SoS RARE: Multidisciplinary research towards a secure and environmentally sustainable supply of critical rare earth elements (Nd and HREE)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Exeter
Department Name: Camborne School of Mines

Abstract

Rare earth elements (REE) are the headline of the critical metals security of supply agenda. All the REE were defined as critical by the European Union in 2010, and in subsequent analysis in 2014. Similar projects in the UK and USA have highlighted 'heavy' REE (HREE - europium through to lutetium) as the metals most likely to be at risk of supply disruption and in short supply in the near future. The REE are ubiquitous within modern technologies, including computers and low energy lighting, energy storage devices, large wind turbines and smart materials, making their supply vital to UK society. The challenge is to develop new environmentally friendly and economically viable, neodymium (Nd) and HREE deposits so that use of REE in new and green technologies can continue to expand.

The principal aims of this project are to understand the mobility and concentration of Nd and HREE in natural systems and to investigate new processes that will lower the environmental impact of REE extraction and recovery.

By concentrating on the critical REE, the research will be wide ranging in the deposits and processing techniques considered. It gives NERC and the UK a world-leading research consortium on critical REE, concentrating on deposit types identified in the catalyst phase as most likely to have low environmental impact, and on research that bridges the two goals of the SoS programme.

The project brings together two groups from the preceding catalyst projects (GEM-CRE, MM-FREE) to form a new interdisciplinary team, including the UK's leading experts in REE geology and metallurgy, together with materials science, high/low temperature fluid geochemistry, computational simulation/mineral physics, geomicrobiology and bioprocessing. The team brings substantial background IP and the key skills required. The research responds to the needs of industry partners and involves substantive international collaboration as well as a wider international and UK network across the REE value chain.
The work programme has two strands. The first centres on conventional deposits, which comprise all of the REE mines outside China and the majority of active exploration and development projects. The aim is to make a step change in the understanding of the mobility of REE in these natural deposits via mineralogical analysis, experiments and computational simulation. Then, based on this research, the aim is to optimise the most relevant extraction methods. The second strand looks to the future to develop a sustainable new method of REE extraction. The focus will be the ion adsorption deposits, which could be exploited with the lowest environmental impact of any of the main ore types using a well-controlled in-situ leaching operation.

Impact will be immediate through our industry partners engaged in REE exploration and development projects, who will gain improved deposit models and better and more efficient, and therefore more environmentally friendly, extraction techniques. There will be wider benefits for researchers in other international teams and companies as we publish our results. Security of REE supply is a major international issue and the challenges tackled in this research will be relevant to practically all REE deposits. Despite the UK not having world class REE deposits itself, the economy is reliant on REE (e.g. the functional materials and devices industry is worth ~£3 Bn p.a.) and therefore the UK must lead research into the extraction process. Manufacturers who use REE will also benefit from the research by receiving up to date information on prospects for future Nd and HREE supply. This will help plan their longer term product development, as well as shorter term purchasing strategy. Likewise, the results will be useful to inform national and European level policy and to interest, entertain and educate the wider community about the natural characters and importance of the REE.

Planned Impact

SoS RARE research will have an immediate economic impact by improving the prospects for the security of supply of neodymium (Nd) and the key heavy rare earth elements (HREE). The proposal has engaged six core industry partners involved in the exploration and development of new REE mines who will benefit immediately by introduction of our new exploration models and improved techniques for mineral extraction. Processing of REE raw materials is currently a major bottle neck in the value chain, and development of better methods will have an immediate impact on REE supply concerns. This will make projects more economically viable and environmentally friendly, helping to ensure a more stable supply. The four consultant company partners will gain key expertise and experience in exploration and processing which they will spread out into the wider REE mining and processing industries.

The unstable supply and cost of REE remains a major issue for manufacturers that make up a substantial part of the UK economy. A more secure supply chain will allow these manufacturers to better plan their short and long term product development. The research team will provide information on primary supplies, the likely development of future mines and how the supply chain will develop.

REE supply is a global concern. The project will have a global reach, through the industry partners involved (based in and working in the UK, Greenland, Malawi, Namibia, Spain, Canada and Australia), the core research collaborators in Germany, USA, Canada, Brazil and South Africa and wider international network links to Japan, France, and Madagascar. Diversity of supply is the key. This research proposal will place the UK as a centre in REE expertise and at the forefront of critical metals development.

The critical metals issue is requiring changes in UK Government and European Union policy, including increased support for research ion primary supplies, recycling of existing metal stocks and substitution. The impact of this research on the prospects for low environmental impact extraction of REE, diversity/security of supply and responsible sourcing will be directly relevant to future policy. The 'race' to engineer REE out of new technologies will be unnecessary and many new applications could be explored. Therefore major impact will occur at the policy level as the research guides the decision making in research funding and legislation for REE.

Few people had even heard of 'rare earths' until the issue of China restricting supply reached the news headlines in 2010, yet this family of elements are ubiquitous in digital and green technologies, from the slimmest mobile phones to giant wind turbines. We will exploit the realisation among the general public of the importance of REE towards their modern high technology life-style and demonstrate the importance of REE chemistry and geology. The REE are extremely interesting and ideal for creative and educational outputs to entertain and inform wider non-technical audiences. Encouraging the public, including school students, to learn more about REE in nature is a key part of our outreach programme.

