An understanding of biomineralisation pathways is key to predict climate change impact on aquaculture.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Stirling
Department Name: Institute of Aquaculture

Abstract

The environment is changing as increasing carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. The atmosphere is warming and the oceans are absorbing more carbon dioxide and becoming more acidic. This reduction in ocean pH is known as ocean acidification. Calcium carbonate is abundant in the oceans as organisms such as shellfish produce protective shell structures. The amount of carbonate available in the oceans under ocean acidification will be reduced, limiting the ability of organisms to produce protective shells. This project will investigate the influence of ocean acidification and warming on the ability of three shellfish species to produce protective shells. Commercially available shellfish will be cultured under future ocean acidification and warming conditions in a laboratory. Shells will be tested for physical and material properties to understand the vulnerability of shells to fracture under changing environments and predation. This project will determine how molluscs produce their calcium carbonate shells, identifying the carbon source and route for shell production under changing climates. This knowledge will enable accurate predictions of the vulnerability of aquaculture to ocean acidification and warming. Feeding experiments and harvesting protocols will be developed to alleviate potential damage to shells during aquaculture for a more resilient, sustainable and more economical shellfish culture.

Planned Impact

The stakeholders of this project include the scientific community, businesses such as Loch Fyne Oysters, Environmental Agencies such as Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Government policy makers and members of the public including young people. The project has the potential to contribute to the nation's health by addressing the impact of climate change on shellfish culture environments, this is of particular importance to Environmental Agencies such as SEPA, who has a statutory duty under legislation to maintain good water quality. Mussel and oyster samples will be obtained locally from Scottish shellfish farms (Loch Fyne Oysters Ltd); results will be presented via meetings to Loch Fyne Oysters and disseminated across employees through their quarterly newsletter. This will communicate potential future issues in relation to culture of calcifying organisms under future ocean acidification. This has the potential therefore to impact the nation's wealth as shellfish culture of mussels provides a food resource and is therefore of economic importance to the nation. Knowledge transfer will be achieved as data is disseminated across the scientific community through publication in high impact journals and presentations at international conferences. The project also aims to increase the effectiveness of public services and policy by creating and communicating summaries of findings with regards to ocean acidification impact on shellfish in plain non-scientific language for government briefings. These will be communicated through government meetings with SF and members of Marine Scotland. The public and Scottish Tourism Board will benefit from the smart phone App aimed at transferring knowledge of the climate impact on shellfish populations in Scotland. This will be primarily available on the Scottish tourism website and potentially linked in with Loch Fyne Oysters Ltd to develop a means of show casing shellfish farms and restaurants along the West Coast of Scotland. The project will therefore add to the nations economic performance providing public services to increase tourism. The public will be able to access information regarding marine shellfish inhabiting Scotland's Lochs as they walk around Scotland's coastlines. There will be a link to the project website and twitter feed. Restaurants/ shellfish farms will be accessible for interested tourists. Ideas will be developed by SF, the application of the smart phone app will be outsourced. Dr Susan Fitzer will approach the Scottish tourism board through the University of Glasgow to coordinate ideas and development. Knowledge exchange will occur through secondary school workshops on ocean acidification. Workshops will be organised with Castlemilk High School in Glasgow to develop a secondary school video produced by the school students which can be disseminated through TWIG video access site through Education Scotland. Ocean acidification is now within the curriculum in Chemistry at secondary school levels of teaching, this will provide a resource for teachers. Public outreach will also be achieved through attendance and presentation of findings at the Glasgow Science Festival. These activities aim to enhance the quality of life and creative output through the project. Knowledge transfer will occur through social media using a twitter live feed, updated by Dr Susan Fitzer on a weekly basis. A project website linked into the University of Glasgow and to the twitter feed will also be updated twice monthly by Susan Fitzer.

