betaine by bacteria in surface seawater, at GRC Applied and Environmental Microbiology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Genes to Gases workshop: Discussion session 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I chaired a discussion session at the Genes to Gases workshop (UEA, June 2017), to identify new interdisciplinary research crossover and priorities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Genes to Gases workshop: N-osmolytes and volatile amines in the marine biosphere. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented research at the Genes to Gases workshop, entitled "N-osmolytes and volatile amines in the marine biosphere".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Genes to gases workshop: Modelling 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and discussion on the use of modelling in trace gas research was given at the Genes to Gases workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Introduction to n-osmolytes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We created a video about the N-osmolytes project, and uploaded it to You Tube. We also highlighted it via Social Media. To date, the video has been viewed 213 times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qPIqpJ_BKTU&t=5s
 
Description MMEG London 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation given on "High affinity uptake of choline and glycine betaine in surface waters of the Western English Channel" to molecular microbial ecologists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Marine Organics workshop: N-osmolytes and volatile amines in the marine biosphere. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to a Marine Organics workshop, and presented research on N-osmolytes and volatile amines in the marine biosphere. Future collaborations and research crossover were discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Ocean Sciences 2018: oral abstract accepted 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral abstract "Marine Biogeochemistry of Nitrogenous Osmolytes, accepted for Ocean Sciences meeting, 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Pegaso Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact PIs and participants from PEGASO research cruises met at a workshop in Barcelona to disseminate and sicuss cruise data, important findings, publications and future work. Several high impact publications were planned at the meeting, and new collaborations were made.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Press release: Searching for answers in the Southern Ocean 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release by PML on behalf of NOSASSO was released entitled Searching for Answers in the Southern Ocean, the day before the start of the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.pml.ac.uk/News_and_media/News/Searching_for_answers_in_the_Southern_Ocean
 
Description Project Webpage 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project webpage to provide information about the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.pml.ac.uk/Research/Projects/Biological_cycling_of_N_osmolytes_in_the_surface_o