Publications

10 25 50

publication icon
Broom-Fendley S (2017) Geology, geochemistry and geochronology of the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi in Journal of African Earth Sciences

publication icon
Broom-Fendley S (2017) Deducing the source and composition of rare earth mineralising fluids in carbonatites: insights from isotopic (C, O, 87Sr/86Sr) data from Kangankunde, Malawi. in Contributions to mineralogy and petrology. Beitrage zur Mineralogie und Petrologie

Studentship Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Student Name
NE/M011429/1 01/05/2015 31/12/2019
1652549 Studentship NE/M011429/1 01/10/2015 16/07/2019 Camilla Owens
 
Title library display 
Description Exhibit at University of Exeter Penryn Campus library on rare earth elements, including relevant publications. 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact xx 
 
Description The key findings concern a better understanding of the processes that form rare earth ore deposits, insights into how the rare earth minerals will behave when in a mineral processing plant, and development of life cycle assessment as a method to help with responsible sourcing.
Processes of formation of rare earth deposits were studied at one of two natural laboratories in Namibia and one in Malawi, where we noted the importance of explosive activity caused by fluids released from the rare earth bearing magmas and fluids. We published several papers constraining the variety of fluids and processes that concentrate heavy and light rare earth elements and are incorporating these into a general geomodel for carbonatites in conjunction with an EU Horizons 2020 project. Experiments were carried out to investigate the formation of a mineral called burbankite that is a key step in formation of many rare earth deposits and also to test the requirement for chlorine ligands in transport and deposition of rare earths. The results provided a new hypothesis with sodium and potassium in magma exerting a much greater control on rare earth element release in fluids than had been previously thought. All of these results can be applied directly to exploration and development of new rare earth deposits to make them more likely to find exploitable rare earths and make more efficient use of the resources.
The rare earth minerals can be difficult to concentrate during minerals processing. This is partly because they may have complex intergrowths but also because their fundamental properties are not well known. PhD research work has been carried out in collaboration with colleagues at the Helmholtz Institute Freiberg, Germany and Colorado School of Mines, USA to characterise rare earth calcium fluorcarbonate mineral responses to flotation reagents. Results have been published. The first determination of the magnetic properties of synchysite, a key rare earth ore mineral have been measured, and found to be very different to closely related minerals, needing a different processing approach. A comprehensive process mineralogy study to demonstrate the issues and useful protocols has also been published. These findings have been used by an industry partner.
The other main topic area has been responsible sourcing of rare earths. We have written papers discussing how the diverse range of rare earth deposits all have pros and cons with respect to responsible sourcing and developed the use of life cycle assessment to compare deposits and to predict the environmental performance of a mine whilst it is still at early planning stage. This integration of life cycle assessment into the exploration stage allows design for environmental as well as economic performance. This mitigation and optimisation of environmental performance is likely to be key to responsible sourcing as manufacturing companies take a direct interest in the full value chain for their products right back to the mine site source. Although manufacturing companies are likely to be interested in LCA results to go together with data for their processes, the public are usually more interested in high profile single issues and we have designed top trumps style cards to compare rare earth deposit characteristics in a more qualitative and pictorial way.
Exploitation Route The results inform Mkango Resources exploration, minerals processing and mine design at Songwe Hill, Malawi
The results inform E-Tech Metals exploration strategy at Eureka, Namibia
The outcomes published are being taken forward by academic groups in UK, Canada, Australia Germany
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Education,Electronics,Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://www2.bgs.ac.uk/sosRare/publications.html
 
Description SoS RARE impacts can be divided into five areas: specific impacts with three companies and two more general impacts. 1. The research findings have been used to improve the exploration model and minerals processing for the Songwe carbonatite complex, Malawi currently under development by one of the industry partners on the project, Mkango Resources Ltd. Results of the LCA research have helped to change plans for energy sources in order to make a significant reduction to the carbon footprint of the proposed mine 2. The SoS RARE project administrator used expertise gained on SoS RARE and the previous catalyst grant to set up his own exploration company. Research findings helped create an exploration model and devise minerals processing of the Eureka carbonatite, Namibia, and provide advice to the sustainability committee. The company is now called E-Tech Resources, listed on the Canadian stock exchange and undertaking further early stage exploration activities. 3. The Life Cycle Assessment approach to compare different types of rare earth ore deposits developed as part of SoS RARE enabled Rob Pell to set up a spin off company called Minviro, The LCA approach first applied to REE has now been applied to many other types of ores, most high profile of which is lithium: https://www.linkedin.com/feed/update/urn:li:activity:6622547212012404736/. Working with two companies in California, Rob's company Minviro was able to show that the figures currently being used for lithium production in manufacturer life cycle assessments are too low in terms of CO2 intensity by a factor of 6-7. This is likely to mean that more companies, including large car manufacturers as well as exploration and mining companies will use the LCA approach to check and improve their carbon footprint numbers. Minviro have expanded to 25 staff. The work has expanded into further different metals and they are now working with Camborne School of Mines on circular economy approaches.. They have also just announced an arrangement with international company, Maptek, to develop LCA for mine planning models. Minviro won consultancy of the year at the Business Green Leaders awards in September 2021. 4. We have advised other rare earth companies on issues regarding geology, process mineralogy and responsible sourcing. By helping companies, including UK based companies, to develop new rare earth mines we are helping create a diverse and secure supply of rare earths. Research findings have been turned into a rare earth deposits game that can be used to compare deposit characteristics and enhance awareness of the need for responsible sourcing of metals. 5. We have been advising UK government departments on security of supply of rare earths and responsible supply of rare earths, including the UK Government Expert Committee in 2021/2022 and 2022/23
Sector Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport,Other
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Bedrock preconditions and environmental factors in the formation of ion adsorption REE
Amount £74,200 (GBP)
Funding ID IP-1693-1116 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Department NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
 
