BLACK and BLOOM: variations in the albedo of the Greenland Ice Sheet as a result of interactions between microbes and particulates.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Bristol
Department Name: Geographical Sciences


Concerns are growing about how much melting occurs on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), and how much this melting will contribute to sea level rise (1). It seems that the amount of melting is accelerating and that the impact on sea level rise is over 1 mm each year (2). This information is of concern to governmental policy makers around the world because of the risk to viability of populated coastal and low-lying areas. There is currently a great scientific need to predict the amount of melting that will occur on the surface of the GrIS over the coming decades (3), since the uncertainties are high. The current models which are used to predict the amount of melting in a warmer climate rely heavily on determining the albedo, the ratio of how reflective the snow cover and the ice surface are to incoming solar energy. Surfaces which are whiter are said to have higher albedo, reflect more sunlight and melt less. Surfaces which are darker adsorb more sunlight and so melt more. Just how the albedo varies over time depends on a number of factors, including how wet the snow and ice is. One important factor that has been missed to date is bio-albedo. Each drop of water in wet snow and ice contains thousands of tiny microorganisms, mostly algae and cyanobacteria, which are pigmented - they have a built in sunblock - to protect them from sunlight. These algae and cyanobacteria have a large impact on the albedo, lowering it significantly. They also glue together dust particles that are swept out of the air by the falling snow. These dust particles also contain soot from industrial activity and forest fires, and so the mix of pigmented microbes and dark dust at the surface produces a darker ice sheet. We urgently need to know more about the factors that lead to and limit the growth of the pigmented microbes. Recent work by our group in the darkest zone of the ice sheet surface in the SW of Greenland shows that the darkest areas have the highest numbers of cells. Were these algae to grow equally well in other areas of the ice sheet surface, then the rate of melting of the whole ice sheet would increase very quickly. A major concern is that there will be more wet ice surfaces for these microorganisms to grow in, and for longer, during a period of climate warming, and so the microorganisms will grow in greater numbers and over a larger area, lowering the albedo and increasing the amount of melt that occurs each year. The nutrient - plant food - that the microorganisms need comes from the ice crystals and dust on the ice sheet surface, and there are fears that increased N levels in snow and ice may contribute to the growth of the microorganisms. This project aims to be the first to examine the growth and spread of the microorganisms in a warming climate, and to incorporate biological darkening into models that predict the future melting of the GrIS.


1. Sasgen I and 8 others. Timing and origin of recent regional ice-mass loss in Greenland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 333-334, 293-303(2012).
2. Rignot, E., Velicogna, I., van den Broeke, M. R., Monaghan, A. & Lenaerts, J. Acceleration of the contribution of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to sea level rise. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L05503, doi:10.1029/2011gl046583 (2011).
3. Milne, G. A., Gehrels, W. R., Hughes, C. W. & Tamisiea, M. E. Identifying the causes of sea-level change. Nature Geosci 2, 471-478 (2009).

Planned Impact

BLACK and BLOOM aims to make a major impact on the state of the science for melt prediction from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We are committed to contributing our experiences during the course of our project to the international community via IASC (International Arctic Science Committee). We will be disseminating our research results to the academic community also via publication in the top rated peer reviewed literature and international, national and local conference presentations. We will use the auspices of the Cabot Institute at the University of Bristol to bring our improved predictions of the rate of melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet to the attention of governmental and other policy makers. The Dark Snow Project, run by Project Partner Jason Box (GEUS), is well known to the public, and we will link our project web site to that of Dark Snow to aid outreach of our work to the general public. We will contribute to blogs and question and answer sessions when we are in the field via web links from Kangerlussuaq International Science Support (KISS). Hence, we aim to outreach to a broad spectrum of scientists, policy makers and the general public.


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Anesio A (2017) The microbiome of glaciers and ice sheets in npj Biofilms and Microbiomes

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Cook J (2017) A predictive model for the spectral "bioalbedo" of snow Bioalbedo of Snow in Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface

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Cook J (2018) Topographic shading influences cryoconite morphodynamics and carbon exchange in Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research

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Dukhovskoy DS (2019) Role of Greenland Freshwater Anomaly in the Recent Freshening of the Subpolar North Atlantic. in Journal of geophysical research. Oceans

Description We have confirmed that biological effects are darkening the melting surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Papers have been published, and several are submitted, that establish this claim.
Exploitation Route We have demonstrated that modellers are modelling the current melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet without taking into account biological effects. These must be understood and included in future melt models.
Sectors Education,Government, Democracy and Justice

Description Engagement Activities 2016-17 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We have established the Black and Bloom website, https//, and associated Twitter account. This has led to widespread uptake of our research in Science and Huffington Post articles, for example, and has led to various schools contacting us for talks, which we have undertaken. The BBC have also been in contact, radio interviews have been given, and more such actiites are planned for 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
Description Engagement Activities 2017-18 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Our project was covered as one of the prime time science stories on the BBC News, both at 6 and at 10. We conducted interviews for Radio 4 too. Our project was covered on the BBC Website and received hundred of thousands of hits.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018