Sandscaping for Mitigating Coastal Flood and Erosion Risk to Energy Infrastructure on Gravel Shorelines: a case study approach

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Geography and Planning

Abstract

The proposed research aims to extend work that is already underway for other coastal energy installations around the UK, to provide essential detail on future flood risk and impacts on existing coastal energy infrastructure and develop a decision-support tool (open source GIS) for guiding operational and strategic actions. This is essential for building resilience across the energy sector to extreme events (e.g. coastal storms, high river flows) and longer-term climate change (e.g. sea-level rise, wave climate) in a way that does not rely on emergency measures or impact greatly on consumer energy bills. The project also contributes significantly to taking forward our current energy strategy (nuclear new build, offshore renewables, energy infrastructure investment, building energy security), to enhancing flood resilience in coastal lowlands and low-lying river floodplains, and to reducing our reliance on hard engineering solutions to coastal defence.

Research is divided into two stages. The first is a flood risk assessment based on modeling extreme levels from sea-level rise, storms, wave overtopping and high river flows. This assessment will be the input to an open-source GIS to provide a range of energy and coastal stakeholders with a decision-support system (DSS) for operational and strategic planning. This builds directly on the methodology being developed as part of the ARCoES project (http://www.liv.ac.uk/geography-and-planning/research/adaptation-and-resilience-of-coastal-energy-supply/) for the NW region and nuclear sites at Hinkley Point, Sizewell, Bradwell and Sellafield. The DSS is designed as a decision-support tool for the energy industry in responding in a planned and timely way to extreme events and strategically to future climate change through staged investment. The DSS is also being used as a practical and accessible tool by coastal stakeholders and communities to identify the timing and location of key tipping points where/when strategic coastal planning options will need to be re-evaluated within existing shoreline management plans. The second stage is a scoping study for 'sandscaping' that follows the model being developed in the Netherlands for large-scale, self-sustaining beach recharge, thus providing the necessary sediment reservoir for coastal geomorphic systems to respond positively to sea-level rise and to be resilient to storm events. This innovative approach requires both fundamental and applied research to establish feasibility and to identify any negative consequences that might arise down-drift or offshore from the target site. Here, the project brings together state-of-the-art understanding and applications of hydrodynamic and sediment modeling from the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) with business, engineering and environmental expertise in 'soft' coastal defence and strategic coastal planning at The Crown Estate (TCE) and Royal Haskoning-DHV (RHDHV) to establish a methodology for establishing the parameters for a sandscaping project with respect to coastal hydrodynamics, sediment source and transport, coastal morphological evolution, wider environmental impact, and project licensing. These two stages will be integrated in a case study focused on Dungeness as a representative gravel shoreline. Dungeness is not one of the study sites for ARCoES yet has emerged in the last year as a priority area for National Grid and Magnox Ltd. Consequently, the proposed collaboration addresses a pressing research need amongst a group of partners who are already working in partnership at sites across the UK.
 
Description The innovation lies in the use of new modelling tools to explore the viability of novel, strategic interventions to enhance coastal resilience. As an alternative to beach recharge or the maintenance of engineered coastal defences, sandscaping is a means for 'working with natural processes' to reduce coastal erosion and create important coastal habitats. The translation has been achieved by involving stakeholders in the project to outline their concerns and information needs, and to describe current policy requirements and constraints. The research was therefore designed to answer important questions in an appropriate way to help support decision making. Bringing together environmental regulatory authorities with partners from coastal engineering and energy sectors outside of a specific development proposal provided the freedom to explore other possibilities in a research-led, theoretical environment.
The particle-tracking and CEM models provided project stakeholders with new tools for exploring patterns of sediment transport, changes in coastal erosion rate, and the lifetimes of different potential sandscaping options (i.e. locations, shapes, volumes). In this respect, the outputs provided an innovative means for assessing the likely success and environmental impacts of the large-scale addition of sediment to the coast. The LISFLOOD/XBeach-G modelling was of particular value for the EA as it provided and alternative method for assessing potential flooding from future sea-level rise and storms, thus providing an effective means for cross-validating other studies that they had commissioned previously.
Exploitation Route Emerging impact lies in the modelling tools being applied to a Blackpool case study in a project that involves a wider partnership of stakeholders via EPSRC IAA funding. Here, the modelling is to be combined with exploration of suitable economic frameworks for enabling more effective scoping of sandscaping options. If successful, the resulting 'sandscaping toolbox' will become established as CIRIA guidance for sandscaping. There is considerable interest in this project from coastal engineers, energy and utility sectors, local authorities and environmental regulators.
Sandscaping has the potential to be taken forward as a strategic intervention for building 'coastal resilience' in locations that are vulnerable to erosion and flooding, particularly where the natural supply of sediment is limited. Simultaneously, establishing an effective economic framework will enable sandscaping to be considered within regional economic strategy rather than simply drawing on funding for climate change adaption/mitigation. The benefits are therefore likely to be realised for coastal communities who might currently be regarded as the likely 'victims' of future sea-level rise and extreme events.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Energy,Environment,Transport