Publications

10 25 50

Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
NE/N01409X/1 30/06/2016 31/12/2017 £522,302
NE/N01409X/2 Transfer NE/N01409X/1 01/01/2018 29/06/2022 £369,605
 
Description The biomineralisation pathway in oysters appears to change with coastal acidification of the environment in which they are grown. This was seen in the Sydney rock oysters growing in coastal regions of sulphate soil acidification, where similar carbon isotopic signatures were observed in the seawater and the calcite of the oyster shells grown in that environment suggesting that oysters change the way in which carbon is taken into the shells under environmental acidification. In addition selectively bred oysters for faster shell growth and disease resistance were able to change the carbon source into their shells, observed by differences in the carbon isotopic composition of the acidified seawater versus the shells.
Exploitation Route The biomineralisation pathway technique can be used and applied within the ocean acidification community to examine how carbon uptake changes in these environments in other marine calcifying organisms.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment

URL http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/gcb.14818
 
Description Contributed to a Royal Society Policy briefing 'Nourishing ten billion sustainably: resilient food production in a time of climate change'
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://royalsociety.org/-/media/policy/projects/climate-change-science-solutions/climate-science-so...
 
Description An evo-devo approach to invasive biology and adaptation to climate change
Amount £53,696 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2021 
End 05/2023
 
Description NSFDEB-NERC The blueprint for marine biomineralization in a changing climate
Amount £799,798 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/W005115/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2022 
End 07/2025
 
Description Shell breakage in farmed mussels during harvest and commercialisation
Amount £63,292 (GBP)
Organisation Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre 
Sector Multiple
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2021 
End 10/2022
 
Title Carbon isotope analysis of mussel and oyster extrapallial fluid 
Description A new method was developed to prepare and analyse mussel and oyster extrapallial fluids for carbon analysis using freeze dying. The analysis of the extrapallial fluids was adjusted from existing tissue carbon isotope analysis methods, this included adjustment of standards for mass spectrometry in collaboration with the Fellowship project partner at the Scottish Universities Environment Research Centre. This technique will be described in papers under preparation for the Fellowship, but is not yet available to others. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The development of this research method will ensure the completion of the objectives of the Fellowship research towards identifying the carbon pathway for biomineralisation in mussels and oysters under acidification. 
 
Title Collection of specimens of mussels and oysters from field sites with varying levels of natural acidification caused by freshwater run off and acid sulphate soils. 
Description A collection of mussel and oyster shell specimens have been obtained from field sites with varying levels of natural acidification caused by freshwater run off and acid sulphate soils. These shells will be examined for biomineralisation pathways and shell crystallography to determine how shellfish change their mechanisms of shell growth in changing acidification environments. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Oyster shells collected from sulphate soil acidfication sites will be used to identify whether growth reductions in oyster populations are a direct result of incresaed freshwater run-off caused by changing land uses and claimte change. This data will be fed back to local govenment and oyster farmers to identify problematic sites impacting oyster culture in the future. 
 
Title Data for the article 'Selectively bred oysters can alter their biomineralization pathways, promoting resilience to environmental acidification' supplied as supporting information in a word document through the publication DOI. 
Description Data for this article supplied in a word document through the Global Change Biology open access online publication. OSC. Files converted into images as maps for figures. Note all data archived for long-term storage in BODC archives, accession number SIA200216. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data have been used and archived by the IAEA Ocean Acidification International Coordinating Centre (OA-ICC), a data compilation is maintained to ensure the archival and streamlining of data on the biological response to ocean acidification (and other environmental drivers), as well as to promote easy access to the data for all users, recently simplified via a new data portal: http://oa-icc.ipsl.fr/. Data set archived via OA-ICC available here: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.911619 
URL https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/gcb.14818
 
Title Data set published with article 'Increased pCO2 changes the lipid production in important aquacultural feedstock algae Isochrysis galbana, but not in Tetraselmis suecica' 
Description Seawater carbonate chemistry and lipid production of Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis suecica associated with the article published in Aquaculture and Fisheries https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2468550X18302211?via%3Dihub. This data has been stored and is open access via PANGAEA, a data publisher for Earth and Environmental Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.919852 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This data set has been used and made available by IAEA Ocean Acidification International Coordinating Centre (OA-ICC), a data compilation is maintained to ensure the archival and streamlining of data on the biological response to ocean acidification (and other environmental drivers), as well as to promote easy access to the data for all users, recently simplified via a new data portal: http://oa-icc.ipsl.fr/. Data set DOI here: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.919852 
URL https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.919852
 