Description EPSRC GCRF University of Exeter's Institutional Fund, Second Round, 2017-18
Amount £9,277 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description EPSRC Network
Amount £366,064 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R020140/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2021
 
Description Greenpeg
Amount € 8,325,292 (EUR)
Funding ID 869274 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 06/2020 
End 05/2024
 
Description H2020 research grant (HiTech AlkCarb)
Amount € 5,395,296 (EUR)
Funding ID 689909 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 02/2016 
End 01/2020
 
Description LiFT - Lithium for Future Technology
Amount £487,735 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/V007009/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2020 
End 11/2023
 
Description NERC NPIF Innovation Fellowship
Amount £383,022 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/R013403/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Department NERC Postdoctoral Fellowship
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 06/2021
 
Description UK-China Joint Research and Innovation Partnership Fund (PhD Placement Programme)
Amount £14,020 (GBP)
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 10/2018
 
Description UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Technology Metals (TechMet)
Amount £4,436,180 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/V011855/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2021 
End 12/2024
 
Description Weathering of carbonatite REE deposits (WREED): a critical stage in generation of critical metal resources.
Amount £80,410 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/V008935/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2021 
End 03/2022
 
Description Memorandum of understandign with the Univeristy of Antanarivo 
Organisation University of Antananarivo
Country Madagascar 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Agreement to cover joint fieldwork in Madagascar and to facilitate relationships with Malagasy government.
Collaborator Contribution Joint fieldwork in the Ambohimirahavy and Manongarivo areas. Sampling laterite profiles for material characterisation and column experiments. Sampling bedrock for petrological study.
Impact Joint fieldwork.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Paper on energy requirements and global warming potential of REE 
Organisation University of Leuven
Department Department of Materials Engineering (MTM)
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Pell R, Wall F, Yan X, Bailey G. (2017) Response to 'Assessing the energy requirements and global warming potential of the production of rare earth elements', Journal of Cleaner Production, DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.059. R Pell led preparation of the paper
Collaborator Contribution Partner read and contributed to the preparation of the paper using their experience of LCA of REE minerals production.
Impact Pell R, Wall F, Yan X, Bailey G. (2017) Response to 'Assessing the energy requirements and global warming potential of the production of rare earth elements', Journal of Cleaner Production, DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.059.
Start Year 2017
 
Description SoS RARE 
Organisation British Geological Survey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Exeter is the lead on this bid. The consortium formed from two NERC Security of Supply of Minerals catalyst grants, GEM-CRE and MMFREE. The consortium made a bid for a full consortium grant.
Collaborator Contribution Partners all contributed to the proposal. There are also 10 industry partners
Impact Consortium research grant proposal to NERC
Start Year 2015
 
Description SoS RARE 
Organisation Colorado School of Mines
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Exeter is the lead on this bid. The consortium formed from two NERC Security of Supply of Minerals catalyst grants, GEM-CRE and MMFREE. The consortium made a bid for a full consortium grant.
Collaborator Contribution Partners all contributed to the proposal. There are also 10 industry partners
Impact Consortium research grant proposal to NERC
Start Year 2015
 
Description SoS RARE 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution University of Exeter is the lead on this bid. The consortium formed from two NERC Security of Supply of Minerals catalyst grants, GEM-CRE and MMFREE. The consortium made a bid for a full consortium grant.
Collaborator Contribution Partners all contributed to the proposal. There are also 10 industry partners
Impact Consortium research grant proposal to NERC
Start Year 2015
 
Description SoS RARE 
Organisation McGill University
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Exeter is the lead on this bid. The consortium formed from two NERC Security of Supply of Minerals catalyst grants, GEM-CRE and MMFREE. The consortium made a bid for a full consortium grant.
Collaborator Contribution Partners all contributed to the proposal. There are also 10 industry partners
Impact Consortium research grant proposal to NERC
Start Year 2015
 
Description SoS RARE 
Organisation Peking University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Exeter is the lead on this bid. The consortium formed from two NERC Security of Supply of Minerals catalyst grants, GEM-CRE and MMFREE. The consortium made a bid for a full consortium grant.
Collaborator Contribution Partners all contributed to the proposal. There are also 10 industry partners
Impact Consortium research grant proposal to NERC
Start Year 2015
 
Description SoS RARE 
Organisation Universidade de São Paulo
Country Brazil 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Exeter is the lead on this bid. The consortium formed from two NERC Security of Supply of Minerals catalyst grants, GEM-CRE and MMFREE. The consortium made a bid for a full consortium grant.
Collaborator Contribution Partners all contributed to the proposal. There are also 10 industry partners
Impact Consortium research grant proposal to NERC
Start Year 2015
 
