Air Pollution Impacts on Cardiopulmonary Disease in Beijing: An integrated study of Exposure Science, Toxicogenomics and Environmental Epidemiology

Lead Research Organisation: Institute of Occupational Medicine
Department Name: Research

Abstract

This proposal aims to do a comprehensive evaluation of air pollution health impacts on cardiopulmonary health through integration of exposure, epidemiology, and toxicology/toxicogenomic studies. We will do detailed assessments of people's exposure to air pollution, estimating exposures for long- and short-term epidemiological analyses, and linking these to epidemiological analyses of long term health impacts based on a cohort study, short-term effects (i.e. biomarkers, blood pressure, heart rhythm, peak flow) based on a panel study, and early life effects based on a birth cohort. Additionally, we test the effect of reducing exposure to fine particles, but not gases, by designing an intervention study where volunteers will wear a face mask and examining the exposure-response relationship for the same short-term effects we evaluate in the panel study. The short-term physiological measurements we conduct in the epidemiological studies will provide insight into the mechanisms by which air pollutions affects cardiopulmonary health. To complement the human based studies into mechanisms of action, our project will also conduct extensive in vivo analyses of mechanistic effects, and early life toxicogenomics/metabonomics. Finally, we will provide practical advice to stakeholders based on our study findings, by assessing the potential value of selected strategies for control of exposure to outdoor health protection in a health risk assessment.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit and how?
The immediate beneficiaries will be the environmental and health regulatory agencies in China, (e.g., the State Environment and Health Working Group, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, and the National Health and Family Planning Commission) and Beijing in particular (e.g., Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau), responsible for mitigation of adverse air quality in China. The citizens of China will gain immediate health and well-being benefit from mitigation actions implemented as a result of findings from this project in association with findings form the other projects within this directed research programme. Health workers and other academics will benefit from the new information we generate on adverse effects on the cardiopulmonary system caused by air pollution generally and by specific pollutants and sources.

How will they benefit?
The proposed research will provide better understanding of the role of specific pollutants and sources, their mechanisms of action, and the likely effectiveness of interventions to reduce personal exposures. Our research is geared not only towards advancement of scientific knowledge about how high levels of air pollution from sources in Beijing impact cardiopulmonary health on a mechanistic level, but also on determining the impact of interventions on health through experimental design and modelling. In particular, we focus on examining the health effects of air pollution on susceptible populations with cardiovascular and reversible airway disease and the efficacy of measures that can be taken by citizens to reduce their exposure. Additionally, through the understanding that we will gain about where people are most exposed and the source types that contribute to their total personal exposure, we will provide information that can be used to more effectively target interventions - on a regional, local, residential, and individual level.
Regulatory agencies will benefit from this information so that they can design pollution, exposure, and health reduction strategies in a more cost-effective manner, and citizens, especially those with existing cardiovascular and respiratory disease, will benefit from the recommendations of personal-level strategies that we will investigate. Our project will provide information that can be considered by Theme 4 in developing practical policy solutions to reduce air pollution exposures.
Health workers will benefit from the new information we generate through the laboratory models and population studies; new understanding of the inter-relationships between exposure biomarkers, effect biomarkers and susceptibility biomarkers in the population, under conditions of Chinese mega-cities with identification of potentially susceptible subgroups with cardiopulmonary disease; improved understanding of the mechanisms of action or cardiopulmonary toxicity; and knowledge on how a relatively simple intervention to reduce personal exposure may improve short-term health effects, from which benefits of longer-term personal exposure reduction can also be inferred.

Dissemination
We will work with the other Theme 3 project on health effects and with the atmospheric pollution themes (1 and 2) and Theme 4 (Solutions) on developing workshops and stakeholder consultations to disseminate our information to regulatory authorities, non-governmental organisations, and other relevant stakeholders. These will be led by our Chinese partners. In addition, to the standard academic channels of dissemination through journal articles and conferences, we will develop information materials that can be distributed to patients on the health impacts of air pollution and means that they can take to reduce their exposures. These materials will be made available through hospitals and doctors.