Title Supplementary data for 'Effects of extra feeding combined with ocean acidification and increased temperature on the carbon isotope values (d13C) in the mussel shell' 
Description This dataset provides supplementary environmental information (Table S1), statistical outputs (Tables S2-S7), and mussel tissue (Table S8), extrapallial fluid (Table S9), shell aragonite and calcite (Table S10) carbon isotope data used for Figures 2-5 for the publication 'Effects of extra feeding combined with ocean acidification and increased temperature on the carbon isotope values (d13C) in the mussel shell'. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data presented in supplementary data for the publication: Lee T. H., McGill R. A. R. & Fitzer S., 2021. Effects of extra feeding combined with ocean acidification and increased temperature on the carbon isotope values (d13C) in the mussel shell. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 541: 151562. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2021.151562. The dataset has been archived in Pangaea an IAEA Ocean Acidification International Coordinating Centre (OA-ICC) data compilation which is maintained to ensure the archival and streamlining of data on the biological response to ocean acidification (and other environmental drivers), as well as to promote easy access to the data for all users through a new data portal: http://oa-icc.ipsl.fr/and given a digital object identifier (doi;https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.932705). 
URL https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.932705
 
Title Supporting data for the article 'Coastal acidification impacts on shell mineral structure of bivalve mollusks' published in Ecology and Evolution. 
Description Data for this article supplied in a word document through the Ecology and Evolution open access online publication include seawater parameters, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) maps and misorientation angles from Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction analysis. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This article has been cited 9 times since publication. 
URL https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ece3.4416
 
Description An evo-devo approach to invasive biology and adaptation to climate change 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration has resulted in an awarded SUPER PhD studentship to examine the developmental mechanisms used to regulate shell growth traits in an invasive gastropod relevant to adaptation to ocean acidification and climate change. I will co-supervise the appointed student and provide support for the analysis of shell growth traits using microhardness testing.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators are primary supervisor of the PhD student to be appointed and provide the gastropods and a transcriptomic datasets already collected to examine genes regulated for shell growth traits.
Impact This multi-disciplinary project using an eco-devo approach combined with shell strength analyses has resulted int he award of SUPER DTP funding reported in the funding pages.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Coastal acidification impacts on oyster resources 
Organisation Department of Primary Industries New South Wales
Country Australia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This collaboration was initially funded by the University of Glasgow and Sydney (UoS) Early Career Mobility Fund. I visited the University of Sydney, Hunter Local Land Services (HLLS) and the Department of Primary Industries (DPI) New South Wales in May 2017 for meetings to present to DPI in Port Stephens and to present to HLLS and members of the public and local oyster farmers in Forster. Collaborators Prof. Maria Byrne (UoS), Brian Hughes (HLLS), Michael Dove and Wayne O'Connor (DPI) provided their time to sample local oyster farms where acid sulphate soils are causing problems for oyster growth in New South Wales. Since as part of the changing landscape of the NERC Fellowship I have performed data analysis to examine the changing biomineralisation pathways in oysters grown under naturally occurring coastal acidification. This continued collaboration has resulted in two publications 2018-2020.
Collaborator Contribution UoS, DPI, and HLLS provided their time, boat services, and oysters to provide samples towards my Fellowship research to analyses oyster biomineralisation pathways and determine if ASS are linked to reduced shell growth. All collaborators have been involved with meetings and experimental design for the sampling, the data collected has been prepared into two publications.
Impact Two articles have been published as published in the outputs: Fitzer SC, McGill RAR, Torres Gabarda S, Hughes B, Dove M, O'Connor W & Byrne M (2019) Selectively bred oysters can alter their biomineralization pathways, promoting resilience to environmental acidification. Global Change Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14818 Fitzer SC, Torres Gabarda S, Daly L, Hughes B, Dove M, O'Connor W, Potts J, Scanes P & Byrne M (2018) Coastal acidification impacts on shell mineral structure of bivalve mollusks. Ecology and Evolution, 8 (17), pp. 8973-8984. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/ece3.4416; https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4416
Start Year 2018
 
