Cataclysmic eruptions in densely populated areas: the ticking eruptive clock at Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico).

Lead Research Organisation: The Natural History Museum
Department Name: Earth Sciences

Abstract

Andesitic stratovolcanoes are the most explosive volcanoes on our planet. On a societal level, they have great impact on the proximal region and human population, whilst on a larger Earth system scale, they affect climate and are thought to be key to the evolution of continental crust. The timescales over which an explosive andesitic stratovolcano switches from low-to-moderate explosive activity to cataclysmic Plinian eruption are fundamental in assessing volcanic hazards and safeguarding the lives of threatened human populations. Popocatépetl (Popo) volcano in Mexico is one of the most explosive andesitic stratovolcanoes in North America and one of the ten most populated active volcanoes in the world, threatening an overpopulated area (>20 million) including Mexico City. Its volcanic and magmatic history is well known and is characterised by a wide range of eruption styles including catastrophic Plinian events, effusive activity and moderate explosive Vulcanian activity separated by long but variable periods of quiescence. Key uncertainties at Popo (and in similar volcanoes) are the timescales over which the volcano reactivates or changes eruptive styles and whether these timescales relate to magma recharge of the system. The proposed work addresses these uncertainties via the following over-arching questions:
1) How and on what timescale do intermediate stratovolcanoes change their eruptive behaviour from low-to-moderate explosive activity to catastrophic Plinian eruption?
2) What (if any) is the relationship between timescales, eruptive style and magma recharge flux?
Popo represents a natural laboratory to answer these questions: by linking timescales derived from a variety of geochemical techniques to explore crystal residence times and crystal isotope stratigraphies we can determine the main cause(s) of the switch from moderate explosive eruption to highly-explosive catastrophic Plinian activity and inform hazard assessment on the timescales of magmatic processes and durations of quiescence that can be expected for different eruptive styles. We investigate the existing paradigm that an invers causal relationship exists between the flux of magma injection (i.e., frequency of mixing) and magnitude of volcanic eruption, at a constant crustal magma-supply rate. If flux of magma injection is directly related to explosive magnitude, then we would expect lower frequency of injection to eventually result in more explosive activity. Conversely, periods of high frequency of injection would be predicted to result in more effusive activity. A key question, therefore, is whether a distinct decrease in mixing frequency can be geochemically identified leading up to an explosive Plinian event?
We propose an innovative, multi-proxy approach combining crystal residence time and crystal isotope stratigraphy to provide a critical step forward in understanding past eruptive behaviour at Popo. Thus this work will enhance volcanic hazard assessment and provide a guideline for similar volcanic systems.

Planned Impact

The results of this research are widely applicable to people and governments living nearby explosive volcanoes worldwide. We aim to "export" our working tool (linking geospeedometry and crystal isotope stratigraphy to obtain a time-related model of past eruptive behaviour) in the form of dissemination of the results via the NHM website, international and local press and direct contact, with volcano monitoring centres. One immediate contact will be established with Colima and Central America Volcano Observatories. This is relatively easy to achieve given the link of PP Delgado with them. Contact with the STREVA group (see Academic Beneficiaries) has already been established and a constant dialogue will be in place to exchange results and build up on their expertise in raising volcanic hazard awareness among local communities. We also look to communicate with BGS Edinburgh (Dr. Susan Loughin). This would have a wide application and immediate impact as they advise on volcanoes worldwide.
The main wider impact of this research is on Mexican authorities via the possibility to time-constrain multiple pre-eruptive magmatic events at Popo offering a working model of Popocatepetl's past eruptive behaviour. We will offer this information to CENAPRED (Mexican National Centre of Disaster Prevention) and local authorities in the form of seminars explaining the main results linking timescales and dynamics of volcanic activity with different style of eruptions. The final aim is to set the ground for a future real-time petrologic "monitoring" tool linking the pattern of seismicity and gas emission with timescale of syn-eruptive events. This has several important implications for risk mitigation and hazard assessment, but in order to make that link it is important to have a good knowledge of magmatic timescales and a good understanding of the magmatic implication of petrologic timescale.
The project has direct impact on the Mexican local communities (i.e., Parque Nacional Itza-Popo), and on the local schools, which will be involved during the project via the NHM Nature Live School Outreach Program. The results of the project will be communicated and disseminated. By involving the local communities and engaging in a dialogue with the children on the impact of the volcano on their lives and how scientific research can mitigate the risk, we aim to inspire the next generation of scientists in this field and raise volcanic hazard awareness.
The results of the projects will be widely disseminate to primary and secondary schools from across the UK and to the general public of NHM (~5.5 million visitors per year) via the involvement of NHM Public Engagement and NHM School Program. We plan to design and run a specific workshop (see Pathway to Impact) aimed at: demonstrated how scientific research can make a difference in understanding and mitigating volcanic risk; inspire the next generation of scientists in this field; raise volcanic hazards awareness showing how scientists can help in tackling important societal issues.
The proposed project falls within the remit of the Resilience to Environmental Hazards strand of the NERC strategy. A major element of the project is to reconstruct a time-related model of Popocatepetl past eruptive behaviour with the final aim of contributing to a better understanding of the behaviour of volcanic systems and volcanic hazard assessment.
The project is relevant to Natural History Museum's science strategy and will open a completely new strand for NHM science that will fit with two of the Five Challenges of the strategy (Challenge 4: Natural Resource and Hazards, and Challenge 5: Science, Society and Skill). There has been a lot of public interest generated around the recent NHM fieldtrip to Popocatépetl and the new gallery Volcanoes and Earthquakes, reopened last January, hosts a section dedicated to Popo and related samples. The outcome of this project will further boost the interest of the public.
 
