Sources and Emissions of Air Pollutants in Beijing (AIRPOLL-Beijing)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Birmingham
Department Name: Sch of Geography, Earth & Env Sciences

Abstract

Beijing suffers from very high concentrations of airborne pollutants, leading to adverse health and wellbeing for over twenty million people. The pollutants likely to have the greatest effects upon human health are particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Both particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are emitted directly from individual sources (primary contributions, many of which are not well quantified); and are formed in the atmosphere (secondary contributions, which are highly complex). Ozone is entirely secondary in nature, formed from reactions of precursor gases, whose sources and abundance are also challenging to constrain. These uncertainties hinder understanding of the causes of air pollution in Beijing, which is needed to deliver effective and efficient strategies for pollution reduction and health improvement.

AIRPOLL-Beijing project will address this challenge, through identification and quantification of the sources and emissions of air pollutants in Beijing. The project sits within the NERC/MRC-NSFC China megacity programme, which includes projects addressing the atmospheric processes affecting air pollutants, human exposure and health effects, and solutions / mitigation strategies to reduce air pollution and health impacts.

The project exploits the combined experience and expertise of leading UK and Chinese scientists, applying multiple complementary approaches. The project deploys multiple atmospheric measurement and analysis strategies to characterise pollutant abundance and sources, develop novel emissions inventories, and integrate these to produce new modelling tools for use in policy development. We adopt a range of state-of-the-science approaches:

-Receptor Modelling, where detailed composition measurements are used to infer pollutant sources from their chemical signatures, combining world-leading UK and Chinese capability.

-Flux Measurements, where the total release of pollutants from all sources is measured, providing a key metric to refine emission inventories. We will combine near-ground measurements (using the unique Institute of Atmospheric Physics 325m tower in central Beijing), ground-based observations and fluxes derived from satellite observations.

-3D spatial analysis, in which a novel sensor network will be deployed around central Beijing to measure pollutant fields.

-Development of novel emissions inventories, which will predict the temporally- and spatially- resolved emissions of air pollutants from all sources, enhancing existing capability.

-Development of new online modelling tools, within which to integrate emissions, atmospheric processing and meteorology to predict primary and secondary pollutant concentration fields.

AIRPOLL-Beijing will integrate these approaches to provide thorough understanding of the sources and emissions of air pollutants in Beijing, at unprecedented detail and accuracy. While the project is a self-contained activity, key deliverables feed into Processes, Health and Solutions themes of the programme.

This proposal seeks Newton fund support, part of the UK's Official Development Assistance (ODA) commitment. The project will directly address ODA objectives, in the categories of (i) people (through the joint development of novel scientific approaches to the understanding of megacity air pollution), (ii) programmes (as all aspects of the project are joint UK-Chinese research endeavours) and (iii) translation (through provision of detailed air pollution source assessments, in support of assessment of health impacts and development of mitigation strategies). More generally, the project will leave a legacy of improved air pollution understanding and research capacity of the Chinese teams, and, through integration with other themes of the Megacities programme, underpin improvements in the health and welfare of the population of Beijing, and across China more widely - ultimately benefitting more than a billion people.

Planned Impact

AIRPOLL-Beijing will quantify the contribution of different industrial, commercial and societal activities to air pollution in Beijing and greatly enhance the Nested Air Quality Model Prediction and Modelling System (NAQPMS) multi-scale 3-D chemical transport model for operational prediction of air quality in Beijing.


Who will benefit:

1. Policymakers: The Chinese Department of Environmental Protection and the municipal/provincial Bureau of Environment Protection who are responsible for policy-making in air quality and for developing emergency control measure in Beijing and the surrounding region will particularly benefit from this project.
2. Business: Businesses will benefit, particularly those that are directly or indirectly affected by air pollution control measures in the Beijing region.
3. General public: There is a growing interest in China in air pollution, particularly particulate matter pollution. This is because haze, mainly caused by particulate pollution, is visible, and serious haze events cause significant health problems to vulnerable groups.