Description SoS RARE 
Organisation University of Brighton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Exeter is the lead on this bid. The consortium formed from two NERC Security of Supply of Minerals catalyst grants, GEM-CRE and MMFREE. The consortium made a bid for a full consortium grant.
Collaborator Contribution Partners all contributed to the proposal. There are also 10 industry partners
Impact Consortium research grant proposal to NERC
Start Year 2015
 
Description SoS RARE 
Organisation University of Cape Town
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Exeter is the lead on this bid. The consortium formed from two NERC Security of Supply of Minerals catalyst grants, GEM-CRE and MMFREE. The consortium made a bid for a full consortium grant.
Collaborator Contribution Partners all contributed to the proposal. There are also 10 industry partners
Impact Consortium research grant proposal to NERC
Start Year 2015
 
Description SoS RARE 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Exeter is the lead on this bid. The consortium formed from two NERC Security of Supply of Minerals catalyst grants, GEM-CRE and MMFREE. The consortium made a bid for a full consortium grant.
Collaborator Contribution Partners all contributed to the proposal. There are also 10 industry partners
Impact Consortium research grant proposal to NERC
Start Year 2015
 
Description SoS RARE 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Exeter is the lead on this bid. The consortium formed from two NERC Security of Supply of Minerals catalyst grants, GEM-CRE and MMFREE. The consortium made a bid for a full consortium grant.
Collaborator Contribution Partners all contributed to the proposal. There are also 10 industry partners
Impact Consortium research grant proposal to NERC
Start Year 2015
 
Description SoS RARE 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Department School of Geography & Geosciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Exeter is the lead on this bid. The consortium formed from two NERC Security of Supply of Minerals catalyst grants, GEM-CRE and MMFREE. The consortium made a bid for a full consortium grant.
Collaborator Contribution Partners all contributed to the proposal. There are also 10 industry partners
Impact Consortium research grant proposal to NERC
Start Year 2015
 
Company Name Etech Metals 
Description Exploration company for environmental technology metals, including rare earths. Managing Director is project administrator for SoS RARE project. Started up using expertise gained from industry and NERC-funded projects. Industry partner now on SoS RARE project 
Year Established 2015 
Impact Active exploration project for rare earths at Eureka, Namibia
Website http://etechmetals.com/
 
Company Name MINVIRO LTD 
Description Life cycle assessment-based approach to improving environmental and sustainability performance of mining companies. Developed directly from Rob Pell's PhD study which was part of the SoS RARE project 
Year Established 2018 
Impact Changing energy use strategy and making a proposed rare earth project in Malawi more environmentally-friendly by applying LCA at feasibility stage of project development for Mkango Ltd.
Website https://www.minviro.com/
 
Description - Rare Earth Industry Association training in LCA for REE projects - 22/10/2019 - Brussels 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Rob Pell gave an invited talk at an event organised by new Rare Earth Industry Association to help deliver uniform Life Cycle Assessments for rare earth projects, an aid to promote business and encourage responsible sourcing. Rob Pell developed LCA for use during REE exploration projects during his SoS RARE PhD. - 22/10/2019 - Brussels
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://etn-demeter.eu/life-cycle-assessment-matters-the-rare-earths-in-our-environmental-future/
 
Description A talk at the Hi Tech Alk Carb/SOS:rare joint workshop titled 'Concentrating REE in the weathering zone: the ion adsorption clays' by M. Smith. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation at a joint workshop on NERC/EU funded critical REE research attended by academics, policy makers and industry representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/hiTechAlkCarb/downloads/CriticalRawMaterialsFuture_Nov19_programme_v2.pdf
 
Description A talk at the Hi Tech Alk Carb/SOS:rare joint workshop titled 'The Role of Hydrothermal Processes In Carbonatite-Related REE Deposits' by M. Smith. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation a joint workshop between NERC and EU funded projects on critical REE deposits to an international audience of academics, industry representatives and policy makers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/hiTechAlkCarb/downloads/CriticalRawMaterialsFuture_Nov19_programme_v2.pdf
 
Description A talk at the SGA meeting, Glasgow, titled 'Late- to post-magmatic controls on rare earth element mineralogy and the potential influence on subsequent ion adsorption ores' by E. Marquis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at SGA meeting Glasgow, in session on Mineral Resources for Green Growth, with an audience of ~100.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.sga2019glasgow.com/abstract
 
Description A talk at the SGA meeting, Glasgow, titled 'Mechnaisms for the generation of HREE mineralisation in carbonatites: Evidence from Huanglongpu, China' by M. Smith 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the SGA meeting, Glasgow in the session Mineral Resources for Green growth. Highlighted project results to practitioners and industry. Audience of ~100.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.sga2019glasgow.com/abstract
 
Description A talk at the SGA meeting, Glasgow, titled 'Resolving the structural state of heavy rare earth elements in lateritic ion adsorption clays' by A. Borst. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the SGA 2020 meeting in Glasgow to an audience of approximately 100 academics and industry representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.sga2019glasgow.com/abstract
 
Description Article in Physics Today 'New Sources for rare metals vital in modern technology'. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Article in Physics Today 'New Sources for rare metals vital in modern technology' summarising the work of SOS:Rare and in particular the paper in Nature Communications arising from this project dealing with REE adsorption on to clays.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://phys.org/news/2020-09-sources-rare-metals-vital-modern.html
 
