Grazing behaviour, urine composition and soil properties are key drivers of nitrous oxide emissions from livestock urine in the uplands (Uplands-N2O)

Lead Research Organisation: Bangor University
Department Name: Sch of Natural Sciences

Abstract

The aim of this project is to develop an improved understanding of the spatial and temporal interactions between grazing behaviour, forage selection, urine composition and edaphic conditions and to use the insights garnered to improve the accuracy of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates from contrasting semi-improved and unimproved upland grazed pastures in the UK. This is of major importance because (1) urine patches are a significant source of N2O; ca. 19% of the total N2O losses from agriculture, and (2) N2O losses from upland systems are highly uncertain. Current methods of estimating emissions from urine patches ignore the effect that livestock diet, soil type, soil physico-chemical properties and climate have on N2O fluxes. For example, urine N content varies with protein intake, and the metabolic product in the urine (known to affect N2O production) is affected by what livestock graze. Vegetation in different upland areas varies enormously, with diet selection operating in both systems. Hence it is important to link urine composition to animal movement and diet selection.

Soils in the uplands are dominated by peats and podzols with high carbon content and low pH, influenced by cool, wet climates and topography. These factors will also exert systematic controls on rates of N2O fluxes which are likely to be exacerbated following urine deposition. Moreover, the vegetation in different upland areas influences stocking densities and the consequent potential for urine patch overlap, resulting in disproportionate N2O emissions in areas receiving high N loading rates. Soil in these areas can become compacted due to livestock trampling, reducing air filled pore space, increasing anaerobicity and enhancing conditions for N2O losses via denitrification. It is, therefore, essential to establish the relationships between urine composition (the result of grazing preference), soil type, soil physico-chemical properties (which might be influenced by topographic effects on hydrology) and climate in order to generate improved N2O flux estimates, emission factors and carbon footprints from livestock production.

We will address these knowledge gaps through a combination of:
i) Fine-scale mapping of 'static' factors controlling N2O fluxes, i.e. topography, soil type, vegetation type and soil compaction, using high resolution remotely sensed imaging over contrasting upland areas
ii) Mapping of the 'mobile' factors controlling N2O fluxes, i.e. measuring livestock movement and grazing patterns in these two grassland systems using GPS collars, and observing urination events
iii) Collection of urine from sheep grazing dominant vegetation types and relating the urine composition to dietary preference
iv) Measurement of N2O fluxes following the application of collected urine to soil under typical vegetation types, and calculation of robust urine direct N2O emission factors over a 12 month period
v) Conducting controlled replicated experiments to explore the factors controlling N2O fluxes from soil from contrasting field sites (e.g. changing urine composition, water content and levels of compaction)
vi) Developing a novel model framework to predict the statistics of animal occupancy and to integrate predicted urine emissions with spatial and temporal information of landscape-scale explanatory factors in order to quantify aggregate N2O emissions for upland pastures

Uniquely, we will gain improved understanding of the spatial and temporal interactions between grazing patterns, forage choice, urine composition, soil and climate factors and N2O fluxes in upland systems. Outputs from the project will be compared with IPCC Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches for estimating N2O emissions from livestock grazing in the UK and provide the basis for robust and scientifically defensible alterations to standard inventory approaches, if required, along with inputs to carbon footprinting and to the spatial targeting of mitigation practices.