How will they benefit:

1. Policymakers: AIRPOLL-Beijing will provide an improved source apportionment of air pollutants in Beijing and an operational air quality model with online air pollutant source apportionment capacity. The former will be essential for refining the existing air quality policies at the municipal level, while the latter will benefit all levels of environmental protection bodies by predicting air quality and allowing development of emergency control measures to prevent serious haze events. AIRPOLL-Beijing will also provide a definitive example for future integrated work on air pollutant source apportionment in China, and thus improve accuracy of emission inventories and performance of air quality models, which will eventually benefit policy-making in central as well as local governments.
2. Business: The Chinese government has started a national programme to close industrial plants considered to be the highest polluters. A more accurate source-oriented apportionment of air pollutants will ensure that the high polluters are more accurately identified, which will avoid unnecessary shut-down. In addition, under unfavourable meteorological conditions, emergency control measures may be put in place; AIRPOLL-Beijing will provide scientific results and the NAQPMS air quality model to support the development of such measures. Better and more targeted emergency control measures will benefit business by reducing their impact on transportation and by protecting health of staff (so increasing productivity) and by minimizing direct cost due to unnecessary business shut-downs.
3. General public: New knowledge on haze pollution as a result of this project and the existing knowledge and experience of air pollution control from the UK will provide valuable educational information for the general public in China. The general public will also benefit directly from the improved prediction of air quality in Beijing to inform social and economic activities, such as whether or not to partake in outdoor activities.


Addressing ODA objectives:

By providing cost-effective solutions to air quality problems within China, the project will address directly poverty and development issues, and through the application of economic valuations in the Solutions Theme of this programme, will contribute to development of both effective and efficient methods of addressing air pollution. Accurate knowledge of emissions is a key factor underpinning the development of mitigation strategies which will deliver improved public health. Both the UK and Chinese research teams will benefit from their interaction and exploitation of complementary expertise. This will leave a legacy beyond the project lifetime thus increasing the research capacity of the Chinese teams and contributing to the continuous improvement of life and welfare of more than a billion people.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This project was an in depth study of the severe air pollution which afflicts Beijing. The atmospheric processes involved are very complex but substantial progress was made through the use of very sophisticated methods in gaining a better understanding of the determinants of air quality within Beijing. The scientific findings cannot be expressed in any meaningful way which is accessible to the lay person; however, some of the more policy-relevant findings which have been discussed with the national and municipal authorities in Beijing include the following:

• The particulate matter air pollution which causes the visible haze in Beijing is a regional phenomenon to which emissions within Beijing itself contribute rather little. Most of it is generated either by emissions or the chemical processing of emissions from areas outside of Beijing as the air masses move across the countryside.

• The official Chinese emissions inventories over-estimate the pollutant emissions from road traffic within Beijing.

• Particles generated from the cooking of food are a significant contributor and are generated largely within Beijing itself.

• Air pollutant concentrations at roadside only slightly exceed those in the urban background away from roads and are quite similar to those in the surrounding countryside, hence further controls on road traffic emissions will have rather little benefit except in the case of nitrogen dioxide.

• After allowing for the effects of weather on air pollutant concentrations, the action plan implemented from 2013 to 2017 in Beijing had highly beneficial effects upon the improvement of air quality.
Exploitation Route The pollution phenomena in Beijing are to a substantial degree specific to Beijing but may be applicable to other cities in northern China but are unlikely to apply elsewhere. Consequently, it is the authorities in northeastern China who have the greatest opportunity to benefit.
Sectors Environment,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Transport

URL https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/environmental-health/projects/aphh/project-descriptions.aspx#airpoll
 
Description The policy-relevant conclusions of the work which are outlined in the key findings section were discussed with officials from both Beijing and the Chinese national government at a meeting in September 2019. These will feed through into the implementation of air pollution control policies subsequent to that meeting.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Environment,Healthcare,Transport
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Engagement with Chinese local and national government authorities
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Improved air quality leads to improved health, and reductions in hospital admissions and premature mortality. This has not been quantified.
 