Description Blog of project activities on project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Blog of activities on SoS RARE website www.sosrare.org
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
URL http://www.sosrare.org
 
Description Education event attached to Man Engine project to celebrate 10 years of hte Cornish World Heritage mining site 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 15 March 2016
University of Exeter took part in a series of education events alongside the Man Engine project in Cornwall. At Humphrey Davy school Penzance the theme was invention and we took an activity to research minerals properties and devise a way to separate them to the school (year 8). We took the SoS RARE banner and talked about an international research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.facebook.com/TheManEngine/
 
Description Geology for Global Development talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Geology for Global Development conference, London, 4.1.16

Rob Pell and Camilla Owens gave talks on their research on making production of rare earths more environmentally friendly and a driver for sustainable development. They took part in a panel debate and received good feedback and interest in their subject from the conference convenors and audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/sosRare/blog/geologyForGlobalDevelopment.html
 
Description Impakter article on Shrinking the environmental impact of mining 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Article by Rob Pell on the Impakter website 'where public servants around the world stay ahead of the frontiers in their field, find innovative policy ideas and build a global network of peers and experts.' The website is used by members from over 600+ global organisation, from United Nations, Institutes, NGO's and Universities.
The article features results from the SoS RARE project paper on combining Life Cycle Assessment with Mine Planning so the environmental footprint can be lowered, and optimised along with other parameters at the mine planning stage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://impakter.com/shrinking-the-environmental-footprint-of-mining/
 
Description Inaurgral lecture by Professor Martin Smith: Minerals, Metals and Microbes. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Inaugural public lecture following appointment of M. Smith to personal chair in geochemistry. Covered a range of material but a focus on SOS:Rare poutcomes for approximately 60% of the 1 hour lecture. Audience of general public, post graduate and under graduate students, industry professionals and academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.brighton.ac.uk/research-and-enterprise/research-news/films-and-publications/inaugural-le...
 
Description International conference on f elements, Lausanne, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Convened a session on geology of rare earths and gave a talk (F. Wall) at the International Conference on f Elements, which mainly consists of chemists working on lanthanide and actinide elements. Good opportunity for cross-over of information between the chemistry and geological communities. The event was attended mainly by academics but there were also industry representatives present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Interview for article on rare earths on The Verge news website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Telephone interview and help with email questions about neodymium for Angela Chen for The Verge news website. Article on 'Where will the materials for our clean energy future come from'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.theverge.com/2019/2/15/18226210/energy-renewables-materials-mining-environment-neodymium...
 
Description Invited Talk at Goldschmidt 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Anouk Borst gave an invited talk at Goldschmidt 2021 in session 7g (Mineral-scale analysis and geochemistry in service of Economic Geology): Borst AM, Finch AA, Horsburgh NJ, Smith M, Geraki K (2021) "Alteration and weathering in peralkaline silicate-hosted REE-HFSE deposits".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Invited talk at Advanced Propulsion Centre event about electric vehicles at the Royal Institution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk on responsible sourcing of raw materials for electric vehicles as part of an event on the future of electric vehicles and how to make them zero carbon
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.apcuk.co.uk/events/z-in-evs/
 
Description Invited talk on rare earths to Cardiff Society of Economic Geology student society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited lecture on responsible sourcing of raw materials, including particularly the example of rare earths using work from SoS RARE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.segweb.org/SEG/Students/Student_Chapters/SEG/_Students/Student_Chapters.aspx
 
Description Invited talk to the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Invited talk by Frances Wall to the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall on Wednesday 15 February on responsible mining, using particular the example of rare earths from SoS RARE work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.geologycornwall.com/calendar-2017
 
Description Keynote at RawMat2021 Athena 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Adrian Finch and Nicky Horsburgh were both invited to give keynotes to the RawMat 2021 conference in Greece in September 2021. Adrian presented both presentations including one talk on the genesis of critical metal ore deposits and another presenting Nicky's PhD research on smart sorting. These were invitations coming directly from SoS RARE funded research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.rawmat2021.gr/congress/
 
Description Lecture 'Rare volcanoes to Rare Metals' to Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture at Annual General meeting of a geological society for amateur geologists. Attended by mixture of members of mostly members of the public but also professionals in mining industry. Lots of questions and discussion at the end of the lecture. Resulted in various email feedback with greater appreciation for carbonatites and rare earths, and requests to distribute a recording of the lecture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL http://www.geologycornwall.com
 
Description Lecture to Sedgewick Geological Society, University of Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Evening online lecture on Responsible Sourcing to Sedgewick Geolgical society at University of Cambridge - convened by student officers. Questions afterwards and request to help think about further avenues for research and funding from one of the academic participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://sedgwickclub.soc.srcf.net/
 
Description Manchester Geological Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Afternoon on rare earths for Manchester Geological Association on 21 January 2017. Three talks: Frances Wall Geology, Rob Pell responsible sourcing, Suzanne Shaw Roskill information services, uses and outlook for rare earths
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.mangeolassoc.org.uk/indoormeetings.htm
 
Description PDAC 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Ed Loye attended the PDAC (Prospectors and Developers Association Conference, ca. 20k attendees to trade show) Toronto, 4-6 March 2019, visited stands and had meetings with exploration companies and investors. Took leaflets with summaries of SoS RARE results on ion adsorption clays and LCA approach to responsible sourcing during the exploration stage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description PhD student conference presentation - Ion Adsorption-Type REE Deposit associated with the Ambohimirahavavy Alkaline Complex: Potential Controls on Mineralisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference presentation at nation meeting (MDSG AGM) by PhD student Eva Marquis.