Planned Impact

The outputs of this research will impact on society and the economy by influencing the:
SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY: Our research will inform scientists working in several areas of research e.g. livestock behaviour, grazing management, ruminant nutrition, GHG emissions and modelling. The unique synthesis of the information generated by this project bridges the gap between research which focusses on dietary preference, food production and nutrient/energy balances, and research which focusses on quantifying the impact of soil amendments on N2O emissions from soils. It will link dietary preferences to soil function in contrasting grassland upland pastures using monitoring and observation, mapping, field and laboratory based measurements, all synthesised in a spatially explicit model.
The project strengthens existing research links on GHG emissions and mitigation between Bangor and RRes-North Wyke, and initiates a new collaboration with Cranfield and Leicester Universities in highly complementary disciplines. Chadwick represents the UK in the Livestock Research Group of the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural GHGs. He also leads the UK GHG Platform project to Improve the Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Inventory for Nitrous oxide (http://www.ghgplatform.org.uk/). Cardenas is responsible for the collation and submission of the UK Agriculture GHG inventory. She is also part of the consortium project to deliver the new Tier 2 GHG inventory for agriculture. Perotto-Baldivieso has worked with GPS collars and spatial analysis in the Caribbean and the United States. He has been the president of the International Affairs Committee for the Society for Range Management (2008-2009). We will raise awareness of this project through these networks, and demonstrate the importance of moving to a more sophisticated approach to reflect the effect of dietary preference on direct N2O emissions.
Participation at International conferences will help communicate results and generate interest for future work. The Nitrogen Workshop (in2016/7) attracts researchers mostly from Europe on all aspects of nitrogen cycling, whilst the International Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture Conference in Melbourne (2016) represent a tremendous opportunity to discuss initial research findings and project goals with researchers from outside Europe.
POLICY COMMUNITY: Results from monitoring of livestock movement at the field and landscape scale, offers the opportunity to explore where targeted mitigation strategies could be cost-effective, e.g. through the use of inhibitors to reduce N2O emissions from hot-spots, or through the frequent moving of feeders. Results could prove N2O emission factors (EFs) from urine to be much lower/larger than the IPCC value due to interactions of urine composition, soil properties and climate, with important policy implications re: improving national inventories.
As part of the GHG Platform, Chadwick and Cardenas are regularly invited to give oral presentations to various audiences; policy makers, farmers and industry, providing opportunities to communicate the findings of this project.
INDUSTRY: Research findings will be communicated to the livestock industry, which has set its own targets for GHG mitigation. Our results will be of interest to them, from an EF point of view, but also in terms of development of mitigation strategies, and in the carbon foot printing of their products for comparison with competing countries, such as New Zealand lamb.
WIDER COMMUNITY: A web page on the Bangor website will provide information on the project and its results. Different aspects of the project will be used for teaching at Bangor, Cranfield and Leicester, generating student projects, and will be presented at annual 'tours' of experiments at RRes-North Wyke and Bangor. We will also feature the project in School Science Week, using visualisation of animal 'movement's to stimulate wider discussion about livestock production and the environment.

Publications

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Ciganda V (2019) Soil nitrous oxide emissions from grassland: Potential inhibitor effect of hippuric acid in Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science

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Marsden K (2016) The urine patch diffusional area: An important N 2 O source? in Soil Biology and Biochemistry

 
Description Indications from the plot-scale experiments on two upland pastures are that the nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the urine patches deposited on upland soils are much lower than N2O emissions following urine deposition to lowland mineral soils. Our data suggest that this is due to the low pH of the upland soils, and the low nitrification rates which reduce the available NO3 pool for denitrification.

We are now collating the data from a 15N labelled urine experiment to determin the facte of urine-N in these upland soils

We have developed a non-invasive method for identifying urination events by individual ewes, which cupled with GPS position of the ewe, allows us to determine where in the landscape sheep urine deposition occurs..

We have shown that sheep movement trhough the landscape can be predicted using simple rules
Exploitation Route The urine N2O emission factor data represent part of an evidence base, which will be used in the future to generate sheep sepcific N2O EFs for grazing returms (urine +dung dsposited at grazing), and ultimately urine N2O EFs for urine deposited on acid organic soils, such as those found in the uplands,
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://uplands-n2o.bangor.ac.uk/sheep-results.php.en
 
Description The findings have been discussed with visiting farming discussion groups and researchers - and showcased in the Welsh S4C farming programme Ffermio, as a significantly lowerurine patch N2O EF for upland sheep could result in a lower C footprint for lamd reared in the Uplands. Implications of these low N2O emissions from urine deposited onto acidic organic upland soils has been discussed with Industry, Policy and Academic representatives, becasuse of the potential impact that this could have on the emissions inventory from sheep industry, and the carbon footprint for pland reared lamb. Results were alos recently dsicussed on ITV Wales in relation to livestock's role in upland farming.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Discovery of New Nitrification inhibitors (Phase II)
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Global Partnerships in Livestock Emissions Research 
Sector Public
Country New Zealand
Start 01/2019 
End 07/2020
 
Description Environmental Footprinting of Upland Reared Lamb
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Bangor University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 01/2021
 
Description GCRF-IAA
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 02/2017
 
Description Lawes and Gilbert PhD Studentship-Patricia Grau
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rothamsted Research 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Marie Curie Global Fellowship
Amount € 276,100 (EUR)
Funding ID EU proposal 796830 
Organisation Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Global
Start 11/2018 
End 10/2021
 