Description Quantitative Attribution of Secondary Organic Aerosol in Beijing to its Precursors
Amount £275,345 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/S006699/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 01/2021
 
Title AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Description The huge datasets relating mainly to air quality have been archived. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None as yet 
 
Description AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Organisation Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative project in which each partner has a specific role to play. The University of Birmingham is coordinator and manages the UK end of the activities. Consequently we have coordinated the production of the project overview paper and manage a project website. Our scientific contribution relates primarily to the receptor modelling of airborne particle concentrations. We have also contributed specialist instruments for work in areas such as new particle formation.
Collaborator Contribution Each partner has a specific role to play which was defined by the Science Case. These are multi-faceted and can be summarised only briefly. The University of Manchester is contributing advanced particle characterisation instruments and has a special interest in carbonaceous aerosol. The University of York has led the work on flux estimation, as well as making measurements of VOCs and studying of the composition of organic aerosol. The University of Cambridge has deployed low-cost air quality sensors and collaborated in parallel projects relating to personal exposure. Lancaster University has contributed measurement capability for volatile organic compounds and undertaken modelling with chemistry-transport models. The University of Edinburgh has analysed earth observation data to estimate pollutant fluxes. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has contributed advanced instrumentation for particle characterisation and has collaborated in the flux measurement studies. Tsinghua University has provided capability in aerosol mass spectrometry and much experience in the analysis of data from within China. It also maintains the emissions inventory. Peking University has contributed advanced instrumentation and data processing to the receptor modelling of airborne particles. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has provided the main experimental site for the research and leads the numerical modelling with their specialised chemistry-transport model. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry has contributed measurements of volatile organic compounds and organic aerosols and participated in the receptor modelling studies. The China University of Mining and Technology has contributed expertise on the physico-chemistry and toxicology of airborne particulate matter.
Impact Numerous research papers with multiple authors reflecting the collaborations are listed in the section on collaborations. Many disciplines are involved including chemistry, physics, environmental science, environmental engineering, meteorology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Organisation China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT)
Country China 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative project in which each partner has a specific role to play. The University of Birmingham is coordinator and manages the UK end of the activities. Consequently we have coordinated the production of the project overview paper and manage a project website. Our scientific contribution relates primarily to the receptor modelling of airborne particle concentrations. We have also contributed specialist instruments for work in areas such as new particle formation.
Collaborator Contribution Each partner has a specific role to play which was defined by the Science Case. These are multi-faceted and can be summarised only briefly. The University of Manchester is contributing advanced particle characterisation instruments and has a special interest in carbonaceous aerosol. The University of York has led the work on flux estimation, as well as making measurements of VOCs and studying of the composition of organic aerosol. The University of Cambridge has deployed low-cost air quality sensors and collaborated in parallel projects relating to personal exposure. Lancaster University has contributed measurement capability for volatile organic compounds and undertaken modelling with chemistry-transport models. The University of Edinburgh has analysed earth observation data to estimate pollutant fluxes. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has contributed advanced instrumentation for particle characterisation and has collaborated in the flux measurement studies. Tsinghua University has provided capability in aerosol mass spectrometry and much experience in the analysis of data from within China. It also maintains the emissions inventory. Peking University has contributed advanced instrumentation and data processing to the receptor modelling of airborne particles. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has provided the main experimental site for the research and leads the numerical modelling with their specialised chemistry-transport model. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry has contributed measurements of volatile organic compounds and organic aerosols and participated in the receptor modelling studies. The China University of Mining and Technology has contributed expertise on the physico-chemistry and toxicology of airborne particulate matter.
Impact Numerous research papers with multiple authors reflecting the collaborations are listed in the section on collaborations. Many disciplines are involved including chemistry, physics, environmental science, environmental engineering, meteorology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences
Department Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative project in which each partner has a specific role to play. The University of Birmingham is coordinator and manages the UK end of the activities. Consequently we have coordinated the production of the project overview paper and manage a project website. Our scientific contribution relates primarily to the receptor modelling of airborne particle concentrations. We have also contributed specialist instruments for work in areas such as new particle formation.
Collaborator Contribution Each partner has a specific role to play which was defined by the Science Case. These are multi-faceted and can be summarised only briefly. The University of Manchester is contributing advanced particle characterisation instruments and has a special interest in carbonaceous aerosol. The University of York has led the work on flux estimation, as well as making measurements of VOCs and studying of the composition of organic aerosol. The University of Cambridge has deployed low-cost air quality sensors and collaborated in parallel projects relating to personal exposure. Lancaster University has contributed measurement capability for volatile organic compounds and undertaken modelling with chemistry-transport models. The University of Edinburgh has analysed earth observation data to estimate pollutant fluxes. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has contributed advanced instrumentation for particle characterisation and has collaborated in the flux measurement studies. Tsinghua University has provided capability in aerosol mass spectrometry and much experience in the analysis of data from within China. It also maintains the emissions inventory. Peking University has contributed advanced instrumentation and data processing to the receptor modelling of airborne particles. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has provided the main experimental site for the research and leads the numerical modelling with their specialised chemistry-transport model. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry has contributed measurements of volatile organic compounds and organic aerosols and participated in the receptor modelling studies. The China University of Mining and Technology has contributed expertise on the physico-chemistry and toxicology of airborne particulate matter.
Impact Numerous research papers with multiple authors reflecting the collaborations are listed in the section on collaborations. Many disciplines are involved including chemistry, physics, environmental science, environmental engineering, meteorology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences
Department Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP)
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative project in which each partner has a specific role to play. The University of Birmingham is coordinator and manages the UK end of the activities. Consequently we have coordinated the production of the project overview paper and manage a project website. Our scientific contribution relates primarily to the receptor modelling of airborne particle concentrations. We have also contributed specialist instruments for work in areas such as new particle formation.
Collaborator Contribution Each partner has a specific role to play which was defined by the Science Case. These are multi-faceted and can be summarised only briefly. The University of Manchester is contributing advanced particle characterisation instruments and has a special interest in carbonaceous aerosol. The University of York has led the work on flux estimation, as well as making measurements of VOCs and studying of the composition of organic aerosol. The University of Cambridge has deployed low-cost air quality sensors and collaborated in parallel projects relating to personal exposure. Lancaster University has contributed measurement capability for volatile organic compounds and undertaken modelling with chemistry-transport models. The University of Edinburgh has analysed earth observation data to estimate pollutant fluxes. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has contributed advanced instrumentation for particle characterisation and has collaborated in the flux measurement studies. Tsinghua University has provided capability in aerosol mass spectrometry and much experience in the analysis of data from within China. It also maintains the emissions inventory. Peking University has contributed advanced instrumentation and data processing to the receptor modelling of airborne particles. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has provided the main experimental site for the research and leads the numerical modelling with their specialised chemistry-transport model. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry has contributed measurements of volatile organic compounds and organic aerosols and participated in the receptor modelling studies. The China University of Mining and Technology has contributed expertise on the physico-chemistry and toxicology of airborne particulate matter.
Impact Numerous research papers with multiple authors reflecting the collaborations are listed in the section on collaborations. Many disciplines are involved including chemistry, physics, environmental science, environmental engineering, meteorology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Organisation Lancaster University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative project in which each partner has a specific role to play. The University of Birmingham is coordinator and manages the UK end of the activities. Consequently we have coordinated the production of the project overview paper and manage a project website. Our scientific contribution relates primarily to the receptor modelling of airborne particle concentrations. We have also contributed specialist instruments for work in areas such as new particle formation.