Publications

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Cherrie JW (2019) In-mask temperature and humidity can validate respirator wear-time and indicate lung health status. in Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology

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Cherrie, J.W. (2018) The Effectiveness of Facemasks Used to Protect Beijing Residents Against Particulate Air Pollution in Occupational and Environmental Medicine

 
Description Personal measurement of PM. The APIC-ESTEE project has examined personal exposure to a group of participants. We found that personal exposure to PM2.5 and black carbon (a surrogate measure of combustion-derived PM) are associated with, but generally lower than, nearby outdoor fixed-location network monitors, although these monitors do not capture the high peaks of PM linked to certain personal activities. For example, exposure to black carbon from transportation, in particular, were higher than ambient levels.

Health effects of pollutant exposure. We demonstrated that ozone, PM2.5 and black carbon, even at the low average concentrations found indoors, can have effects on heart rhythm in a variety of vulnerable people, including children and the elderly. Of particular interest, these health effects were greater in overweight (but not clinically obese) individuals.

Interventions. Our research showed that wearing well-fitting and effective facemasks (disposable N95 equivalents) can reduce personal exposure to small PM, albeit efficacy can depend on activities being performed. Use of indoor air purifiers or reducing noise exposure (a potential confounder of air pollution cardiovascular effects) was found to ameliorate some of the short-term physiological impacts of specific air pollution exposures.

Preclinical studies. An extensive body of toxicology work has been performed at Capital Medical University as part of this project, including exploration of the effects of Beijing PM on inflammatory pathways in vascular endothelial cells, new blood vessel formation in zebrafish, and metabolomics profiling of potential pathways in rats. APIC is also collaborating with the other themes of the APHH-China programme, using 'oxidative stress assays' to assess particle reactivity from samples of PM collected in Beijing at specific locations and times.

Birth cohort. A cohort of 1878 has been recruited during this project, which will be used in future studies to investigate the developmental effects of air pollution on children.
Exploitation Route Academic: We have developed methods for measuring particle concentrations in masks. These could be used for future studies of exposure reduction using masks, including quantifying exposure while measuring health outcomes (something that has been missing in previous health studies of masks). Future studies of air pollution health impacts can use the types of exposure methodologies we used for measuring black carbon and PM2.5 for estimating the impacts of personal exposure on health. We have found that black carbon is important to measure on a personal level, as it is less well correlated in Beijing with fixed site monitors than PM2.5. Our study also indicates that future studies of health impacts of air pollution may want to consider including noise exposure. The birth cohort we have developed will provide a resource for future studies on developmental impacts of air pollution.

Non-academic: Manufacturers can use the information we have generated to develop better fitting masks for the general public's use against air pollution. The public, medical advisors (e.g. doctors and nurses), and policy makers can use the information on mask effectiveness to inform personal use of face masks, or use of face masks during emergencies or high pollution episodes. Also, APIC-ESTEE has provided evidence for the differential impacts of PM2.5 and black carbon on subclinical effects in obese compared to non-obese people. These provide additional evidence for the importance of public health programmes to reduce obesity.
Sectors Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

 
Description As outdoor levels of PM2.5 decrease, especially in Beijing (albeit levels remain well above guideline levels by organisation such as WHO), exposures to air pollution while indoors becomes a larger contributor to exposure and health effects. Our project highlights the importance of exposure indoors; even though the health effects of the rapid fluctuations in air pollution indoors remain to be established, it is clear that exposure to air pollutants inside homes and other buildings is associated with measurable effects on health. In the future, consideration needs to be given to managing building and indoor source related factors. These are aspects which our Chinese partners are communicating to Beijing stakeholders. The work of APIC has been one of only a few investigations to address utility of personal air pollution interventions, such as face masks and air purifiers, in reducing exposures and potential health impacts. An overall reduction in pollution emissions at source is the most desirable way to reduce the effects on health, however until these long-term intervention strategies have an effect face-masks may represent an effective adjunct measure for some people. The work we have done on the effectiveness of facemasks to reduce exposure to particulate matter has been of great interest to a wide population because it provides quantitative evidence about how different facemasks perform on people exposed to air pollution, and also how different activities impact the fit and effectiveness of facemasks. This has resulted in media enquires from various outlets (https://bmj.altmetric.com/details/36090800/news), and has been mentioned in social media several times (https://bmj.altmetric.com/details/36090800/twitter). Our paper has an Altmetrics score of 372, considered in the top 5% of research outputs scored by Altmetrics. Commercial companies interested in developing air pollution facemasks have approached Dr. Cherrie and Dr. Loh, and members of the public, in the UK and Asia, have requested more information. It has been cited in patient guidelines for protection against sand and dust by the American Thoracic Society. Additionally, we have received enquiries from members of the public regarding air pollution exposures and protective measures such as face masks and air purifiers or travelling different routes.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Environment,Healthcare,Other
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description ATS guidelines sand and dust
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://www.thoracic.org/patients/patient-resources/resources/sand-and-dust-storms.pdf
 