Description Revision of 'Development of good practice guidelines for nitrous oxide emission measurements using chambers ' for the Global Research Alliance
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation Global Partnerships in Livestock Emissions Research 
Sector Public
Country New Zealand
Start 03/2019 
End 05/2020
 
Description STARS (Soils Training and Research Students) Centre of Doctoral Training
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description STARS Centre for Doctoral Training-Harry Barrat
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/M009106/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 03/2021
 
Title Development of a sheep urination sensor based on micro-accelerometry 
Description We have developed a sensor to assess when and for how longa sheep urinates for. This is based on micro-accelerometers that are palced ina unit that is stuck onto the back of a sheep. Data are logged and retrieved once the sheep are gathered. Software was developed to recognise the characteristic digital signature from the triaxial accelerometer. This approach has been published: Lush, L., Wilson, R.P., Holton, M.D., Hopkins, P., Marsden, K.A., Chadwick, D.R. and King, A.J., 2018. Classification of sheep urination events using accelerometers to aid improved measurements of livestock contributions to nitrous oxide emissions. Computers and electronics in agriculture, 150, pp.170-177. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not aware of any wider impacts at this stage. 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168169917313017
 
Title Database of nitrous oxide emissions from the application of livestock urine to soils in a lab incubation 
Description Several incubations were carried out where sheep urine was applied to soil under different conditions of temperature, soil moisture, N concentration and volume of urine, soil type. Data comprises Nitrous oxide, nitrogen gas, nitric oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions as well as soil N, C and microbiology 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This data is been used to inform a model that will comprise different parameters from this project, including field emissions, vegetation, soil physical and chemical parameters. Also included is urine composition and potential relationship to pasture consumed by livestock. The data is also been used in statistical analysis including multivariate and Taguchi. 
 
Title Sheep movement data for a 350 ha heft on common grazing land 
Description GPS collars and micro-accelerometers (to estimate urination events) were fitted to 30 barren ewes during the 2017 grazing season. There were 2 deployments, mid and late grazing. The ewes grazed a 350ha heft of common grazing land near Henfaes Research Centre, Bangor. The data provide sub-hourly GPS positions of the sheep, as well as indications of where and when the sheep were urinating on the pasture. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The data indicate that sheep restrict there movement to their 350ha heft, and that there are some hotspot areas of occupation. 
 
Title Sheep movement data for an enclosed upland pasture 
Description GPS collars and micro-accelerometers (to estimate urination events) were fitted to 30 barren ewes during the 2016 grazing season. There were 2 deployments, mid and late grazing. The ewes grazed an 11ha pasture in the enclosed upland at Henfaes REsearch Centre, Bangor. The data provide sub-hourly GPS positions of the sheep, as well as indications of where and when the sheep were urinating on the pasture. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The data indicate that sheep avoid certain areas of the 11ha field, and that there are some hotspot areas of occupation. 
 
Title Sheep urine N2O emissions from mountain soil 
Description We measured N2O emissions from sheep urine applied to soil in the upland pasture of the Carneddau Mountains, nr Bangor. We applied sheep urine in the spring and summer of 2017 and emasured N2O fluxes for 12 months. We also measured soil mineral N content during the same period. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We found very low N2O emissions from this soil.The data add to the evidence base that we should explore the development and use of separate N2O EFs for excreta deposited in upland pastures compared with lowland pastures. 
 
Title Sheep urine patch greenhouse gas emissions from a semi-improved upland grassland in North Wales, UK 
Description Daily fluxes of N2O emissions were measured from sheep urine patches established on the middle fridd (enclosed uplands) at Henfaes Research Centre, Bangor) in Spring and Autumn 2016. Soil mineral N concentrations were measured during the same period. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We found very low N2O emissions from this soil. These data have been used to publish a paper: Marsden, K.A., Holmberg, J.A., Jones, D.L., Chadwick, D.R. 2018. Sheep urine patch N2O emissions are lower from extensively-managed than intensively-managed grasslands. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 265, 264-274.The data suggest that we should explore the development and use of separate N2O EFs for excreta deposited in upland pastures compared with lowland pastures. 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/0434c74c-4a8e-45b8-a187-13e422c0ed0f
 
Title Soil spatial survey from lowland sheep 2016 
Description Soils and greenhouse gas measurements in a sheep grazed field were carried out to match measurements on the uplands sheep in Wales 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This data will be useful for making correlations between soil and gas measurements. This will provide knowledge on whether proxies can be used to estimate emissions from soils. 
 