 
Description The main realised impact of this NERC-funded project lies in providing a potential solution for coastal protection at a key location on the Dungeness south shore. The EA meeting on the 24th July 2015 recognized that the Dungeness nuclear power station site is beyond the limits, i.e. down-drift, of the proposed options for Broomhill to Dengemarsh Sewer. Consequently, it is likely to be impacted by any future plans for the adjacent, up-drift coast. Discussion with stakeholders from the Crown Estate, Natural England, National Grid, EDF and the MoD led to one of the project's sandscaping interventions being considered subsequently. This proposal was not taken up. Our initial collaboration has now developed into two parallel streams. First, our work with the Crown Estate, EDF, Natural England and the MoD formed the basis of a successful grant application, leading to the award of the BLUEcoast project. Through this project, we are exploring the potential for sandscaping options to enhance coastal resilience at two case study sites: Dungeness/Camber and Minsmere/Sizewell. The modelling and monitoring tools being developed through this research project aim to support sustainable coastal resource allocation and climate change adaptation strategy. We are currently in dialogue with a group of researchers and agencies led by RHDHV regarding a proposal for monitoring the Bacton 'sand engine'. The second stream has continued the collaboration with National Grid, using modelling tools to explore the beneficial use of tunnel spoil for a sandscaping intervention in Morecambe Bay. This work has also included an economic valuation of wetland habitat creation as part of the scoping study. Through this work, we are currently engaged with the E.A., consulting on the new sea defence scheme for Lydd Ranges.
Sector Energy,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Transport
Impact Types Economic

 
Description EPSRC Impact Accelerator Account (IAA)
Amount £16,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description EPSRC Institutional Sponsorship
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description Environmental Risks to Infrastructure Innovation Funding call (KE Scheme)
Amount £46,210 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/M008061/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 04/2015
 
Description GCRF Institutional Award
Amount £26,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Collaboration with Atkins and EA 
Organisation WS Atkins
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have provide Atkins, on behalf of the EA, with maps of potential flooding resulting from combinations of extreme water levels and high waves.
Collaborator Contribution Atkins have provided us with an opportunity to align BLUEcoast modelling with the proposed EA scheme for Dungeness and Lydd Ranges.
Impact I understand these outputs have fed into the design of the proposals for the new scheme at Lydd Ranges, which are currently in consultation stage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Sandscaping scoping study 
Organisation British Geological Survey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution a. Provision of flood risk assessment using LISFLOOD-FP for Dungeness Foreland, b. Particle-tracking model for Dungeness Foreland to scope different sandscaping options.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of expert knowledge of sandscaping options, guidance on regulatory framework, linkage to stakeholder community
Impact Phelps JJC et al. (2015) Modeling coastal erosion and sediment transport on the Dungeness Foreland, UK (NOC Consultancy Report No.48) Prime T et al. (2015) Sandscaping for mitigating coastal flood and erosion risk to energy infrastructure on gravel shorelines: Dungeness flood risk assessment (NOC Consultancy Report No.49) Brown, J.M. et al. (2018). A coastal vulnerability assessment for planning climate resilient infrastructure. OCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENT, 163, 101-112. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.06.007 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). Spatio-temporal Variability in the Tipping Points of a Coastal Defense. In JOURNAL OF COASTAL RESEARCH (pp. 1042-1046). doi:10.2112/SI75-209.1 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). The effectiveness of beach mega-nourishment, assessed over three management epochs. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 184, 400-408. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.090
Start Year 2014
 