Description Delhi Air Pollution: Health aNd Effects (DAPHNE)
Amount £1,447,472 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P016340/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 03/2022
 
Description Newton RCUK-SEAMED - Assessing the health impacts of air pollution in Thailand
Amount £425,875 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/R006210/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Description Non-communicable lung disease in Kenya: from burden and early life determinants to participatory inter-disciplinary solutions
Amount £484,409 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/S009027/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 01/2022
 
Description The AIR Network - Action for Interdisciplinary air pollution Research
Amount £168,709 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/R006059/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Title Monitoring wearing of faceemasks 
Description We have tested the use of small data-logging temperature and humidity sensors located inside a facemark to assess when a facemark is worn. This technique will be used in our studies in China. A publication is in preparation. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None as yet. 
 
Title ADMS street-scale model 
Description The ADMS model is a Gaussian dispersion model used to simulate street-scale air pollution levels. This model has been set-up for Beijing under a NERC industrial PhD studentship with SME Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants (CERC).NE/N007794/1. Simulated has been performed to link to health outcome data of pregnancy records. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Research is ongoing 
URL http://www.cerc.co.uk/environmental-software/ADMS-Urban-model.html
 
Description APIC - EPR work with Beijing PM - collaboration expanded 
Organisation Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Assessing the ability of Beijing pollution particles to generate oxidative stress
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of filters containing air pollution particles and air pollution monitoring data
Impact Collaboration has been expanded to include more groups within these universities, as well as addition samples, assays and analyses. Manuscript due to be prepared
Start Year 2019
 
Description APIC - EPR work with Beijing PM - collaboration expanded 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Assessing the ability of Beijing pollution particles to generate oxidative stress
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of filters containing air pollution particles and air pollution monitoring data
Impact Collaboration has been expanded to include more groups within these universities, as well as addition samples, assays and analyses. Manuscript due to be prepared
Start Year 2019
 
Description APIC - EPR work with Beijing PM - collaboration expanded 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Assessing the ability of Beijing pollution particles to generate oxidative stress
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of filters containing air pollution particles and air pollution monitoring data
Impact Collaboration has been expanded to include more groups within these universities, as well as addition samples, assays and analyses. Manuscript due to be prepared
Start Year 2019
 
Description APIC - EPR work with Beijing PM - collaboration expanded 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department Centre for Cardiovascular Science
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Assessing the ability of Beijing pollution particles to generate oxidative stress
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of filters containing air pollution particles and air pollution monitoring data
Impact Collaboration has been expanded to include more groups within these universities, as well as addition samples, assays and analyses. Manuscript due to be prepared
Start Year 2019
 
Description APIC - EPR work with Beijing PM - collaboration expanded 
Organisation University of York
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Assessing the ability of Beijing pollution particles to generate oxidative stress
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of filters containing air pollution particles and air pollution monitoring data
Impact Collaboration has been expanded to include more groups within these universities, as well as addition samples, assays and analyses. Manuscript due to be prepared
Start Year 2019
 
Description CEH APIC 
Organisation Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution LInkage with health studies
Collaborator Contribution Provide liaison with Theme 4 of APHH programme and stakeholders in China
Impact Networking with partners in China
Start Year 2016
 
Description Capital Medical University APIC 
Organisation Capital University of Medical Sciences
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of air quality data and protocols for birth cohort study.
Collaborator Contribution Existing cohorts for analysis of cerebrovascular disease and air pollution and begin recruitment for a birth cohort.
Impact Approval for beginning work on a birth cohort for studying health effects of air pollution
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with NERC industrial PhD studnetship and AIRPRO project 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Combining street-level concentrations with exposure for health effects estimation.
Collaborator Contribution PhD student at the University of Edinburgh working twit Prof Doherty funded under the NERC industrial studentship scheme is simulated street-
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Deng and Guo-panel studies in Beijing 
Organisation Peking University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration to establish panel studies to look at the cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution in human using panel study designs. Critical input and proof reading of manuscripts
Collaborator Contribution Practical aspects of panel studies. Student supervision in Beijing
Impact I published paper and 1 further manuscript under review
Start Year 2016
 