Description Coastal acidification impacts on oyster resources 
Organisation Hunter Local Land Services
Country Australia 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution This collaboration was initially funded by the University of Glasgow and Sydney (UoS) Early Career Mobility Fund. I visited the University of Sydney, Hunter Local Land Services (HLLS) and the Department of Primary Industries (DPI) New South Wales in May 2017 for meetings to present to DPI in Port Stephens and to present to HLLS and members of the public and local oyster farmers in Forster. Collaborators Prof. Maria Byrne (UoS), Brian Hughes (HLLS), Michael Dove and Wayne O'Connor (DPI) provided their time to sample local oyster farms where acid sulphate soils are causing problems for oyster growth in New South Wales. Since as part of the changing landscape of the NERC Fellowship I have performed data analysis to examine the changing biomineralisation pathways in oysters grown under naturally occurring coastal acidification. This continued collaboration has resulted in two publications 2018-2020.
Collaborator Contribution UoS, DPI, and HLLS provided their time, boat services, and oysters to provide samples towards my Fellowship research to analyses oyster biomineralisation pathways and determine if ASS are linked to reduced shell growth. All collaborators have been involved with meetings and experimental design for the sampling, the data collected has been prepared into two publications.
Impact Two articles have been published as published in the outputs: Fitzer SC, McGill RAR, Torres Gabarda S, Hughes B, Dove M, O'Connor W & Byrne M (2019) Selectively bred oysters can alter their biomineralization pathways, promoting resilience to environmental acidification. Global Change Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14818 Fitzer SC, Torres Gabarda S, Daly L, Hughes B, Dove M, O'Connor W, Potts J, Scanes P & Byrne M (2018) Coastal acidification impacts on shell mineral structure of bivalve mollusks. Ecology and Evolution, 8 (17), pp. 8973-8984. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/ece3.4416; https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4416
Start Year 2018
 
Description Coastal acidification impacts on oyster resources 
Organisation University of Sydney
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration was initially funded by the University of Glasgow and Sydney (UoS) Early Career Mobility Fund. I visited the University of Sydney, Hunter Local Land Services (HLLS) and the Department of Primary Industries (DPI) New South Wales in May 2017 for meetings to present to DPI in Port Stephens and to present to HLLS and members of the public and local oyster farmers in Forster. Collaborators Prof. Maria Byrne (UoS), Brian Hughes (HLLS), Michael Dove and Wayne O'Connor (DPI) provided their time to sample local oyster farms where acid sulphate soils are causing problems for oyster growth in New South Wales. Since as part of the changing landscape of the NERC Fellowship I have performed data analysis to examine the changing biomineralisation pathways in oysters grown under naturally occurring coastal acidification. This continued collaboration has resulted in two publications 2018-2020.
Collaborator Contribution UoS, DPI, and HLLS provided their time, boat services, and oysters to provide samples towards my Fellowship research to analyses oyster biomineralisation pathways and determine if ASS are linked to reduced shell growth. All collaborators have been involved with meetings and experimental design for the sampling, the data collected has been prepared into two publications.
Impact Two articles have been published as published in the outputs: Fitzer SC, McGill RAR, Torres Gabarda S, Hughes B, Dove M, O'Connor W & Byrne M (2019) Selectively bred oysters can alter their biomineralization pathways, promoting resilience to environmental acidification. Global Change Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14818 Fitzer SC, Torres Gabarda S, Daly L, Hughes B, Dove M, O'Connor W, Potts J, Scanes P & Byrne M (2018) Coastal acidification impacts on shell mineral structure of bivalve mollusks. Ecology and Evolution, 8 (17), pp. 8973-8984. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/ece3.4416; https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4416
Start Year 2018
 
Description Continued collaboration with University of Glasgow through undergraduate project co-supervision and publication of article. 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have continued to collaborate with colleagues Prof. Jaime Toney and Dr Julien Plancq at the University of Glasgow through co-supervision of undergraduate research projects. The data from two student projects was written as a research article for publication entitled 'Increased pCO2 changes the lipid production in important aquacultural feedstock algae Isochrysis galbana, but not in Tetraselmis suecica'. The article has been accepted for publication in the journal Aquaculture and Fisheries, March 2019, with the students as co-authors for this article. The data has also been used towards grant applications to the European Research Council as a starting grant to continue research through this collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Jaime Toney and Dr Julien Plancq at the University of Glasgow co-supervised undergraduate students based at Glasgow for the research entitled 'Increased pCO2 changes the lipid production in important aquacultural feedstock algae Isochrysis galbana, but not in Tetraselmis suecica'. Dr Julien Plancq lead the supervision at Glasgow and co-wrote the artcile since accepted for publication in the journal Aquaculture and Fisheries.
Impact A research article for publication entitled 'Increased pCO2 changes the lipid production in important aquacultural feedstock algae Isochrysis galbana, but not in Tetraselmis suecica' has been accepted for publication in the journal Aquaculture and Fisheries, March 2019.
Start Year 2018
 