Description Sandscaping scoping study 
Organisation Crown Estate
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution a. Provision of flood risk assessment using LISFLOOD-FP for Dungeness Foreland, b. Particle-tracking model for Dungeness Foreland to scope different sandscaping options.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of expert knowledge of sandscaping options, guidance on regulatory framework, linkage to stakeholder community
Impact Phelps JJC et al. (2015) Modeling coastal erosion and sediment transport on the Dungeness Foreland, UK (NOC Consultancy Report No.48) Prime T et al. (2015) Sandscaping for mitigating coastal flood and erosion risk to energy infrastructure on gravel shorelines: Dungeness flood risk assessment (NOC Consultancy Report No.49) Brown, J.M. et al. (2018). A coastal vulnerability assessment for planning climate resilient infrastructure. OCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENT, 163, 101-112. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.06.007 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). Spatio-temporal Variability in the Tipping Points of a Coastal Defense. In JOURNAL OF COASTAL RESEARCH (pp. 1042-1046). doi:10.2112/SI75-209.1 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). The effectiveness of beach mega-nourishment, assessed over three management epochs. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 184, 400-408. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.090
Start Year 2014
 
Description Sandscaping scoping study 
Organisation Environment Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution a. Provision of flood risk assessment using LISFLOOD-FP for Dungeness Foreland, b. Particle-tracking model for Dungeness Foreland to scope different sandscaping options.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of expert knowledge of sandscaping options, guidance on regulatory framework, linkage to stakeholder community
Impact Phelps JJC et al. (2015) Modeling coastal erosion and sediment transport on the Dungeness Foreland, UK (NOC Consultancy Report No.48) Prime T et al. (2015) Sandscaping for mitigating coastal flood and erosion risk to energy infrastructure on gravel shorelines: Dungeness flood risk assessment (NOC Consultancy Report No.49) Brown, J.M. et al. (2018). A coastal vulnerability assessment for planning climate resilient infrastructure. OCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENT, 163, 101-112. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.06.007 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). Spatio-temporal Variability in the Tipping Points of a Coastal Defense. In JOURNAL OF COASTAL RESEARCH (pp. 1042-1046). doi:10.2112/SI75-209.1 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). The effectiveness of beach mega-nourishment, assessed over three management epochs. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 184, 400-408. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.090
Start Year 2014
 
Description Sandscaping scoping study 
Organisation National Oceanography Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution a. Provision of flood risk assessment using LISFLOOD-FP for Dungeness Foreland, b. Particle-tracking model for Dungeness Foreland to scope different sandscaping options.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of expert knowledge of sandscaping options, guidance on regulatory framework, linkage to stakeholder community
Impact Phelps JJC et al. (2015) Modeling coastal erosion and sediment transport on the Dungeness Foreland, UK (NOC Consultancy Report No.48) Prime T et al. (2015) Sandscaping for mitigating coastal flood and erosion risk to energy infrastructure on gravel shorelines: Dungeness flood risk assessment (NOC Consultancy Report No.49) Brown, J.M. et al. (2018). A coastal vulnerability assessment for planning climate resilient infrastructure. OCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENT, 163, 101-112. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.06.007 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). Spatio-temporal Variability in the Tipping Points of a Coastal Defense. In JOURNAL OF COASTAL RESEARCH (pp. 1042-1046). doi:10.2112/SI75-209.1 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). The effectiveness of beach mega-nourishment, assessed over three management epochs. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 184, 400-408. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.090
Start Year 2014
 