Description Durham University mask work 
Organisation Durham University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have been collaborating with Dr. Claire Horwell on various publications and funding applications related to our mutual work on facemasks and air pollution.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Horwell has brought IOM in on facemask grant applications and publications.
Impact Poster presentations and paper (still under submission) related to ethics of facemask recommendations
Start Year 2018
 
Description Heriot-Watt University APIC 
Organisation Heriot-Watt University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provide project leadership.
Collaborator Contribution Attend UK planning meetings and planning of facemask study.
Impact Facemask exposure pilot study.
Start Year 2016
 
Description LSHTM APIC 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
Department Department of Immunology and Infection
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provide study leadership.
Collaborator Contribution Attend workshops/meetings in China and UK, contribute to study design for cohort and panel studies.
Impact Project kick-off meeting presentations to local partners and feasibility study.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Lancaster GCRF 
Organisation Lancaster University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-Investigator and health impacts theme lead for GCRF hub application Better Air for Africa, led by Lancaster University
Collaborator Contribution Lancaster University approached IOM to bring a health effects study aspect to their air pollution hub application
Impact We were not successful in the application
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manchester University GCRF 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr. Loh was a named investigator in University of Manchester's GCRF proposal AIR-SEA
Collaborator Contribution University of Manchester (Hugh Coe) led the proposal AIR-SEA
Impact The proposal was not successful. It included atmospheric scientists, public health scientists, and social scientists
Start Year 2017
 
Description Mark Ross, Napier - air pollution, exercise and facemasks 
Organisation Edinburgh Napier University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Initiated collaboration to explore the cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution and whether these can be alleviated by wearing a facemask. UoEd provides cardiovascular expertise and will perform some of the biomarker measurements
Collaborator Contribution Napier Uni will bring expertise in exercise physiology and host the volunteer visits for the study. Institute of Occupational Medicine bring expertise into exposure science and will perform the personal measurements of air pollution
Impact Ethics application in preparation ahead of seeking funding to carry out the study. See above for different disciplines
Start Year 2018
 
Description Mark Ross, Napier - air pollution, exercise and facemasks 
Organisation Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Initiated collaboration to explore the cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution and whether these can be alleviated by wearing a facemask. UoEd provides cardiovascular expertise and will perform some of the biomarker measurements
Collaborator Contribution Napier Uni will bring expertise in exercise physiology and host the volunteer visits for the study. Institute of Occupational Medicine bring expertise into exposure science and will perform the personal measurements of air pollution
Impact Ethics application in preparation ahead of seeking funding to carry out the study. See above for different disciplines
Start Year 2018
 
Description Mark Ross, Napier - air pollution, exercise and facemasks 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Initiated collaboration to explore the cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution and whether these can be alleviated by wearing a facemask. UoEd provides cardiovascular expertise and will perform some of the biomarker measurements
Collaborator Contribution Napier Uni will bring expertise in exercise physiology and host the volunteer visits for the study. Institute of Occupational Medicine bring expertise into exposure science and will perform the personal measurements of air pollution
Impact Ethics application in preparation ahead of seeking funding to carry out the study. See above for different disciplines
Start Year 2018
 
Description Matt Boyles - GRACIOUS - Oxidative stress assays 
Organisation Heriot-Watt University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developing assays for oxidative stress. Exchange of particle test materials, including air pollution particles from APIC project
Collaborator Contribution Developing assays for oxidative stress. Exchange of nanoparticle test materials from the European Commission H2020 programme, GRACIOUS
Impact to follow
Start Year 2019
 
Description Matt Boyles - GRACIOUS - Oxidative stress assays 
Organisation Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Developing assays for oxidative stress. Exchange of particle test materials, including air pollution particles from APIC project
Collaborator Contribution Developing assays for oxidative stress. Exchange of nanoparticle test materials from the European Commission H2020 programme, GRACIOUS
Impact to follow
Start Year 2019
 
