Tellurium and Selenium Cycling and Supply

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leicester
Department Name: Sch of Geog, Geol & the Environment

Abstract

A shift from fossil fuels to low-CO2 technologies will lead to greater consumption of certain essential raw materials. Tellurium (Te) and selenium (Se) are 'E-tech' elements essential in photovoltaic (PV) solar panels. They are rare and mined only in small quantities; their location within the Earth is poorly known; recovering them is technically and economically challenging; and their recovery and recycling has significant environmental impacts. Yet demand is expected to surge and PV film production will consume most Se mined and outstrip Te supply by 2020. Presently, these elements are available only as by-products of Cu and Ni refining and their recovery from these ores is decreasing, leading to a supply risk that could hamper the roll-out of PV.
Meeting future demand requires new approaches, including a change from by-production to targeted processing of Se and Te-rich ores. Our research aims to tackle the security of supply by understanding the processes that govern how and where these elements are concentrated in the Earth's crust; and by enabling their recovery with minimal environmental and economic cost. This will involve >20 industrial partners from explorers, producers, processors, end-users and academia, contributing over £0.5M. Focussed objectives across 6 environments will target key knowledge gaps.
The magmatic environment: Develop methods for accurately measuring Se and Te in minerals and rocks - they typically occur in very low concentrations and research is hampered by the lack of reliable data. Experimentally determine how Te and Se distribute between sulfide liquids and magmas - needed to predict where they occur - and ground-truth these data using well-understood magmatic systems. Assess the recognised, but poorly understood, role of "alkaline" magmas in hydrothermal Te mineralisation.
The hydrothermal environment: Measure preferences of Te and Se for different minerals to predict mineral hosts and design ore process strategies. Model water-roc reaction in "alkaline" magma-related hydrothermal systems to test whether the known association is controlled by water chemistry.
The critical zone environment: Determine the chemical forms and distributions of Te and Se in the weathering environment to understand solubility, mobility and bioavailability. This in turn controls the geochemical halo for exploration and provides a natural analogue for microbiological extraction.
The sedimentary environment: Identify the geological and microbiological controls on the occurrence, mobility and concentration of Se and Te in coal - a possible major repository of Se. Identify the geological and microbiological mechanisms of Se and Te concentration in oxidised and reduced sediments - and evaluate these mechanisms as potential industrial separation processes.
Microbiological processing: Identify efficient Se- and Te-precipitating micro-organisms and optimise conditions for recovery from solution. Assess the potential to bio-recover Se and Te from ores and leachates and design a bioreactor.
Ionic liquid processing: Assess the ability of ionic solvents to dissolve Se and Te ore minerals as a recovery method. Optimise ionic liquid processing and give a pilot-plant demonstration.

This is the first holistic study of the Te and Se cycle through the Earth's crust, integrated with groundbreaking ore-processing research. Our results will be used by industry to: efficiently explore for new Te and Se deposits; adapt processing techniques to recover Te and Se from existing deposits; use new low-energy, low-environmental impact recovery technologies. Our results will be used by national agencies to improve estimates of future Te and Se supplies to end-users, who will benefit from increased confidence in security of supply, and to international government for planning future energy strategies. The public will benefit through unhindered development of sustainable environmental technologies to support a low-CO2 society.