Description The award is finished and the results have been presented and discussed in Mexico with academics (UNAM) and civil protection (CENAPRED) to evaluate the impact on volcanic hazards in the area and future collaboration and follows up of the project. The results of the projects have been presented at national and international conferences and writing of the manuscripts is currently underway, in addition to the two published papers (Nature Communication and Geology) and one accepted in Volcanica.
The main results of the project are reported below.
Around 150 whole rocks samples, encompassing Plinian and interplinian phases from 40,000 to 1000 years BP at Popocatépetl have been collected by the PI and collaborators during three field campaigns (2013, 2015 and 2016) funded by this award and a Royal Society-Newton International Fund grant. All samples have been analysed for major and trace elements and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes (Martin et al., 2019, Volcanica). A detailed textural and mineral chemistry study has been conducted on all samples, and determination of timescales of pre-eruptive magmatic processes has been conducted on pyroxenes from three Plinian eruptions (14, 2 and 1kyrs) and three interplinian periods for a total of 120 crystal residence times determined so far. Other two Plinian eruptions (23 and <14kyrs), which were not in the immediate remit of the current award, are still under investigation and would be completed in the next few months.
Our detailed textural and chemical study of crystal cargo populations indicates that pyroxenes encapsulate the time-integrated history of pre-eruptive magmatic processes. They reveal the existence of an evolved-core crystal population type (Mg# opx < 70, cpx <77) and a mafic-core one (Mg# opx >80, cpx >85) clearly pointing to two separate storage reservoirs. Mafic compositional bands are common, suggesting the occurrence of frequent injections of mafic magma followed by mixing and hybridisation which originate a third pyroxene population characterized by hybrid-core (Mg# opx 70-80, cpx 75-85).
Fe-Mg elemental diffusion chronometry on pyroxenes (Petrone et al., 2016, Nat Comms) from 40,000 to 1,000 years BP, has allowed to build a chronostratigraphic eruptive history of Popocatépetl, which indicates that around 67% of interplinian pyroxenes record a mafic injection between 7 days and 1 year before the eruption testifying a clear causal link between injections and eruptions, similarly to the present-day activity where volcanic tremors precede the explosion of around 7-10 days. At the same time, 84% of pyroxenes in Plinian events record longer timescales between 2-500 years (with a clear peak at 50-500 years) and only a 10% of crystals record shorter timescales (<1-5 years). This suggests a higher remobilization potential of the associated mafic injections during Plinian eruption pointing to a major role of the volume of injections and/or volatile contents as major controlling factors in eruptive style and possibly a transition from open- to close-system.
Our recent thoroughly study of the past activity is also showing that the plumbing system of Popocatépetl is buffered by an integrative, compositionally stable and long-lived steady-state since at least the last 40,000 years. Our results are clearly challenging the paradigm of a causal link between injections and eruptions delineating a scenario of different triggering factors for effusive and explosive eruptions in a system nevertheless characterised by a plumbing system in substantial equilibrium in the last 40,000 years and they have important implication for the evolution of Present-day activity toward a Plinian eruption.
Exploitation Route In order to progress in volcanic risk mitigation it is necessary to understand how, if and when the present-day activity will evolve toward a Plinian eruption. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the current phase of activity building up from he findings of the current project. Discussion of follow-up project is currently underway with Mexican collaborators.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Environment,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Other