Collaborator Contribution Each partner has a specific role to play which was defined by the Science Case. These are multi-faceted and can be summarised only briefly. The University of Manchester is contributing advanced particle characterisation instruments and has a special interest in carbonaceous aerosol. The University of York has led the work on flux estimation, as well as making measurements of VOCs and studying of the composition of organic aerosol. The University of Cambridge has deployed low-cost air quality sensors and collaborated in parallel projects relating to personal exposure. Lancaster University has contributed measurement capability for volatile organic compounds and undertaken modelling with chemistry-transport models. The University of Edinburgh has analysed earth observation data to estimate pollutant fluxes. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has contributed advanced instrumentation for particle characterisation and has collaborated in the flux measurement studies. Tsinghua University has provided capability in aerosol mass spectrometry and much experience in the analysis of data from within China. It also maintains the emissions inventory. Peking University has contributed advanced instrumentation and data processing to the receptor modelling of airborne particles. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has provided the main experimental site for the research and leads the numerical modelling with their specialised chemistry-transport model. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry has contributed measurements of volatile organic compounds and organic aerosols and participated in the receptor modelling studies. The China University of Mining and Technology has contributed expertise on the physico-chemistry and toxicology of airborne particulate matter.
Impact Numerous research papers with multiple authors reflecting the collaborations are listed in the section on collaborations. Many disciplines are involved including chemistry, physics, environmental science, environmental engineering, meteorology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Organisation Peking University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative project in which each partner has a specific role to play. The University of Birmingham is coordinator and manages the UK end of the activities. Consequently we have coordinated the production of the project overview paper and manage a project website. Our scientific contribution relates primarily to the receptor modelling of airborne particle concentrations. We have also contributed specialist instruments for work in areas such as new particle formation.
Collaborator Contribution Each partner has a specific role to play which was defined by the Science Case. These are multi-faceted and can be summarised only briefly. The University of Manchester is contributing advanced particle characterisation instruments and has a special interest in carbonaceous aerosol. The University of York has led the work on flux estimation, as well as making measurements of VOCs and studying of the composition of organic aerosol. The University of Cambridge has deployed low-cost air quality sensors and collaborated in parallel projects relating to personal exposure. Lancaster University has contributed measurement capability for volatile organic compounds and undertaken modelling with chemistry-transport models. The University of Edinburgh has analysed earth observation data to estimate pollutant fluxes. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has contributed advanced instrumentation for particle characterisation and has collaborated in the flux measurement studies. Tsinghua University has provided capability in aerosol mass spectrometry and much experience in the analysis of data from within China. It also maintains the emissions inventory. Peking University has contributed advanced instrumentation and data processing to the receptor modelling of airborne particles. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has provided the main experimental site for the research and leads the numerical modelling with their specialised chemistry-transport model. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry has contributed measurements of volatile organic compounds and organic aerosols and participated in the receptor modelling studies. The China University of Mining and Technology has contributed expertise on the physico-chemistry and toxicology of airborne particulate matter.
Impact Numerous research papers with multiple authors reflecting the collaborations are listed in the section on collaborations. Many disciplines are involved including chemistry, physics, environmental science, environmental engineering, meteorology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Organisation Tsinghua University China
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative project in which each partner has a specific role to play. The University of Birmingham is coordinator and manages the UK end of the activities. Consequently we have coordinated the production of the project overview paper and manage a project website. Our scientific contribution relates primarily to the receptor modelling of airborne particle concentrations. We have also contributed specialist instruments for work in areas such as new particle formation.