Description Alice Charteris - 6-week visit to Institute of Bio- and Geosciences Agrosphere (IBG-3), Forshungszentrum Jülich, Germany (part-funded by the German Academic Exchange Service; Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst; DAAD) - 26/09/2018 - 9/11/2018. 
Organisation Julich Research Centre
Department Institute of Bio and Geosciences 1 (IBG-1)
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Alice Charteris - 6-week visit to Institute of Bio- and Geosciences Agrosphere (IBG-3), Forshungszentrum Jülich, Germany (part-funded by the German Academic Exchange Service; Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst; DAAD) - 26/09/2018 - 9/11/2018.
Collaborator Contribution Alongside networking, collaboration and the experience of working abroad in a different laboratory/group, the specific goals of the visit were to: • learn the analytical techniques used for nitrous oxide isotopomer analysis and analyse some soil headspace samples collected during experiments conducted earlier in North Wyke as part of the Uplands-N2O project (we do not have access to the required instrumentation at Rothamsted Research) • learn the procedures for soil hydroxylamine extraction and concentration analysis and analyse the samples stored from a previous assessment of the spatial variability of nitrous oxide emissions from Welsh unimproved common grazing land for the Uplands-N2O project (this technique was recently developed by the group at Forshungszentrum Jülich). Both sets of analyses have been conducted and plans are in place for future collaboration.
Impact A manuscript is being developed.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Leicester University 
Organisation University of Leicester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bangor University leads this NERC project, with LEicester providing modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Leicester are synthesising the 'layers' of information generated in the project, on: remote sensing of spatial vegetation cover of the upland pastures, spatial soil characteristics, sheep movement, N2O fluxes from fieldf-based and lab-based urine pacthes to generate a statistical model of urine N2O emissions at the landscape scale. Leicester are also modelling sheep movement.
Impact A poster abstratc for the 2016 Global Farm Platform Confernece. A poster abstarct for the 2016 Nitrogen Workshop. A 2017 poster abstract for the 2017 EGU Conference.
Start Year 2015
 
Description National Trust 
Organisation National Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution This project requires access to a site in the Carneddau Mountains. The National Trust have given permission for the project to use this site.
Collaborator Contribution The National Trust were consulted about using a field site in the Carneddau Mountains, and have given permission to use it.
Impact No direct outputs yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Rothamsted Research -North Wyke 
Organisation Rothamsted Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bangor leads this NERC project, with RRes providing essential input to the mechanistic understanding of factors controlling N2O fluxes from UPland soils in NW Wales. So Bangor Univ provide the soils for RRes to work with.
Collaborator Contribution RRes are using their denitrification system to explore the key controls of N2O and N2 fluxes form Upland acid soils. These data will be used by Leicester Univ in the modelling component of the project.
Impact Outputs from the Uplands-N2O project partnership with RRes include: Poster abstracts to the 2016 Global Farm Platform Conference, the 2016 Nitrogen Workshop, the 2017 EGU Conference, and the 2017 Sustainable Intensification Conference.
 
Description Snowdonia National Park 
Organisation Snowdonia National Park Authority
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution This project needs access to a research site in the Carneddau Mountains, in Snowdonia NAtional Park
Collaborator Contribution Snowdonia National Park were consulted about use of this experimental site, and providied advices about location of equipment and fencing. They gave permission for the project to use the site.
Impact No specific outputs with the National Park..
Start Year 2015
 
Description Swansea University 
Organisation Swansea University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution BAngor University lead this NERC project, with Swansea University providing expertise in livestock behaviour. So BAngor provides the sheep that Swansea equipme with sensors to track their movement and urination events when grazing upland pastures.
Collaborator Contribution Swansea Univ are tracking the GPS movements of sheep in upland pastures, as well as detecting urination events (when, where and how long) - so the project can make better estimations of what sheep are eating, how this effects their urine composition, where (what soil & topography) urine is deposited on, and hence make better measurements and estimations of N2O emisisons from urine patches in the uplands
Impact A poster abstract to the Nitrogen Workshop in 2016.A poster abstract to the Global Farm Platform Project in 2016.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Texas A & M 
Organisation Texas A&M University-Central Texas
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution BAngor leads this NERC project, with Texas A & M providing advice and expertise in Livestock behaviour.
Collaborator Contribution Texas A & M provide advice and expertise in ruminant grazing behaviour.Dr. Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso has expertise in Landscape ecology, spatial analysis, remote sensing, and GIS, and is advising on appropriate methods for synthesising and intepreting datasets produced in the project.
Impact A poster abstract for the 2016 Nitrogen Workshop. A poster abstract for the 2016 Global Farm Platform Confernece.
Start Year 2015
 