URL http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/origins-evolution-and-futures/popocatepetl-volcano.html
 
Description Findings have been communicate to CENAPRED, the Mexican Civil Protection agency, and a dialogue has been established. There will be follow up in the future.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Other
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Newton International Exchange - Royal Society
Amount £11,740 (GBP)
Funding ID IE140605 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2014 
End 11/2016
 
Title NGDC Digital Data Deposit Application 
Description Database deposited at NGDC Digital Data Deposit Application 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Complete set of data produced during the award, deposited at NGDC Digital Data Deposit Application and subject to 4 years embargo. 
 
Title NIDIS 
Description We have developed a new elemental diffusion chronometry to calculate timescales of pre-eruptive magmatic processes. The new Non-Isothermal Diffusion Incremental Step (NIDIS) model takes into account the non-isothermal nature of pre-eruptive magmatic processes, deconstructing the main core-rim diffusion profile of multi-zoned crystals into different isothermal steps. The model has been developed on the basis of diffusion profiles derived from high-resolution back-scattered electrons (BSE) images of zoned crystals. Two different Matlab codes have been developed to calculate: 1) the grey-scale profile from BSE images of the zoned boundary; 2) the best fit of the elemental diffusion equation to the grey-scale profile, which ultimately will provide the requested timescale. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Constraining the timescales of pre-eruptive magmatic processes in active volcanic systems is paramount to the understanding of magma chamber dynamics. The temporal information of magmatic processes is locked in the chemical zoning profile of crystals and can be unravelled by means of elemental diffusion chronometry. The NIDIS model represents a critical improvement on the reconstruction of the lifetime history of crystals and unravels the stepwise timescale at different temperatures providing a novel approach to constrain pre-eruptive magmatic processes and a step-forward in our understanding of magma chamber dynamics. The model will be provided to other research groups once it has been published. The paper is currently under review. The model has been published in Nature Communications: Petrone C.M., Bugatti G., Braschi E., Tommasini S., 2016. Pre-eruptive magmatic processes re-timed using a non-isothermal approach to magma chamber dynamics. Nat. Commun. 7, 12946 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12946 
URL https://github.com/cpetrone/NIDIS
 
Description Field trip Mexico and workshop in schools 
Organisation National Autonomous University of Mexico
Country Mexico 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Covering expenses for the field trip in Mexico, including samples shipping. Providing chemical and petrographic analysis of collected samples, data elaboration and interpretation. Providing materials and running school workshop in different schools around Popocatepelt volcano.
Collaborator Contribution Logistic support during field trip in Mexico, providing samples of the present day activity of Popocatepetl. Logistic support for the workshop in Mexican School and meeting with the stakeholders.
Impact Royal Society Grant Volcanic hazard awareness school workshops Chairing conference session at CoV9, CoV10 23 abstracts at international and national conferences
Start Year 2015
 
Description EU Research Night 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact EU Research Night is a public event run yearly by NHM , in which NHM scientists show their work to the general public. The outreach is significant, this year we had around 5800 visitors and over 60,000 conversation with researchers. During the event the current research on Popocatepetl volcano was presented to the general public with a focus on the impact of a large explosive eruption on the local population of about 20 million. I partecipate in a storytelling event and run experiments simulating volcanic eruptions during the event. The feedback from the public was extremely positive with lively questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
 
Description EU Research Night - Science Uncovered 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science Uncovered is a yearly event run by NHM during the EU research night, in which NHM scientists show their work to the general public. The outreach is significant, this year we had around 5800 visitors and over 60,000 conversation with researchers. During the event the current research on Popocatepetl volcano was presented to the general public with a focus on the impact of a large explosive eruption on the local population of about 20 million. Experiments simulating volcanic eruption were also run during the event. The feedback from the public was extremely positive with lively questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.nhm.ac.uk/visit/exhibitions/science-uncovered-2015.html
 
Description EU Research Night - Science Uncovered at Tring 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Science Uncovered is a yearly event run by NHM during the EU research night, in which NHM scientists show their work to the general public. The outreach is significant, this year we had around 5800 visitors and over 60,000 conversation with researchers. This year the Popocatepetl team went to Tring Museum to present their work on Popocatepetl. During the event the current research on Popocatepetl volcano was presented to the general public with a focus on the impact of a large explosive eruption on the local population of about 20 million. Experiments simulating volcanic eruption were also run during the event. The feedback from the public was extremely positive with lively questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.nhm.ac.uk/visit/tring/school-visits-at-tring/science-uncovered-tring.html
 