Planned Impact

We have fully engaged with stakeholders and beneficiaries from the outset, and used the catalyst stage to develop relationships with industrial, governmental and NGO partners. They have helped shape the research plan by exchange of knowledge, strategic plans, and problems. Key issues they raised have allowed us to identify knowledge gaps addressed in the Case for Support:
* Identification of potential resources (lack of data & predictive models)
* Low current value requires low cost production
* Lack of rapid analytical capability with the requisite detection limits
* Dependence on energy intensive smelting and refining of base metals as the dominant source of supply
* How to process alternative ores for recovery
* Lack of well understood mass flows in recovery operations, and thus a lack of optimisation
* Their deleterious role in the recovery of gold from ores
Our research covers four areas of impact outside the scientific community:
1 Identification and discovery of alternative sources of Se and Te. Beneficiaries will include BGS, USGS, Geological Survey of Cyprus and Geological Institute of Romania - NATIONAL AGENCIES with the responsibility to advise government on resource statistics and policy and to provide impartial advice to industry, academia and the public. Our research will enable them to provide improved Te and Se resource statistics and more realistic estimates of future supply to manufacturers, qualified by a sound understanding of the feasibility of extraction and processing. PRIVATE SECTOR COMPANIES who will benefit include those who are already mining Se and Te-rich material but with little understanding of the location of these elements in their deposits and how to recover them; and those actively exploring for new deposits that could include Se and/or Te as a co-product. Our partners include Platina, Vale, Glencore, AngloGold Ashanti and Scotgold. Our research will provide: a) data on the occurrence of Te and Se in crustal systems; b) data for companies to perform a cost-benefit analysis for recovery of Te and Se currently mined, and c) process-based predictive models for the efficient discovery of new economic deposits of Te and Se. One of our UK study sites is a SSSI owned by Leicester City Council and managed by Natural England. These PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANISATIONS will benefit through enhanced scientific understanding of the site, helping them promote its value to the general public.
2 Improved analytical and geometallurgical characterisation techniques. Beneficiaries will be PRIVATE SECTOR COMPANIES who are mining Se and/or Te bearing ore, including AngloGold Ashanti, Mandalay Resources, and Glencore, who will use our results to develop geometallurgical models for Se and Te to improve their recovery along with associated metals. Olympus will benefit through becoming a world-leader in the use of portable instruments for Te and Se determination in grade and mill control.
3 Environmentally benign, low-cost extraction techniques. This will benefit PRIVATE SECTOR COMPANIES who process ores, including partners 5NPlus, Mandalay Resources, AngloGold Ashanti and Scotgold. They will gain economic advantage through our research on new low-energy, low-environmental impact, locally-based extraction, demonstrated at pilot plant scale. The WIDER PUBLIC gain through continued access to, and reduced CO2 footprint of, modern technologies.
4 Strategic knowledge of security of supply. Beneficiaries will be GOVERNMENT AGENCIES who advise on resource strategy (BGS, SOPAC and especially through integration with USGS parallel programs), and POLICY MAKERS IN INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENT planning future clean energy strategies. PRIVATE SECTOR end-users of Se and Te will benefit through improved integration of their supply chain, security of supply confidence, and direct contact with producers. The WIDER PUBLIC gain through development of sustainable environmental technologies to support a low-carbon society.

Publications

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Abbott A (2017) Paint casting: A facile method of studying mineral electrochemistry in Electrochemistry Communications

Studentship Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Student Name
NE/M010848/1 01/06/2015 30/11/2019
1646204 Studentship NE/M010848/1 01/10/2015 31/03/2019 Francesca Bevan
 
Description This grant is still in progress, but we have already improved our understanding of how Te and Se are transported and stored in the Earth's crust. We are working on new methods to recover these elements for final use in solar panels, and reducing the environmental impact of their extraction.• Over 40 peer-reviewed articles produced already
• Conference presentations around the world - including invited talks, keynotes and a Distinguished Lecturer (travelling) role
• We're developing new standards for the micro-analysis of precious and semi-metals
• We have completed fieldwork in North America, Europe, Africa, Australia, and the South Pacific to build a library of Te- and Se-bearing ore deposits
• We are building a detailed model of how Te and Se are affected by sulfide fractionation during magmatic evolution
• We've described the systematics of Te and Se in pyrite, and determined that many bulk ore contents are in fact driven by pyrite contents
• We have discovered that certain alkaline rock types can host fluids with distinctive pH, and are much more effective at transporting Te than "normal" rocks
• We have developed new techniques for quantifying Te and Se speciation, and developed methods for nano-particle characterisation
• We have a growing database of Se and Te in shales and coals and we've recognised that the coupling with gold occurs at low temperature (red beds) as well as up to orthomagmatic (1000°C) deposits
• We've isolated, identified and characterised microorganisms capable of Se/Te reduction / oxidation and precipitation
• We've analysed dozens of different Te and Se minerals in ionic liquids, and shown that we can solublise and recover them with base and precious metals, at rates faster than industry standard techniques (acid leaching, cyanidation)
Exploitation Route Our results may be used in the estimation of future resources, and in the more effective recovery of Te and Se.
Sectors Chemicals,Electronics,Energy,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Other

 
Description Ongoing research project is generating engagement for follow on opportunities for scale up of industrial processes, more research on geoscientific problems, and more permanent networks.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Chemicals,Electronics,Energy,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Central England NERC Training Alliance (CENTA)
Amount £5,591,319 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/L002493/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2014 
End 10/2022
 
Description MSCA-ITN-ETN - European Training Networks
Amount € 3,858,940 (EUR)
Funding ID 721385 
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2016 
End 08/2020
 
Description NERC Highlight Topics
Amount £3,000,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P017053/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 04/2021
 
Description NERC Strategic Programme
Amount £79,686 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/M010848/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 10/2019
 