Description Sandscaping scoping study 
Organisation Natural England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution a. Provision of flood risk assessment using LISFLOOD-FP for Dungeness Foreland, b. Particle-tracking model for Dungeness Foreland to scope different sandscaping options.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of expert knowledge of sandscaping options, guidance on regulatory framework, linkage to stakeholder community
Impact Phelps JJC et al. (2015) Modeling coastal erosion and sediment transport on the Dungeness Foreland, UK (NOC Consultancy Report No.48) Prime T et al. (2015) Sandscaping for mitigating coastal flood and erosion risk to energy infrastructure on gravel shorelines: Dungeness flood risk assessment (NOC Consultancy Report No.49) Brown, J.M. et al. (2018). A coastal vulnerability assessment for planning climate resilient infrastructure. OCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENT, 163, 101-112. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.06.007 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). Spatio-temporal Variability in the Tipping Points of a Coastal Defense. In JOURNAL OF COASTAL RESEARCH (pp. 1042-1046). doi:10.2112/SI75-209.1 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). The effectiveness of beach mega-nourishment, assessed over three management epochs. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 184, 400-408. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.090
Start Year 2014
 
Description Sandscaping scoping study 
Organisation Royal HaskoningDHV
Country Netherlands 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution a. Provision of flood risk assessment using LISFLOOD-FP for Dungeness Foreland, b. Particle-tracking model for Dungeness Foreland to scope different sandscaping options.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of expert knowledge of sandscaping options, guidance on regulatory framework, linkage to stakeholder community
Impact Phelps JJC et al. (2015) Modeling coastal erosion and sediment transport on the Dungeness Foreland, UK (NOC Consultancy Report No.48) Prime T et al. (2015) Sandscaping for mitigating coastal flood and erosion risk to energy infrastructure on gravel shorelines: Dungeness flood risk assessment (NOC Consultancy Report No.49) Brown, J.M. et al. (2018). A coastal vulnerability assessment for planning climate resilient infrastructure. OCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENT, 163, 101-112. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.06.007 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). Spatio-temporal Variability in the Tipping Points of a Coastal Defense. In JOURNAL OF COASTAL RESEARCH (pp. 1042-1046). doi:10.2112/SI75-209.1 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). The effectiveness of beach mega-nourishment, assessed over three management epochs. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 184, 400-408. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.090
Start Year 2014
 
Description Sandscaping scoping study 
Organisation The National Grid Co plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution a. Provision of flood risk assessment using LISFLOOD-FP for Dungeness Foreland, b. Particle-tracking model for Dungeness Foreland to scope different sandscaping options.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of expert knowledge of sandscaping options, guidance on regulatory framework, linkage to stakeholder community
Impact Phelps JJC et al. (2015) Modeling coastal erosion and sediment transport on the Dungeness Foreland, UK (NOC Consultancy Report No.48) Prime T et al. (2015) Sandscaping for mitigating coastal flood and erosion risk to energy infrastructure on gravel shorelines: Dungeness flood risk assessment (NOC Consultancy Report No.49) Brown, J.M. et al. (2018). A coastal vulnerability assessment for planning climate resilient infrastructure. OCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENT, 163, 101-112. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.06.007 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). Spatio-temporal Variability in the Tipping Points of a Coastal Defense. In JOURNAL OF COASTAL RESEARCH (pp. 1042-1046). doi:10.2112/SI75-209.1 Brown, J.M. et al. (2016). The effectiveness of beach mega-nourishment, assessed over three management epochs. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 184, 400-408. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.090
Start Year 2014
 
Description Use of Sandscaping Interventions for Coastal Protection 
Organisation Crown Estate
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Modeling of sandscaping options for Morecambe Bay for coastal defence and flood mitigation.
Collaborator Contribution Input to the design and implementation strategy for sandscaping interventions.
Impact No outcomes to date. Likely that model outputs will feed into decisions on the Morecambe Bay inter-connector project.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Use of Sandscaping Interventions for Coastal Protection 
Organisation The National Grid Co plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Modeling of sandscaping options for Morecambe Bay for coastal defence and flood mitigation.
Collaborator Contribution Input to the design and implementation strategy for sandscaping interventions.
Impact No outcomes to date. Likely that model outputs will feed into decisions on the Morecambe Bay inter-connector project.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Brown, J. M. et al. (2015) Flood risk uncertainty surrounding a 0.5% annual probability event. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation given at The joint 2nd JCOMM Scientific and Technical Symposium on Storm Surges and 14th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting and 5th coastal hazards symposium, Key West, Florida, USA, 8-13 November, 2015.
Other authors: Prime, T., Plater, A.J.