Description Matt Boyles - GRACIOUS - Oxidative stress assays 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department Centre for Cardiovascular Science
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developing assays for oxidative stress. Exchange of particle test materials, including air pollution particles from APIC project
Collaborator Contribution Developing assays for oxidative stress. Exchange of nanoparticle test materials from the European Commission H2020 programme, GRACIOUS
Impact to follow
Start Year 2019
 
Description Oliver Wild 
Organisation Lancaster University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration with Professor Wild at Lancaster University on modelling air pollution for cohort study in APHH programme
Collaborator Contribution Provide data and methods for air pollution monitoring in Beijing as part of APHH programme.
Impact Still under work - will provide air pollution modelling from another APHH project for our study
Start Year 2017
 
Description Peking University APIC 
Organisation Peking University
Department School of Public Health
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provide training to students and study design collaboration with investigators.
Collaborator Contribution Local students and implementation of field feasibility study.
Impact A feasibility study was conducted in preparation for a panel study of short-term impacts of air pollution on health.
Start Year 2016
 
Description SEI 
Organisation Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Several funded partnerships and proposals through the AIR network. We provide expertise in exposure monitoring.
Collaborator Contribution SEI has led several projects or project proposals that we are part of.
Impact Blogs, newsletter articles, photography exhibits and videos have resulted. Includes geographers, theatre, story-telling, visual arts, and music.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Sun-Nanoparticle toxicology and molecular interaction in preclinical models 
Organisation Capital University of Medical Sciences
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Intellectual contribution to experimental work, design and manuscript preparation
Collaborator Contribution Experimental work
Impact Publication (Duan et al. 2017) in Science of the Total Environment, and two further manuscripts under review
Start Year 2016
 
Description Tsinghua University APIC 
Organisation Tsinghua University China
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Study design for panel study
Collaborator Contribution Ambient air pollution monitoring data
Impact Monitoring station data for programme
Start Year 2016
 
Description University of Edinburgh APIC 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department Centre for Integrative Physiology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution IOM is leading the APIC-ESTEE project, and collaborating with University of Edinburgh. We provide expertise in exposure assessment and statistical analysis.
Collaborator Contribution University of Edinburgh provides expertise in atmospheric chemistry and modelling, and a post-doc to work on the project and also expertise in cardiovascular and respiratory health. They contribute to the study design and implementation of the panel and facemask study.
Impact A study design for investigating health impacts of short-term personal exposure to air pollution is being finalized.
Start Year 2016
 
Description A delegation from the China Meteorological Administration visited the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The delegation from China gained an insight into the atmospheric chemistry and effects research conducted at CEH covering aspects of measurements, processes and modelling of atmospheric composition change and fluxes of air pollutants and greenhouse gases.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BHF Clinical and Policy Groups - BHF HQ London - Nov 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Talk to interested parties at the British Heart Foundation ahead of their "Full of It" air pollution campaign. The talk included discussion of current and upcoming projects including research into extremes of air pollution in China and Delhi (NERC/MRC) and agricultural PM (NIHR).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Blog written by Dr. Loh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr. Loh wrote a blog post on air pollution for IOM. Blog post includes infographic on APIC facemask study
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.iom-world.org/iomtoday/2019/june/air-pollution/
 
Description Capacity building course (Delhi) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-organised and taught in a short course sponsored by the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology and Public Health Foundation of India. Teaching was about environmental exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology. Students were professionals, including clinicians, environmental scientists, researchers. Feedback from students was that this is a unique course and there are not really any similar courses taught in India, so this was very helpful for them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.iseepi.org/Public/Career_Development/Workshops_and_Training/Public/Career_Development/Wo...
 
Description Edinburgh International Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Demonstration use of low-cost optical particle counters at a University of Edinburgh stand at the Edinburgh International Science Festival to engage public with the concept of ambient particulate matter pollution and exposure. Instruments used were the same as used to make personal exposure measurements to ambient particulate matter in the NERC-funded project in China. Whilst target audience at the Science Festival was children, other members of general public also passed by.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Email discussion for news article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Responded to enquiry from Reuters which resulted in an article about our facemask study. This was picked up in several other news outlets, including Channel News Asia, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Guardian.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-airpollution-masks/face-masks-available-to-consumers-may-b...
 