Description FutureShell proposal submitted. 
Organisation Villefranche Oceanographic Laboratory
Country France 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I have analysed samples and co-authored a publication with collaborators Frederic Gazeau and Erin Cox entitled 'Ocean acidification affects calcareous tube growth in adult stage and reared offspring of serpulid polychaetes' which has been revised for publication in the Journal of Experimental Biology. The collaboration with Frederic Gazeau has resulted in the submission of a research proposal to ANR L'Agence nationale de la recherche to work on a collaborative project examining the impacts of acidification on oysters.
Collaborator Contribution Frederic Gazeau as research partner wrote and submitted and revised for the second round review the joint research proposal FutureShell submitted to ANR this year.
Impact 'Ocean acidification affects calcareous tube growth in adult stage and reared offspring of serpulid polychaetes' which has been revised for publication in the Journal of Experimental Biology. FutureShell research proposal under review by ANR L'Agence nationale de la recherche. CocoriCO2 project funded and will provide samples of mussels and oysters for future collaborations of shell growth traits.
Start Year 2018
 
Description IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE EUROPEAN ABALONE (IMPLACABLE) collaboration as project partner on a grant application 
Organisation National Museum of Natural History
Country France 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I have contributed to the application IMPLACABLE as part of the EU Biodiversa call application as project partner. The biomineralisation pathway techniques developed in oysters in the Fellowship will be applied to abalone from the project.
Collaborator Contribution Stéphanie Auzoux-Bordenave acted as lead PI for a grant application to the EU Biodiversa call submitted 5th November 2019. Stephanie will provide samples of commercial abalone for this project through Sylvain Huchette at France Haliotis to collaborate on the biomineralisation pathway research of the Fellowship.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary as part of the project I will examine the biomineralisation pathway in abalone and material properties including shell strength. This knowledge will be transferred to the abalone industry partners in France.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Shell breakage in farmed mussels during harvest and commercialisation 
Organisation University of Stirling
Department Institute of Aquaculture
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have provided expertise and support for shell hardness and fracture toughness analyses of farmed mussels for this project.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborator is lead investigator on the SAIC funded project and provides mussel samples and links to industry.
Impact This project has been awarded funding from the Sustainable Aquaculture Innovation Center.
Start Year 2020
 
Description ABC Sydney Radio Drive show radio interview 29th August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Media coverage as part of a press release by NERC associated with my recent publication in Ecology and Evolution. The press release resulted in an invitation for a radio interview with Richard Glover on ABC Sydney Radio Drive show to discuss recent publication on coastal acidification and the impact on oyster shells. Following my interview there was further discussion afterwards with other media and members of the public associated with the oyster industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.abc.net.au/radio/sydney/programs/drive/drive/10154772
 
Description Media release with the publication of the article 'Selectively bred oysters can alter their biomineralization pathways, promoting resilience to environmental acidification' in Global Change Biology. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A media release 'Farmed oysters able to protect themselves from acidification' was issued 26th September 2019 to promote the publication of the article 'Selectively bred oysters can alter their biomineralization pathways, promoting resilience to environmental acidification' in Global Change Biology. The release was issued through the University of Stirling and the University of Sydney through co-authors of the article. The media release resulted in several radio and television interviews with my co-authro Prof. Maria Byrne through ABC Sydney discussing the impact of the research on the oyster growers in New South Wales.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.stir.ac.uk/news/2019/09/farmed-oysters-able-to-protect-themselves-from-acidification/
 