Description European Researcher's Night at the Paralamentarium (Brussels) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The PI Chiara Maria Petrone was invited by the EU to show case her work on Popocatépetl and raise awareness for volcanic hazards, during the "Science-is-wonderful" event at the Parliamentarium for the European Research's Night. The event took place over two days from the 25th to 27th September 2017 and saw the participation of thousands of people, including several schools. The PI was accompanied by PhD students Martin Mangler and Mihai Swift and they presented their activity titled: "volcano time bomb". They had a table full of volcanic rocks from Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico), a portable microscope with volcanic rocks in thin sections and their very special 3D-printed model of Popo. The team simulated eruptions with the 3D-printed miniature Popo. The volcanic eruptions have kept the team busy the entire 2 days with the general public keen to see the volcano in action to hear about the research behind it. It was a very popular event among both kids and adults and very successful couple of days for the team.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://ec.europa.eu/research/mariecurieactions/events/science-wonder-ful_en
 
Description Imperial Fringe "All around the world" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The entire team working on Popocatepetl participated in Imperial Fringe outreach event targeted at both the general public and school classes. Two undergraduate students, PhD student Martin Mangler, co-I Julie Prytulak and PI Chiara Maria Petrone used an exploding 3D model of Popocatepetl, supplemented by actual samples collected in Mexico to raise awareness of volcanic hazards in general and Popo specifically.
http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/eventssummary/event_14-10-2016-17-24-23
Advertised on website as: Make your own Mexican lava flows with the Natural History Museum's Chiara Petrone, our own Julie Prytulak, and their exploding 3D printed volcano
The event saw a good social media presence at #impfringe, @chpet and @imperialspark
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/eventssummary/event_14-10-2016-17-24-2...
 
Description Media Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Media interview by TV Azteca (Mexico) on Popocatepetl and the results of the NERC project _ May 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Nature Live 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The NHM Nature Live program is specifically designed to allow Museum Scientists to present their work to the public via free events open to all visitors. During 2015 two Nature Live events focussed on Popocatepetl volcano attracted more than 120 people. The initial results of the project were presented to the general public with the specific intent to raise volcanic hazards awareness. The NHM Attenborough studio was full during both events and the public was extremely engaged and interacted with questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Nature Live 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The NHM Nature Live program is specifically designed to allow Museum Scientists to present their work to the public via free events open to all visitors. During 2016 three Nature Live events focused on Popocatepetl volcano attracted more than 120 people from the general public. One event was specifically target to school. The current status of the project was presented to the general public with the specific intent to raise volcanic hazards awareness. The NHM Attenborough studio was full during the events and the public was extremely engaged and interacted with questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/origins-evolution-and-futures/popocatepetl-volcano.html
 
Description Nature Live at the Natural History Museum London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The NHM Nature Live program is specifically designed to allow Museum Scientists to present their work to the public via free events open to all visitors. During 2017 two Nature Live events, specifically targeted to A-level students, were run by the PI focusing on Popocatepetl volcano. They attracted more than 120 students. The current status of the project was presented to the A-level students with the specific intent to raise volcanic hazards awareness and the event was tailored to fit their school curricula. The NHM Attenborough studio was full during the events and the students were extremely engaged and interacted with questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.nhm.ac.uk/natureplus/community/nature-live/nature_live_-_meet_the_scientist?fromGateway=t...
 
Description New Scientist Live at Excel 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The entire team working on Popocatepetl (the Popocatepeople: PI Chiara Maria Petrone, PhD student Martin Mangler, MSci student Sam Hill, NHM Petrology Curator Epifanio Vaccaro) participated to the New Scientist Live event on September 24th. The event, organized by New Scientist, is a festival of ideas and discovery, taking place at ExCeL London (https://live.newscientist.com). It featured the biggest, best and most provocative science. The Popocatepeople had a table full of volcanic rocks from Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico), a portable microscope with volcanic rocks in thin sections and their very special 3D-printed model of Popo. The team simulated eruptions with the 3D-printed miniature Popo. The volcanic eruptions have kept the team busy the entire day with more than 250 people keen to see the volcano in action and keen to hear about the research behind it. It was a very popular event among both kids and adults and a successful day for the team. During this occasion, the PI Petrone branded the team as Popocatepeople providing them as a logo and T-shirts to be used in outreach events. The event saw a good social media presence @chpet, @nhm-science and on the NHM Popo web page: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/origins-evolution-and-futures/popocatepetl-volcano.html
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://live.newscientist.com
 