Description Heriot Watt IB3 seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited to present at Heriot Watt University's Institute for Biological chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering's monthly seminar. Presentation title "Air Pollution and Health in the Era of the Exposome." 5 December 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description High School Visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Geography higher students event- the students learn about air pollution in the context of plotting data in various ways.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description IOM website news on coverage of face mask study 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact IOM generated a piece on our website regarding the coverage of the APIC-ESTEE face mask study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.iom-world.org/iomtoday/2019/march/growing-public-interest-in-facemask-protection/
 
Description ISES/ISEE 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on "Modeling Exposure Reduction for Personal Level Interventions" for personal protection measures for air pollution in Beijing at joint International Society for Exposure Science and International Society for Environmental Epidemiology conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description ISES2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented work on mask efficacy at a conference session on air pollution exposure interventions. Approximately 25 people attended. Questions were asked about whether facemasks would be a practical intervention method for those with respiratory problems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.intlexposurescience.org/ISES2017
 
Description Infographic 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Infographic on webpage and for download regarding our mask study
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.iom-world.org/media/1347/facemasks-final-1.png
 
Description Inhaled Particles XII 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a keynote talk about the use of respiratory protection for the general public, especially with regards to protection against air pollution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.inhaledparticles.org.uk/
 
Description Interview for news article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact New York Times article How to Reduce Exposure to Air Pollution (by Beth Gardiner)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/13/well/live/how-to-reduce-exposure-to-air-pollution.html
 
Description Interview for news article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article in popular media (New York Times) recommending measures for protection against air pollution while travelling. How to Protect Yourself from Air Pollution while Travelling (By Hahna Yoon)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/21/travel/air-pollution-face-masks-aqi.html
 
Description Oral presentation at UK exposure science conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation by Dr Chun entitled "Quantifying personal exposure to PM2.5 and black carbon using portable monitors in the Chinese megacity, Beijing" at the 7th UK/Ireland 1-day meeting on Occupational and Environmental Exposure Science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at an air pollution conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Chun Lin, a postdoctoral research associate employed on this project, presented a poster on behalf of a number of other team member co-authors entitled "Quantifying Personal PM2.5 and Black Carbon Exposure Using Portable Monitors in the Chinese Megacity, Beijing" at the Public Health England Annual Review Meeting of Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution, in Birmingham, 14-15 May 2017. The poster won the best poster prize.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation on "The effectiveness of facemasks used to protect Beijing residents against particulate air pollution" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the UK & Ireland Esposure Science meeting Birmingham on "The effectiveness of facemasks used to protect Beijing residents against particulate air pollution"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation on current status of APIC and future common activities at Air Pollution and Human Health Meeting in York in Jan 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Air Pollution and Human Health meeting relating to campaign measurements and modelling. I provided an update of the APIC project, and discussed synergies in terms of future analyses with the measurement teams at the meeting. Project updates on birth cohort and panel and mask studies were outlined.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Press interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact APHH interview with reporter from Chinese media
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Stakeholder workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Stakeholder workshop with various ministry members in Beijing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk on PM2.5 personal monitoring to the Scottish Chinese Doctoral Association forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Chun Lin, a postdoctoral research associate employed on this project, presented a general interest talk on 25 November 2017 entitled "An Introduction to PM2.5 Personal Monitoring" at a meeting of the Scottish Chinese Doctorate Association. The subject of the talk was the findings from a preliminary study of personal exposure to air pollution in a panel study in Beijing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Teaching final year undergraduate students at Heriot-Watt University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Collaborators at Heriot-Watt University teach undergraduate final year Biology students about environmental and health (air pollution, exposure assessment, health impact assessment) and particle toxicology (air pollution).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
 
Description Training session in Cyprus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact About 12 students in a postgraduate course at the Cyprus International Institute for Environment and Public Health attended a seminar which included presentation of the outputs of APIC-ESTEE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Two-day on-site course on Introductory Data Carpentry: R for Research Data Analysis 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Chun Lin, a postdoctoral research associate employed on this project, presented a 2-day on-site course entitled "Introductory Data Carpentry: R for Research Data Analysis" on 12-13 June 2017 to Chinese collaborating researchers at the Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences in the School of Public Health at Peking University, China. The course was created by Dr Lin and was designed particularly to help with the analysis and visualisation of air quality and personal exposure data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshop (Beijing) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Invitation to other researchers from China not involved in APHH Megacities programme to present their work and hear about APHH researchers' work in a knowledge sharing workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016