Abstract:
The Rare Earth Elements (REE: La-Lu) have been highlighted as 'critical materials' as a result of concerns over the security of supply. In particular demand for heavy REE (HREE: Gd-Lu) has increased over the past decade. Ion Adsorption-Type Deposits (IADs) supply the majority of HREE and yttrium to the global market. Containing more than c. 50% ion exchangeable REE (+ yttrium), typically adsorbed to the surface of clay minerals such as kaolinite and halloysite, it is the ease of extraction through leaching that makes IADs economically viable. Economic ion adsorption-type deposits are almost exclusively confined to areas of southern China underlain by metaluminous to weakly peraluminous granites. Notably the most HREE-enriched IADs in China are associated with HREE-enriched muscovite granites that contain easily degradable REE-minerals (e.g. fluorcarbonates) formed during deuteric alteration. The primary control on the formation of HREE-rich ion adsorption type deposits seems to be the presence of easily weathered HREE-bearing minerals in the protoliths, but there has been limited study of how these minerals form. Other than IADs, peralkaline igneous rocks are known to be a substantial source of REE, especially the valuable HREE but processing the 'hard-rock' deposits can be challenging. At Ambohimirahavavy, Madagascar, peralkaline igneous rocks have been weathered to form an ion adsorption deposit which is thus relatively easy to process.

The Ambohimirahavavy prospect is currently unique in hosting a recognised ion adsorption-type deposit developed above alkaline to peralkaline igneous and volcanic rocks, some of which carry REE mineralisation of up to 2.24% TREO. The ion adsorption ores are present within lateritic weathering profiles above these protoliths, and carry an average grade of 835 ppm TREO5. By studying this deposit we aim to understand better the preconditions necessary for the formation of IADs. Preliminary results from leaching experiments on variably mineralised weathered profiles from across the prospect demonstrate that bedrock variations are important in controlling the location of REE mineralisation. This is also evident locally within some laterite profiles, with differences in ion-exchangeable REE content being associated with recognisable changes in protolith composition (e.g. Profile TAND044: weathered pegmatite 738 ppm REE; weathered mudstone 378 ppm REE). Preliminary work has clearly identified the presence of clay sorbed REE above bedrock pegmatite and hydrothermal vein hosted mineralisation. Petrographic observations have shown the bedrock mineralisation to include late magmatic REE-bearing phases (eudialyte, zircon, pyrochlore) and hydrothermal phases (allanite, REE-fluorcarbonates) that could be easily broken down by weathering. Initial observations suggest that the development of the magmatic, and post-magmatic hydrothermal system may have been critical in the formation of an economic deposit by weathering.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description PhD student presentation - Rare Earth Element mobility during the genesis and evolution of Ion Adsorption Deposits associated with Alkali Granitoid Complexes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact PhD student presentation at project progress meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Poster at MDSG 2020 - REE adsorption experiments onto kaolintie with different ligands: Implications on ion adsorption REE deposit formation. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Post presentation at Mineral Deposits Studies Group AGM, Natural History Museum, London. Approximately 200 attendees. Further discussion with 20-30 attendees at post session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.minersoc.org/mdsg-2020.html
 
Description Presentation (Goldschmidt): Rare Earth Element Complexes and Ligand Exchange in Solution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation given at international conference - instigated debate and networking,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation (MRS): Using simulations of rare earth elements in aqueous solution, in organic acid complexes ?and at interfaces to suggest improved processing routes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at international conference resulting in discussion/debate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at the Resourcing Future generations meeting, Vancouver, Canada (RFG2018). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A conference presentation titled:

Marquis, E., Goodenough, K., Smith, M. P. and Estrade, G., 2018. Unconventional ion-adsorption type REE deposits, what lies beneath: a case study from northwest Madagascar [oral presentation]. RFG 2018: Resources for Future Generations, Vancouver, Canada 16-21 June 2018.

Was given to an audience of academics (professional practitioners), postgraduate students and industry representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.rfg2018.org/
 