Description NERC press release various media publications. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Media coverage as part of a press release by NERC associated with my recent publication in Ecology and Evolution. Articles were published online in the UK and Australia and in print in the UK. Online in Aquaculture Daily: http://aquaculturedaily.com/?edition_id=a1e7c970-a183-11e8-b85a-0cc47a0d1605#/ and the Guardian Sydney https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/aug/16/sydney-rock-oysters-getting-smaller-as-oceans-become-more-acidic?CMP=twt_a-environment_b-gdneco and World Fishing and Aquaculture https://www.worldfishing.net/news101/industry-news/sydney-rock-oysters-shrinking. In the Times UK newspaper on 16th August.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.worldfishing.net/news101/industry-news/sydney-rock-oysters-shrinking
 
Description Online event and downloadable school resources for Stirling Science Festival 'Shells on acid' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Stirling Science Festival ran online 15th October -5th November 2020. I published an online workshop entitled 'Shells on acid' to teach the public about the impacts of climate change on seashells. The online workshop provided downloadable resources to run experiments at home using seashells, cabbage juice, vinegar and bicarbonate of soda. Short video podcasts provided an overview of the topic of ocean acidification and instructions for the home experiments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://stirlingevents.org/tolbooth-event/stirling-science-festival-university-of-stirling-seashells...
 
Description Online event for Edinburgh Science Festival - Where is your next meal coming from? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An online event as part of Edinburgh Science Festival 'Where is your next meal coming from' with video podcasts to highlight our relationship with food in Scotland. Where this is going to change over the next few years due to changes in the way we grow, consume and distribute it. Our role as a society is to make sure that this change is a positive one. Aquaculture plays an important role in this.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.sciencefestival.co.uk/event-details/where-is-your-next-meal-coming-from
 
Description Publication of an article in The Conversation online the World's shellfish are under threat as our oceans become more acidic 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was asked to write an article for The Conversation following a media release with my publication in Global Change Biology 'Selectively bred oysters can alter their biomineralization pathways, promoting resilience to environmental acidification'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://theconversation.com/the-worlds-shellfish-are-under-threat-as-our-oceans-become-more-acidic-1...
 
Description Publication of high school career resources 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Publication of Futurum Careers School resources, including an article (https://doi.org/10.33424/FUTURUM173), a classroom activity sheet (https://futurumcareers.com/Susan-Fitzer_activity-sheet.pdf), a PowerPoint presentation and an animation (https://futurumcareers.com/Susan-Fitzer-how-does-climate-change-impact-aquaculture.mp4). These resources have been available online, and through UK teaching resources on www.TES.com. Futurum Careers provided a report on the use of the resources, 282 page views, 17 article downloads, 9 activity sheet downloads, 4 PowerPoint downloads, 41 animation views through their webpages.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://futurumcareers.com/how-does-climate-change-impact-aquaculture#:~:text=For%20shellfish%2C%20h...
 
Description The Big Fish Series - online seminars highlighting seafood's roles in sustainable food systems. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Big Fish Series is a free online seminar series with a purpose to highlight seafood's roles in sustainable food systems. The series is organised by Dave Little, Susan Fitzer and Armin Sturm of the Institute of Aquaculture. The first free online seminar went live on 9th December 2020 'Alternative Seafood- a sustainable food future?' the second seminar went live on 11th February 'Impacts of Covid-19 on Seafood Value Chains'. The series will run for four more seminars until July 2021.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021
URL https://thebigfishseries.stir.ac.uk/
 
Description Video for The Royal Society online campaign #2050challenge - Reaching net zero emissions by 2050 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was asked to record a video for The Royal Society #2050challenge - Reaching net zero emissions by 2050 to summarise my research to help countries of the world tackle climate change, biodiversity loss and achieve 'net zero' greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2050. The video was used as part of an online media campaign by The Royal Society to promote the Climate change: science and solutions briefings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://twitter.com/royalsociety/status/1397160519446978569
 
Description Wrote and article for Fish Farmer magazine special edition. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I wrote an article for Fish Farmer Magazine special edition by the Institute of Aquaculture entitled 'Repair routes: Predicting the impact of climate change on shellfish aquaculture'. The article was published in the Magazine 14th May 2018 https://issuu.com/fishfarmermagazine/docs/ioa_-_special.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://issuu.com/fishfarmermagazine/docs/ioa_-_special
 
Description Wrote and article for the Conversation. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wrote an article for publication online for the Conversation. This sparked discussion afterwards and I was contacted by ABC News Tasmania by email to discuss this further.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.stir.ac.uk/research/hub/publication/1101849