Description 5N Plus 
Organisation 5N Plus (UK)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution PhD project studying solubilisation of telluride compounds including recycling of CdTe waste (discarded solar panels)
Collaborator Contribution Samples, data, financial support for PhD student.
Impact PhD ongoing
Start Year 2015
 
Description ASARCO 
Organisation ASARCO LLC
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Data analysis, geometallurgical information
Collaborator Contribution Supported visiting student with logistics, shipped samples.
Impact Co-authored manuscript in preparation. Information fed back to mineral processing team
Start Year 2014
 
Description First Solar 
Organisation First Solar, Inc
PI Contribution Frequent correspondence regarding research, markets, strategic supplies of raw materials.
Collaborator Contribution Frequent correspondence regarding research, markets, strategic supplies of raw materials.
Impact This partnership has directly supported the research progrrss, and has been translated into outreach and engagement activities (including the Distinguished Lecturer Programme for D Smith)
Start Year 2015
 
Description Lion One Metals 
Organisation Lion One Metals Ltd
PI Contribution Producing data and interpretation of geological resources in Fiji
Collaborator Contribution Samples, sample transport and data.
Impact CENTA PhD, Distinguished Lecturer Programme
Start Year 2017
 
Description Mandalay 
Organisation Mandalay Resources
Country Canada 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of data and discussion of downstream impact
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples and industy strategic advice
Impact Full research consortia, "TeaSe" project.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Newmont Mining Corp. 
Organisation Newmont Mining Corporation
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Data, analysis and a forthcoming workshop
Collaborator Contribution Field logistical support, provision of samples
Impact Still active
Start Year 2016
 
Description Olympus 
Organisation Olympus
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Developing new proxies for mineral exploration
Collaborator Contribution Loans of equipment, networking.
Impact Ongoing collaborations and new research funding
Start Year 2014
 
Description Zeiss 
Organisation Carl Zeiss AG
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Case study material, meeting and networking connections
Collaborator Contribution Analytical equipment training, follow on research, student support.
Impact Publications by Holwell, funding opportunities
Start Year 2016
 
Description 35th International Geological Congress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Jenkin GRT, Smith DJ, Abbott AP, Holwell DA, Al-Bassam AZM, Bevan F and Harris RC (2016). By-product recovery of critical elements from ores and concentrates using deep eutectic solvent ionic liquids: BRIO. 35th International Geological Congress. August 27 - September 4, Cape Town, South Africa.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description AMG Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Multi-disciplinary audience; invited talk on critical metals for Applied Mineralogy Group
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Cardiff TeaSe website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Advertising and promoting the research project. Focus for news about events and latest results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/research/projects/view/te-and-se-cycling-and-supply-tease
 
Description Central TeaSe website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Central website collating and promoting activity across the TeaSe consortium
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/geology/research/vtmrg/tease
 
Description EU By product recovery best practice 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Event in Brussels on by-products. Presented results in progress on NERC grant; built a consortium for higher TRL for Horizon 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description EUCHEM2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Bevan F, Abbott AP, Jenkin GRT, Al-Bassam A, (2016) Mineral Processing with Deep Eutectic Solvents, EUCHEM2016, July 3rd- 8th, Vienna Austria, Oral Presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description EXPOMIN Mining Convention 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Attendance at UKTI pavillion EXPOMIN Mining Convention 25-29 April 2016, Santiago, Chile, by GRT Jenkin - networking with LatAm UKTI reps, industry and academia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Electrochemistry 2016 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact AP Abbott (2016). Metal Processing using Ionic Liquids, (Plenary Lecture) Electrochemistry 2016, Gosslar, Germany 26-28th September 2016, Geselschaft der Deutsche Chemiker.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Fermor Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Conference hosted at the Geological Society of London. All content recorded and made freely available through YouTube. Conference brought together academics from fields of petrology, geochemistry, volcanology and ore deposits to deliver presentations on current state-of-the-art on copper porphyry mineralisation (and associated ore styles).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/fermor17
 