Description Popocatepetl blog and twitter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The field trip to Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico) in January-February 2015 was documented and publicised to the general public via a blog and twitter entries via the account @chpet. The blog was hosted on the NHM website and had over 1000 viewer per entry. It can be found at the following address: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/natureplus/community/research/earth_sciences_news/blog/2015/01/22/popocatépetl-cloudy-with-a-chance-of-plinian-eruption-part-i-from-downtown-london-to-sky-high-mexico-in-24-hours.
In addition a web page dedicated to the project has been created on the NHM website at the following address: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/origins-evolution-and-futures/popocatepetl-volcano.html
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/origins-evolution-and-futures/popocatepetl-volcano.html
 
Description Popocatepetl blog and twitter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The field trip to Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico) in March 2016 was documented and publicized to the general public via a blog and twitter entries via the account @chpet, which can be viewed here http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/origins-evolution-and-futures/popocatepetl-volcano.html. The blog was hosted on the NHM website and had over 1000 viewer per entry. It can be found at the following address: https://blog.nhm.ac.uk/author/lavamangler/. In addition, a web page dedicated to the project has been created on the NHM website at the following address: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/origins- evolution-and-futures/popocatepetl-volcano.html
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/origins-evolution-and-futures/popocatepetl-volcano.html
 
Description Public talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact During 2018 the PI gave three public lectures while visiting Mexico, one at CENPRED, the Mexican Civil protection, and two at University Department of UNAM in Mexico City and Queretaro. All talks were aimed to present the results of this award and were aimed at colleagues, students and professionals. Details are as follows:
• CENAPRED (Mexico) -"Descifrando el reloj eruptive del Volcano Popocatepetl" - 21 May 2018
• UNAM Mexico, Instituto de Geofisica, Institute Seminar Series - "Timescales of magma mixing at Popocatepetl volcano" - 21st May 2018
• UNAM Queretaro, Centro de Geociencias, Special Seminar - "Deciphering the eruptive clock at Popocatepetl volcano" - 28th May 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact During 2015 the PI was invited to give two public lectures at two local societies: Bracknell Forest Natural History Society and Oxford Geology Group. Both lectures were focused on explosive volcanic hazards in overpopulated areas with an emphasis on Popocatepetl volcano and the initial results of this award. The audience was interested and engaged, which resulted in a lively discussions afterwards. The feedback was extremely positive on both occasions with a clear indication of increased understanding on the issue of volcanic hazard.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Public talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact During 2016 the PI was invited to give three public lectures at: Birkbeck Student Geological Society, UNIEL (Third Ages University, Italy) and Horsham Geological Field Club. The three lectures were focused on explosive volcanic hazards in overpopulated areas with an emphasis on Popocatepetl volcano and the current results of this award. The audience was interested and engaged, which resulted in a lively discussion afterwards. The feedback was extremely positive on both occasions with a clear indication of increased understanding on the issue of volcanic hazard. Details of the public lectures are given below:
• Horsham Geological Field Club - "Popocatépetl a ticking time bomb" - 8 February 2017
• UNIEL Università dell'Età Libera (Pratovecchio, Italy) - "Tales form crystals: a probe into an active volcano" - 19th April 2016
• Birkbeck Student Geological Society - Lecture Series: "The ticking eruptive clock at active volcanoes" - 19th February 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact During 2017/early 2018 the PI was invited to give two public lectures at: Horsham Geological Field Club and Farnham Geological Society. The lectures were focused on explosive volcanic hazards in overpopulated areas with an emphasis on Popocatepetl volcano and the current results of this award. The audience was interested and engaged, which resulted in a lively discussion afterwards. The feedback was extremely positive on both occasions with a clear indication of increased understanding on the issue of volcanic hazard. Details of the public lectures are given below:
" Farnham Geological Society - "The danger and the beauty of explosive volcanoes" - 9 February 2018
" Horsham Geological Field Club - "Popocatépetl a ticking time bomb" - 8 February 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Public talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The PI has presented the results of the current award to local societies and schools:
• Crystal Scientifique Society - "The danger and the beauty of explosive volcanoes" - 5 March 2019
• William Perkin High School (London ) - "Volcanic eruptions and their impact" - 11 February 2019
• Horsham Geological Field Club - "A stroll around active volcanoes" - 10 October 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL http://www.cafescientifique.org/index.php?option=com_contentbuilder&title=uk-london-crystal-palace&c...
 