Description Presentation by PhD student at ERES 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at ERES 2017 conference. Abstract: ERES2017: 2nd European Rare Earth Resources Conference|Santorini|28-31/05/2017 1
A NATURAL LABORATORY FOR ION ADSORPTION-TYPE REE DEPOSITS: THE AMBOHIMIRAHAVAVY ALKALINE COMPLEX IN NORTHWEST MADAGASCAR
Eva MARQUIS1, Martin SMITH1, Guillaume ESTRADE2, Kathryn GOODENOUGH3
1 School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton, UK
2 Géosciences Environnement Toulouse, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, F
3 British Geological Survey, the Lyell Centre, Research Avenue South, Edinburgh, UK
e.marquis@brighton.ac.uk
Ion Adsorption-Type Deposits
Ion Adsorption-Type Deposits (IADs) are the principal source of HREE and yttrium to the global market1. These supergene deposits contain >50% ion exchangeable REE (+Y) adsorbed to the surface of clay minerals, typically kaolinite and halloysite. Although these deposits are typically low-grade with respect to REE contents, it is the ease of extraction, plus low uranium and thorium contents that makes IADs economically desirable1. Known IADs are located in southern China, Brazil, Malawi, Madagascar and southeast Asia, in tropical to temperate climates. Climate plays an important role in the formation of IADs, providing the temperature and precipitation required for the intense lateritic weathering. At present, large-scale economic extraction of IADs occurs exclusively in southern China1. Heavy REE enriched IADs in China are typically restricted to areas underlain by muscovite granites, which have undergone a degree of deuteric alteration that formed easily degradable REE-minerals (e.g. fluorcarbonates)1. The presence of HREE-enriched protoliths containing easily degradable REE-bearing minerals seems to be the primary control on the formation of HREE-enriched IADs, but there has been limited investigation into how these minerals form and evolve. This talk describes ongoing research on the protoliths of an IAD in Madagascar, and considers the bedrock controls on mineralisation.
Ambohimirahavavy Alkaline Complex
Peralkaline igneous rocks are typically enriched in the HREE, but processing of these 'hard-rock' deposits is challenging. The Cenozoic-age Ambohimirahavavy alkaline igneous complex in Madagascar has undergone intense tropical weathering leading to the formation of easily processed IAD-type ores within thick weathered profiles. The Ambohimirahavavy Complex is an eroded caldera, comprising silica-over- and -under-saturated syenitic and granitic intrusions3, and alkaline volcanic rocks (Fig. A). The most REE-enriched protoliths are peralkaline granite sheets with grades up to
ERES2017: 2nd European Rare Earth Resources Conference|Santorini|28-31/05/2017 2
SedimentsComplexesAmbohimirahavavyComplexComplexManongarivoComplexBezavonaComplexAndranomatavyMesozoic SedimentsCenozoicAlkali VolcanicSedimentsComplexes
2.24% TREO2. Ion adsorption-type ores are distributed unevenly across the entire complex and carry an average grade of 835 ppm TREO2.
Petrographic analysis of various syenites and peralkaline granite dykes from across the complex has identified multiple forms of REE-mineralisation including late-magmatic (pyrochlore, zircon, eudialyte) and hydrothermal phases (allanite, REE-fluorcarbonates). High temperature alteration of REE-minerals potentially results in the release of REE into forms more amenable to decomposition during chemical weathering (e.g. REE-fluorcarbonates). These minerals are not only found in magmatic rocks but also in pegmatitic veins intruding extensive damage zones within country rocks surrounding the complex. Initial observations indicate that the magmatic and hydrothermal development may be critical for the development of an economic supergene deposit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to All-Party Parliamentary Group on Mining and Quarrying 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to All-Party Parliamentary Group on Mining and Quarrying on A new type of REE deposit: Ion Adsorption Deposits. Presentation mainly to policy makers, with questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to Cafe Scientificque, Brighton, titled: 'What's so critical about metals? - Resources for the renewable revolution', by M. Smith 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation to the General public at the Café Scientifique, Brighton. 67 attendees from the general public and university.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.meetup.com/Brighton-Cafe-Scientifique/events/261546572/
 
Description Presentation to the European Micro-analysis society (EMAS) titled: STRUCTURAL STATE OF REE IN ION ADSORPTION DEPOSITS: A XANES/EXAFS STUDY OF LATERITES FROM MADAGASCAR AND CHINA. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to an audience of professional practitioners, postgraduate students and industry representatives titled: STRUCTURAL STATE OF REE IN ION ADSORPTION DEPOSITS: A XANES/EXAFS STUDY OF LATERITES FROM MADAGASCAR AND CHINA. Lead to discussion and requests for further information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.microbeamanalysis.eu/events/event/51-emas-2018-microbeam-analysis-in-the-earth-sciences
 
Description Presentation to the Mineral Deposits Studies Group Annual Meeting 2018-19 titled: Adsorption experiments of REE onto kaolinite at 0.025 and 0.5 M NaCl. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to the Mineral Deposits Studies Group Annual Meeting 2018-19 titled: Adsorption experiments of REE onto kaolinite at 0.025 and 0.5 M NaCl, by
C. Villanova-de-Benavent and M.P. Smith to an audience of professional practitioners, post graduate students and industry representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://mdsg2019.co.uk/
 
Description Presentation to the Mineral Deposits Studies Group Annual Meeting 2018-19 titled: Micro- to Macroscale controls on REE distribution in the Ambohimirahavavy ion adsorption deposit, Madagascar. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to the Mineral Deposits Studies Group Annual Meeting 2018-19 titled: Micro- to Macroscale controls on REE distribution in the Ambohimirahavavy ion adsorption deposit, Madagascar. An audience of professional practitioners, post graduate students and industry representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://mdsg2019.co.uk/
 
Description Resources for Future Generations 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Session on critical raw materials including Rare Earths, joint with Canadian Rare Earth Element Network (CREEN) at the Resources for Future Generations conference, Vancouver, Canada, June 2018, including a panel discussion on rare earth projects that included industry participants. The conference attracted scientists from a wider range of disciplines than geological based conferences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/sosRare/blog/collaborationCREEN.html
 