Description Geological Society of London William Smith Meeting 2018: Mineral resources at the frontier. 2-3 July, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Popular science meeting; mineral resource in submarine, extra-terrestrial and other extreme environments, Broad representation of delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Geometallurgy 2018, Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, 19-20 April 2018, London, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Meeting with strong industry representation on novel methods for ore processing. Collaborations strengthened and added to.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Gordon Research Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact GRC events are joint industry-academic events. Good opportunity to present research directly to (non-partner) industrial stakeholders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description IMA 2018 Melbourne 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International Mineralogical Association conference. Attracted delegates from around the world. Dan Smith co-chaired a session and presented a paper on tellurium supply.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description IOM3 Minerals and Metals Production from Mine to Market (Cambridge) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Keynote talk (Jenkin & Abbott) on metallurgical processes. Added partners and stakeholders to projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited Keynote, Irish Association for Economic Geology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Jenkin GRT, Smith DJ, Abbott AP, Holwell DA, Al-Bassam AZM, Bevan F and Harris RC (2016). By-product recovery of critical elements from ores and concentrates using deep eutectic solvent ionic liquids: BRIO. Invited Keynote, Irish Association for Economic Geology, Annual Conference 2016 'Critical rare materials - securing resources for the green energy revolution.' May 21-22, Wicklow, Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited presentation to Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society Geology Section. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Jenkin GRT, Smith DJ, Abbott AP, Holwell DA, Al-Bassam AZM, Bevan F, Harris RC (2017). Can we get metals out of the ground in a "green" sustainable way? Invited presentation to Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society Geology Section. 1 February 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited presentation to Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Jenkin GRT, Smith DJ, Abbott AP, Holwell DA, Al-Bassam AZM, Bevan F, Harris RC (2017). Can we get metals out of the ground in a "green" sustainable way? Invited presentation to Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. 18 January 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited presentation to Warwickshire Geological Conservation Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Jenkin GRT, Smith DJ, Abbott AP, Holwell DA, Al-Bassam AZM, Bevan F, Harris RC (2017). Can we get metals out of the ground in a "green" sustainable way? Invited presentation to Warwickshire Geological Conservation Group. 15 February 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited seminar at Camborne School of Mines, Cornwall 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Jenkin GRT, Smith DJ, Abbott AP, Holwell DA, Al-Bassam AZM, Bevan F, Harris RC (2017). Novel environmentally-friendly ore processing techniques using deep eutectic solvents. Invited seminar at Camborne School of Mines, Cornwall. 18 January 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description MDSG 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact MDSG conference. Multiple presentations (talks and posters) from NERC grant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description MDSG Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact MDSG is an annual conference with attendees representing academia (all levels) and industry (particularly mineral exploration)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description MDSG conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Mineral Deposits Studies Group. Multiple presenters from research project. Audience is academia and industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Mineralogical Society Distinguished Lecturer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland has invited Dan Smith to tour the UK and Ireland as a 2017-18 Distinguished Lecturer. He has delivered multiple talks on his research and its impact to audiences from academia (all levels), professional societies, and amateur interest groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://www.minersoc.org/distinguished-lectures-17-18.html
 
Description NERC Kick off meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Kick off event for SOS programme, with invited delegates
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description PERUMIN conference (Peru) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International mining conference in Peru. Increased number of partners on project, expanded international reach.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Parliamentary Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Parliamentary Workshop hosted by the All Party Parliamentary Group on Mining. Focussed on outcomes, impacts and implciations of the NERC SOS programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public engagement: interaction and display 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Microscope marvels: fungi
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://1drv.ms/f/s!AksmW9B0RaWMg7dvVCI0ONClsnvsUw
 
Description SEG Conference, Keystone, Colorado 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International conference dedicated to ore deposit research - presented posters from ongoing research projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description SGA Nancy (France) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International conference on mining, mineral exploration and geoscience. Presentations from Holwell and Jenkin. Consolidated partnership and collaboration with USGS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description STDA Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Se and Te trade development association. Presentations from industry, politicians and academia. Good engagements with potential impact partners and stakeholders
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Schools Talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk by GRT Jenkin for years 11-13 Stoke Sixth Form College, 20 April 2016. "Can we make metal extraction greener?"
Talk by GRT Jenkin for years 10-13 Westcliff High School, 11 December 2015. "Can we make metal extraction greener?"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Te & Se workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We hosted a three day meeting of researchers and industrial representatives from mining and end-user companies. Our meeting was held in the USA, and attracted delegates from across North America, UK, and Europe. We shared progress so far, and heard from other researchers and companies working in the subject area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description TeaSe Mid Term Review 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Researchers on TeaSe project produced a review that summarised activities to date; document has been sent ot our international advisory board as well as project partners in the USGS and industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited to write: Jenkin GRT, Smith DJ & Holwell DA (2015). System to rate the scarcity of important metals aims to keep shortage at bay. The Conversation, 8 April 2015. theconversation.com/system-to-rate-the-scarcity-of-important-metals-aims-to-keep-shortage-at-bay-39701
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://theconversation.com/system-to-rate-the-scarcity-of-important-metals-aims-to-keep-shortage-at-...