Description The Ramblers Association 
Organisation Ramblers Association
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution this NERC project has a field site in the Carneddau Mountains that is immediately next to a major footpath between the Conwy Valley and Bangor. We contacted the Ramblers Association to ask for their views about this. As a result of this interaction, we put up an information board (in English and Welsh) summarising what the project was about and what the equipment was used for.
Collaborator Contribution Following ineraction with the Ramblers Association we put up information boards (in English and Welsh) at the project field site thatw as adjacent to tha major footpath summarising what the project was about and what the equipment was used for.
Impact No direct outputs yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description @UplandsN2O twitter account set up 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We recentyl set up an @UplandsN2O twitter account
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Agent based modelling of sheep movement and urine deposition to support N2O emission estimates in upland pastures. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Nitrogen Workshop 2018, Rennes. 25th - 27th June 2018.

Poster presentation by Johnson, S.C.M., Whelan, M.J., Balzter, H., Lush, L., King, A.J., Perotto-Baldivieso, H.L., Cardenas, L.M., Charteris, A.F., Marsden, K.A., Harris, I., Holmberg, J., Chadwick D.R.,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Capital FM (Wales). Marsden - Radio Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio station Capital FM (Wales) interviewed the new post-doc at Bangor University, Karina Marsden about greenhouse gas emissions in Wales, and especially the role of urine patches of grazing livestock in the uplands.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conferene presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A conference presentation, Quantification of sheep urine patch N2O emission factors from extensively grazed grasslands, at the Greenhouse Gas Animal Agriculture Conference, Brazil
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.ggaa2019.org/sites/default/files/ProgramBook-GGAA-2019.pdf
 
Description EGU COnference Poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A poster, "Laboratory incubation experiments assessing the factor interactions affecting urine-derived nitrous oxide emissions from spatially and temporally variable upland pastures " was presented at the EGU meeting in April 2017. Authored by: Alice Charteris, Nadine Loick, Karina Marsden, Dave Chadwick, Mick Whelan, Sreenivas Ravella, Andrew Mead and Laura Cardenas
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Exploring the spatial variability of N2O emissions from a grazed upland and lowland site. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Nitrogen Workshop 2018, Rennes. 25-27 June 2018.

A presentation Cardenas, L.M., Charteris, A.F., Harris, P., Marsden, K.A., Harris, I., Guo, Z., Beaumont, D.A., Taylor, H., Sanfratello, G., Jones, D.L., Whelan, M.J., Chadwick, D.R
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description GGAA2016, Melbourne Oral presentation and Abstract Marsden et al (2016) Disentangling the effect of sheep urine patch size and N loading rate on cumulative N2O emissions. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Kara Marsden (Bangor Univ post-doc) presented at the Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture Confernece in January 2016, Melbourne. The presentation and abstract was called: Disentangling the effect of sheep urine patch size and N loading rate on cumulative N2O emissions, and included slides showcasing the plans for the Uplands-N2O project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Global Farm Platform Conference Poster and Abstract: Cardenas et al (2016) Grazing behaviour, urine composition and soil properties are key drivers of nitrous oxide emissions from livestock urine in the uplands (Uplands-N2O) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Laura Cardenas (Co-I at Rothamsted Research) presented a poster and abstract at the Global Farm Platform Conference, Grazing behaviour, urine composition and soil properties are key drivers of nitrous oxide emissions from livestock urine in the uplands (Uplands-N2O)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interactive effects of the factors controlling urine-N2O emissions from an upland soil. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Nitrogen Workshop 2018, Rennes. 25th - 27th June 2018.