Collaborator Contribution Each partner has a specific role to play which was defined by the Science Case. These are multi-faceted and can be summarised only briefly. The University of Manchester is contributing advanced particle characterisation instruments and has a special interest in carbonaceous aerosol. The University of York has led the work on flux estimation, as well as making measurements of VOCs and studying of the composition of organic aerosol. The University of Cambridge has deployed low-cost air quality sensors and collaborated in parallel projects relating to personal exposure. Lancaster University has contributed measurement capability for volatile organic compounds and undertaken modelling with chemistry-transport models. The University of Edinburgh has analysed earth observation data to estimate pollutant fluxes. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has contributed advanced instrumentation for particle characterisation and has collaborated in the flux measurement studies. Tsinghua University has provided capability in aerosol mass spectrometry and much experience in the analysis of data from within China. It also maintains the emissions inventory. Peking University has contributed advanced instrumentation and data processing to the receptor modelling of airborne particles. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has provided the main experimental site for the research and leads the numerical modelling with their specialised chemistry-transport model. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry has contributed measurements of volatile organic compounds and organic aerosols and participated in the receptor modelling studies. The China University of Mining and Technology has contributed expertise on the physico-chemistry and toxicology of airborne particulate matter.
Impact Numerous research papers with multiple authors reflecting the collaborations are listed in the section on collaborations. Many disciplines are involved including chemistry, physics, environmental science, environmental engineering, meteorology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative project in which each partner has a specific role to play. The University of Birmingham is coordinator and manages the UK end of the activities. Consequently we have coordinated the production of the project overview paper and manage a project website. Our scientific contribution relates primarily to the receptor modelling of airborne particle concentrations. We have also contributed specialist instruments for work in areas such as new particle formation.
Collaborator Contribution Each partner has a specific role to play which was defined by the Science Case. These are multi-faceted and can be summarised only briefly. The University of Manchester is contributing advanced particle characterisation instruments and has a special interest in carbonaceous aerosol. The University of York has led the work on flux estimation, as well as making measurements of VOCs and studying of the composition of organic aerosol. The University of Cambridge has deployed low-cost air quality sensors and collaborated in parallel projects relating to personal exposure. Lancaster University has contributed measurement capability for volatile organic compounds and undertaken modelling with chemistry-transport models. The University of Edinburgh has analysed earth observation data to estimate pollutant fluxes. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has contributed advanced instrumentation for particle characterisation and has collaborated in the flux measurement studies. Tsinghua University has provided capability in aerosol mass spectrometry and much experience in the analysis of data from within China. It also maintains the emissions inventory. Peking University has contributed advanced instrumentation and data processing to the receptor modelling of airborne particles. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has provided the main experimental site for the research and leads the numerical modelling with their specialised chemistry-transport model. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry has contributed measurements of volatile organic compounds and organic aerosols and participated in the receptor modelling studies. The China University of Mining and Technology has contributed expertise on the physico-chemistry and toxicology of airborne particulate matter.
Impact Numerous research papers with multiple authors reflecting the collaborations are listed in the section on collaborations. Many disciplines are involved including chemistry, physics, environmental science, environmental engineering, meteorology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative project in which each partner has a specific role to play. The University of Birmingham is coordinator and manages the UK end of the activities. Consequently we have coordinated the production of the project overview paper and manage a project website. Our scientific contribution relates primarily to the receptor modelling of airborne particle concentrations. We have also contributed specialist instruments for work in areas such as new particle formation.
Collaborator Contribution Each partner has a specific role to play which was defined by the Science Case. These are multi-faceted and can be summarised only briefly. The University of Manchester is contributing advanced particle characterisation instruments and has a special interest in carbonaceous aerosol. The University of York has led the work on flux estimation, as well as making measurements of VOCs and studying of the composition of organic aerosol. The University of Cambridge has deployed low-cost air quality sensors and collaborated in parallel projects relating to personal exposure. Lancaster University has contributed measurement capability for volatile organic compounds and undertaken modelling with chemistry-transport models. The University of Edinburgh has analysed earth observation data to estimate pollutant fluxes. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has contributed advanced instrumentation for particle characterisation and has collaborated in the flux measurement studies. Tsinghua University has provided capability in aerosol mass spectrometry and much experience in the analysis of data from within China. It also maintains the emissions inventory. Peking University has contributed advanced instrumentation and data processing to the receptor modelling of airborne particles. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has provided the main experimental site for the research and leads the numerical modelling with their specialised chemistry-transport model. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry has contributed measurements of volatile organic compounds and organic aerosols and participated in the receptor modelling studies. The China University of Mining and Technology has contributed expertise on the physico-chemistry and toxicology of airborne particulate matter.