Description Royal Cornwall Geological Society visit to Camborne School of Mines 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Members of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall visited Camborne School of Mines University of Exeter to see how mineralogical analyses are done and to use and provide feedback on the Elements Happy Families and Rare Earths Deposits Deck outreach games.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Scouts evening activity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Evening activity towards cub scouts science badge at Threemilestone scouts group, Truro Used SoS RARE outreach Elements Happy families cards together with mineral specimens to teach about the wide range of elements now used in manufacturing and that they all come from minerals mined from the Earth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Smallpeice session on responsible sourcing of rare earths 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Smallpeice Trust do a taster course of several days of activities, delivered by Camborne School of mines staff, to interest A level students in studying Mining engineering, it is also relevant to geology. Mos A level students will not have had access to these subjects. As part of this course Rob Pell, Phd student and Frances Wall (PI) gave a talk on rare earths, based around the SoS RARE project and the SoS RARE rare earth deposits game.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SoS Minerals Policy workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact SoS MinErals policy workshop hosted by the All Party Parliamentary Group on International Mining at the Houses of Parliament on 1 March 2018. Each project gave an hour long presentation/discussion session. F Wall led for the SoS RARE project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.sosrare.org
 
Description SoS RARE schools resources developed with Geobus 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Activities for schools published on Geobus website. Elements happy families cards and rare earths deposits deck game. February 2018 so no formal statistics on use yet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://geobus.st-andrews.ac.uk/resources/sos-minerals/
 
Description Sustainability Times Article: 'We should start mining more sustainably' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article by Rob Pell in Sustainability Times online news forum. Features paper on "Environmental optimisation of mine scheduling through life cycle assessment integration" and how the research demonstrates that environmental metrics can be combined into mining planning so from the outset the environmental footprint of a mining operation can be minimised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.sustainability-times.com/expert-opinions/why-we-must-start-mining-more-sustainably/
 
Description Talk at Portsmouth SEG 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Rob Pell talk to Portsmouth Student chapter of the society of Economic Geologists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at United States Geological Survey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk to United States Geological Survey, USGS National Minerals Information Center in Reston, near Washington DC, about research on life cycle assessment, leading to ongoing discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bgs.ac.uk/sosRare/blog/rareEarthUSA.html
 
Description Talk to Smallpeice Trust university taster course for mining engineerng 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Smallpeice Trust do a taster course of several days of activities, delivered by Camborne School of mines staff, to interest A level students in studying Mining engineering, it is also relevant to geology. Mos A level students will not have had access to these subjects. As part of this course Rob Pell, Phd student gave a talk on rare earths, based around the SoS RARE project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The Critical West 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Talk at Open University Geological Society symposium, 9 July 2016. title: the Critical West, talking about critical metals using the example of rare earths
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://ougs.org/trip_resumes/article.php?id=370&branchcode=ouc
 
Description The Jekyll and Hyde of rare earths 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An article in Materials World - the magazine of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining - on ion adsorption deposits of the Rare Earth elements. Distributed to all members and some institutional libraries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.iom3.org/materials-world-magazine/feature/2018/jul/01/good-and-bad-rare-earths
 
Description Third Tai'an Business Trip for Foreign Experts 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Rob Pell visited Tai'an, in the Shandong province of the People's Republic of China, for the Third Tai'an Business Trip for Foreign Experts. The event will form a starting point for future cooperation and idea exchange for environmentally responsible mining. There were a number of productive conversations with both mining companies from the Tai'an region and international experts. It was an opportunity to share my research on the application of life cycle assessments to the mining industry as well as hear about specific challenges that the industry is facing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/discussing-responsible-mining-taian-china-robert-pell/
 
Description Twitter account to record project activities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Personal twitter account and project twitter accounts to give news and views of activities @franceswallCSM and @sosrare
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
URL http://sosrare.org
 
Description Unraveling the supply risks for rare earth elements - MiningIR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in mining trade online newsletter. Rare earth supply risk and the individual factors which contribute to it have been explored in a recently published paper by authors from University of Exeter, Camborne School of Mines, and KU Leuven. The work compares 10 individual impact categories which can contribute to material criticality, which is a combination of supply risk and economic importance. The individual rare earth elements are compared against five reference metals (gold, copper, platinum-group metals, iron, and lithium) highlighting that the major contributors to rare earth supply risk are;

The country concentration of mine production
The company concentration of mine production
The fact that rare earths are commonly produced as a by-product of other metals
The lack of recycling of rare earthsThe research also highlighted that rare earths need to be considered as individual elements. Certain mines only produce a select group of the rare earths and certain rare earths are significantly more critical as raw materials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://miningir.com/unraveling-the-supply-risks-for-rare-earth-elements/
 
Description talk at Bristol Society of Economic Geologists Student chapter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Talk on responsible sourcing of rare earths by Rob Pell to Bristol University Society of Economic Geologists which promoted interest in the respsonsible sourcing of raw materials and discussions about a joint UK SEG initiative between CSM, Bristol, Cardiff.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description talk at Yale University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Yale University's Industrial Ecology group was the first stop on Friday 8th September. A presentation to the department and other interested parties was followed by a number of interesting meetings with a number of academics with expertise in criticality, life cycle assessments and economic modelling.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bgs.ac.uk/sosRare/blog/rareEarthUSA.html