Event in November 2015, more information after this date.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Coastal Partnership East Dissemination Activity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of ARCoES decision support tool to the Coastal Partnership East and Suffolk Coastal Groups on the 13th July. Presentation focussed on demonstrating the ARCoES DST as well as the PhD research on stakeholder engagement in coastal management for the Minsmere Levels. The meeting also presented the opportunity to discuss the forthcoming BLUEcoast work with the Minsmere Levels Stakeholder Group and the RSPB.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Knight, P (2016) Build your own flood defences activity at 'Meet the Scientist' event, World Museum, Liverpool 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I took part in a "Meet the Scientist" event at Liverpool World Museum. My activity was called "Build your own flood defences"

I displayed the ARCoES Decision Support Tool, as well as providing an interactive activity for school kids (Aged 4-15)

The activity involved building sea defences with playdough. Houses were added behind the sea defences on playdough land. Then water was added at the front of the defences to simulate a high tide. The kids were encouraged to make the defences and think about protection. They were then given straws to simulate a storm surge. I provided extra wind by using a hair-drier. A combination of these produced an extreme water level which over-topped the defences. Discussion was then focused on which houses remained dry.

The activity was reset each time, so the kids started off with an empty tray; At least 60 kids took part in this activity. Feedback from parents was encouraging. I was also able to demonstrate the DST to older kids, parents and other interested members of the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Plater A.J. (2015), Energy and Resilience. RUSI Resilience Conference 2015: Sustaining Resilience - The Need for a Long Term Vision, London, 26-27 Oct 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of ARCoES research findings to inform debate on future energy security and infrastructure resilience. Audience of more than 100 drawn from a range of policy makers, decision-makers, professional practitioners and business. Debate focussed on the risks to future energy suppply from climate change and other environmental/economic/societal threats.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://rusi.org/conference/resilience-conference-2015-sustaining-resilience-need-long-term-vision
 
Description Plater AJ (2015) Impacts of Climate Change on Coastal (Nuclear) Energy Infrastructure. Invited presentation at 'Future delivery of energy in a changing climate: Risks and Solutions', Edunburgh 22nd October 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of key messages from ARCoES project with some outcomes of ERIIP Sandscaping project. Debate amongst c.40 energy professionals and decision-makers focussed on future energy resilience and how to embed the ARCC research findings into practice and policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Plater AJ (2015) Impacts of Sea-level Rise and Storms on Coastal Energy Infrastructure. Invited presentation at Adaptation and Resilience of the UK Energy System to Climate Change: science-policy/practice briefing, London, 12 November 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact One of three presentations from the ARCC energy projects outlining the challenges to future energy supply from climat change. Discussion amongst c.35 attendees centred on how the research findings will feed into future policy and practice across the energy sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwjWu4nc1bTLAhULWxoKHaLFC...
 
Description Plater AJ (2015) Mitigation or pre-adaptation? The role of marine science in future-proofing coastal economies. Liverpool Marine Symposium, 28th January 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation on the research undertaken on the ARCoES and ERIIP Sandscaping projects. Discussion amongst c.70 attendees drawn from professional practitioners, local authorities, environmental regulators and researchers focussed on strategic research for prrotection coastal populations and infrastructure.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Plater AJ, Prime T, Knight P, Morrissey K and Brown JM (2015) Flooding Risk for Coastal Infrastructure: a Stakeholder-Orientated Approach. Invited presentation at the AGU 2015 Fall Meeting, 15-19th December 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation on ARCoES and ERIIP research, illustrting how research outputs inform decision-makers and support stakeholder operational and strategic planning. Discussion across professional and academic audience centred on how stakeholders fed into the design of the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Plater, AJ, Smith, N., Selby I and Dodds D. (2015) Addressing coastal flooding and erosion: partnerships, innovation and funding. BHS National Meeting on Impacts of Flooding on Critical Infrastructure: a Stakeholder-Oriented Approach 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation at the BHS National Meeting on Impacts of Flooding on Critical Infrastructure: a Stakeholder-Oriented Approach. In excess of 50 attendees drawn from professional practitioners and industry with responsibility for addressing risks for flooding and climate change. Debate centred on the mechanisms for supporting and delivering collaborative working with stakeholders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwi8tZ_8yrTLAhWFMBoKHbJxC...