Impact Numerous research papers with multiple authors reflecting the collaborations are listed in the section on collaborations. Many disciplines are involved including chemistry, physics, environmental science, environmental engineering, meteorology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative project in which each partner has a specific role to play. The University of Birmingham is coordinator and manages the UK end of the activities. Consequently we have coordinated the production of the project overview paper and manage a project website. Our scientific contribution relates primarily to the receptor modelling of airborne particle concentrations. We have also contributed specialist instruments for work in areas such as new particle formation.
Collaborator Contribution Each partner has a specific role to play which was defined by the Science Case. These are multi-faceted and can be summarised only briefly. The University of Manchester is contributing advanced particle characterisation instruments and has a special interest in carbonaceous aerosol. The University of York has led the work on flux estimation, as well as making measurements of VOCs and studying of the composition of organic aerosol. The University of Cambridge has deployed low-cost air quality sensors and collaborated in parallel projects relating to personal exposure. Lancaster University has contributed measurement capability for volatile organic compounds and undertaken modelling with chemistry-transport models. The University of Edinburgh has analysed earth observation data to estimate pollutant fluxes. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has contributed advanced instrumentation for particle characterisation and has collaborated in the flux measurement studies. Tsinghua University has provided capability in aerosol mass spectrometry and much experience in the analysis of data from within China. It also maintains the emissions inventory. Peking University has contributed advanced instrumentation and data processing to the receptor modelling of airborne particles. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has provided the main experimental site for the research and leads the numerical modelling with their specialised chemistry-transport model. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry has contributed measurements of volatile organic compounds and organic aerosols and participated in the receptor modelling studies. The China University of Mining and Technology has contributed expertise on the physico-chemistry and toxicology of airborne particulate matter.
Impact Numerous research papers with multiple authors reflecting the collaborations are listed in the section on collaborations. Many disciplines are involved including chemistry, physics, environmental science, environmental engineering, meteorology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description AIRPOLL-Beijing 
Organisation University of York
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative project in which each partner has a specific role to play. The University of Birmingham is coordinator and manages the UK end of the activities. Consequently we have coordinated the production of the project overview paper and manage a project website. Our scientific contribution relates primarily to the receptor modelling of airborne particle concentrations. We have also contributed specialist instruments for work in areas such as new particle formation.
Collaborator Contribution Each partner has a specific role to play which was defined by the Science Case. These are multi-faceted and can be summarised only briefly. The University of Manchester is contributing advanced particle characterisation instruments and has a special interest in carbonaceous aerosol. The University of York has led the work on flux estimation, as well as making measurements of VOCs and studying of the composition of organic aerosol. The University of Cambridge has deployed low-cost air quality sensors and collaborated in parallel projects relating to personal exposure. Lancaster University has contributed measurement capability for volatile organic compounds and undertaken modelling with chemistry-transport models. The University of Edinburgh has analysed earth observation data to estimate pollutant fluxes. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has contributed advanced instrumentation for particle characterisation and has collaborated in the flux measurement studies. Tsinghua University has provided capability in aerosol mass spectrometry and much experience in the analysis of data from within China. It also maintains the emissions inventory. Peking University has contributed advanced instrumentation and data processing to the receptor modelling of airborne particles. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has provided the main experimental site for the research and leads the numerical modelling with their specialised chemistry-transport model. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry has contributed measurements of volatile organic compounds and organic aerosols and participated in the receptor modelling studies. The China University of Mining and Technology has contributed expertise on the physico-chemistry and toxicology of airborne particulate matter.
Impact Numerous research papers with multiple authors reflecting the collaborations are listed in the section on collaborations. Many disciplines are involved including chemistry, physics, environmental science, environmental engineering, meteorology.
Start Year 2016