Description School visit Dorchester 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Over 200 students Y7 to Y10 from about 10 different schools of the Dorchester (UK) area visited the Thomas Hardye School in Dorchester (UK) for an open day preceding the Lyme Regis Fossil Festival. The student have been engaged in activity to raise awareness of volcanic hazards in overpopulated areas using as example Popocatepetl Volcano and this current research. The students were engaged and interested and there was a general increased interested in related subject areas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description School workshop at a primary school 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School workshop at a primary school (8 years old) in Florence (Italy) on volcanoes and their impact - 25 February 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description School workshop in Florence 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School workshop at a primary school (8 years old) in Florence (Italy) on volcanoes and their impact - 25 February 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description School workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School workshops on the activity of Popocatepetl and volcanic hazard. The main aim was to raise volcanic hazard awareness in children living in the Popocatepetl's volcanic area. Primary and Secondary schools in Amecameca (Mexico) - 22nd and 24th May 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Science Uncovered 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science Uncovered is a yearly event run by NHM during the EU research night, in which NHM scientists show their work to the general public. The outreach is significant, this year we had around 5800 visitors and over 60,000 conversation with researchers. During the event the current research on Popocatepetl volcano was presented to the general public with a focus on the impact of a large explosive eruption on the local population of about 20 million. Experiments simulating volcanic eruption, using the 3D-printed miniature Popo, were also run during the event. The feedback from the public was extremely positive with lively questions and discussion.
PI Petrone also took part in the Storytelling event talking about the impact of the 2000 years ago eruption on the people living in Tetimpa a small village on the east side of Popocatepetl.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.nhm.ac.uk/visit/exhibitions/science-uncovered-2016.html
 
Description Talk at New Scientist Live at ExCel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The PI was invited to give a public lecture during the New Scientist Live at Excel London event, organised by New Scientist on 22-25 September 2016 (https://live.newscientist.com). The event is a festival of ideas and discovery, taking place at ExCeL London (https://live.newscientist.com). It featured the biggest, best and most provocative science. The PI Petrone was invited to present her research on Popocatépetl volcano on the Earth Stage. She gave a public talk entitle "Volcano ticking time bomb" on the 24th September 2016. More than 300 people listened to the talk and the Q&A afterward was extremely successful and interesting. More details can be found here: https://live.newscientist.com/chiara-maria-petrone/
The event saw a good social media presence @chpet, @nhm-science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://live.newscientist.com/chiara-maria-petrone/
 
Description The Great Exhibition Road Festival 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Table activity during The Great Exhibition Road Festival 2019, South Kensington, London 29-30 June 2019. At the table we showcased: 1) volcanic eruption with a 3D volcano model of Popocatepetl volcano; 2) talked about role of scientists, stakeholders and local population during volcanic eruption engaging the public with a model of Poppercatepetl (an erupting volcano simulated by popper loaded with increasing amount of water); 3) talked about the science we do using rock specimen form Popocatepetl.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.discoversouthken.com/discover-more/great-exhibition-road-festival/
 
Description UCL Women in Earth Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A talk at UCL earth Science Department for their Women in Earth Sciences Series - "Timing volcanic eruptions: deciphering minerals time-related information", 31 January 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description V&A Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk at V&A Museum titled "A day in the life of a volcanologist" in the frame of The Great Exhibition Road Festival 29 June 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.discoversouthken.com/discover-more/great-exhibition-road-festival/
 
Description Volcanic hazard awareness school workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact During the field trip to Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico) in March 2016 the team working on Popocatepetl (PI Chiara Maria Petrone, PP Hugo Delgado-Granados, student Martin Mangler), run a workshop in a school at Tetela del Volcán (Mexico), a village on the slope of Popo. The main aim was to raise volcanic hazard awareness in children living in the Popo's volcanic area. A detailed account of the workshop has been published on National Geographic Blog and can be found here: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/08/3d-printed-volcano-map-popocatepetl-mexico/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/08/3d-printed-volcano-map-popocatepetl-mexico/
 
Description West Sussex Geological Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A public talk at West Sussex Geological Society - "Volcano psychology: understanding the eruptive clock at active volcanoes", 18 October 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.wsgs.org.uk/1202_wsgs_002.htm
 
Description William Perkin High School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A talk at William Perkin High School in London - "Volcanoes" - 25 November 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019