Poster presentation by Charteris, A.F., Marsden, K.A., Castellano-Hinojosa, A., Loick, N., Chadwick, D.R., Ravella, S.R., Mead, A., Field, N., Whelan, M.J., Cárdenas, L.M
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Interviewed for ITV Wales about the role of livestock in the uplands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was interviewed by ITV Wales for a programme on livestock production in Wales 'Wales this Week - Farmers under fire'. I was asked to describe our follow on research from the Uplands-N2O project, and our throughts on the role of livestock in the management of the uplands. Broadcast on 9th March 2020 (8pm). https://www.itv.com/walesprogrammes/wales-this-week
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description N Workshop (Sweden) Poster and abstract: Cardenas et al. (2016) Grazing behaviour, urine composition and soil properties are key drivers of nitrous oxide emissions from livestock urine in extensive systems (Uplands-N2O) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Laura Cardenas (Co-I at Rothamsted Research) presented a poster and abstract at the Nitrogen Workshop (Sweden). Title: Grazing behaviour, urine composition and soil properties are key drivers of nitrous oxide emissions from livestock urine in extensive systems (Uplands-N2O)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at the 20th International Nitrogen Workshop 2018, Rennes, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of the paper: Interactive effects of the factors controlling urine-N2O emissions from an upland soil by: Charteris, Marsden, Castellano-Hinojosa, Loick, Chadwick, Ravella, Mead, Field, Whelan, Cardenas
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Press releases: No laughing matter: new research to study nitrous oxide from sheep urine patches in the uplands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press releases were made by the individual project partners. This resulted in a number of articles in local press.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description RDF NRN Workshop on Sensors and Sensing Technologies. Poster Marsden et al (2016). Grazing behaviour, urine composition and soil properties are key drivers of nitrous oxide emissions from livestock urine in extensive systems (Uplands-N2O) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Kara Marsden (post-doc at Bangor University) presented a poster at an RDF NRN Workshop on Sensors and Sensing Technologies, at Henfaes REsearch Centre (June 2016). Grazing behaviour, urine composition and soil properties are key drivers of nitrous oxide emissions from livestock urine in extensive systems (Uplands-N2O)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Rory Wilson demonstrated daily diary tags and ability to detect urination events in sheep at the RDF NRN Sensors and Sensing Technologies Workshop, Henfaes Research Centre, Bangor in 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Rory Wilson demonstrated daily diary tags and ability to detect urination events in sheep at the RDF NRN Sensors and Sensing Technologies Workshop, Henfaes Research Centre, Bangor in June 2016. This Workshop was aimed at bringing together developers and users of sensors to optimise resource use in the agricultural landscape. IF focussed on livestock systems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Soil Security Programme news item: Marsden (2016) Improving the accuracy of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates from extensively grazed grassland systems. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Kara Marsden, the Bangor University post-doc, offered a news item for the Soil Security Programme newsletter. It was called: Improving the accuracy of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates from extensively grazed grassland systems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Sustainable Intensification Workshop (RRes) poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A poster was presented at this National Conference on Sustainable Intensification held at Rothamsted Research (Harpenden) in November 2017. The poster was called, "Using factorial design in laboratory incubation experiments to develop simple indicators of greenhouse gas fluxes", and was co-authored by Alice Charteris, Nadine Loick, Karina Marsden, Dave Chadwick, Mick Whelan, Sreenivas Ravella, Andrew Mead and Laura Cardenas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description TV Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact S4C interviewed the project PI and Bangor Univ post-doc about the project for the Welsh Farming programme, Ffermio, We discussed the aims of the project, the approach, and potential outcomes for Upland livestock farmers. The interviews and filming took place at the Mountain field site (in the Carneddau Mountains) , and in the laboratory at Environment Centre Wales (Bangor Univ) in early February 2018. The programme was broadcast in mif February.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Teaching module in CIHEAM, Zaragoza, Spain, 14-16/3/2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Laura Cardenas taught a module in the course: 'Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture: concepts, methods and simulation tools'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Uplands-N2O website was created: http://uplands-n2o.bangor.ac.uk/. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Uplands-N2O website: http://uplands-n2o.bangor.ac.uk/, was set up to increase awareness of the project and provide regular updates of results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://uplands-n2o.bangor.ac.uk/
 
Description What limits sheep urine-N2O emissions in the uplands: nitrification or C availability? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Nitrogen Workshop 2018, Rennes. 25th - 27th June 2018.

Presentation by Marsden, K.A., Holmberg, J.A., Jones, D.L., Charteris, A.F., Cárdenas, L.M. and Chadwick, D.R
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Where the seeds of modern statistics were sown 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project and specifically the RRes experiments in the DENIS system were featured in:
LangkjærBain, R. (2018), Where the seeds of modern statistics were sown. Significance, 15: 14-19. doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2018.01144.x
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Yorkshire Dales LFA Farmer Group visit to Henfaes Research Centre - Summer 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A group of Yorkshire Dale LFA farmers visited HEnfaes Research Centre, BAngor University, and we took them to see the Uplands-N2O field site where N2O emissions were being measured from urine patches. This stimulated discussion about carbons storage in soils and carbon footprinting of lamb from upland systems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016