The UK Earth system modelling project.

Lead Research Organisation: National Oceanography Centre
Department Name: Science and Technology

Abstract

Global climate change is one of the leading environmental threats facing mankind. To develop appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies requires accurate projections of the future state of the Earth's climate. To address this, the research community have developed Global Climate Models (GCMs) that describe the main physical processes in the coupled climate system. These mathematical-computer models are integrated forwards in simulated time, from a pre-industrial period (before ~1850) to present-day, forced by observed estimates of key greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane, ozone), aerosols and land-use. The models are then continued into the simulated future forced by a range of greenhouse gas, aerosol and land-use scenarios representing plausible future socio-economic development pathways. Each of the time-evolving model future climates are then compared to the pre-industrial and present-day climates from the same model. This analysis results in an ensemble of climate change estimates, linked to each of the applied development pathways, that can be used to assess potential socio-economic and ecological impacts and aid in the development of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies.

GCMs have recently been further developed into Earth system models (ESMs). A key difference between ESMs and GCMs is the former include an interactive description of the global carbon cycle. Climate change is primarily driven by human emissions of carbon dioxide which traps a fraction of the Earth's emitted radiation in the atmosphere, warming it and the Earth's surface. This direct warming from increasing carbon dioxide can be amplified or damped by various feedbacks in the climate system (e.g. involving water vapour, clouds or sea-ice). A key determinant of the climate change impact of human-emitted carbon dioxide is how much of the emitted gas actually stays in the atmosphere where it can interact with the Earth's emitted radiation. Presently, around 50% of the carbon dioxide emitted by humans stays in the atmosphere, the remaining 50% being taken up, in roughly equal measures, by the terrestrial biosphere and the world oceans. There is increasing evidence to suggest the efficiency of these natural carbon reservoirs in absorbing human-emitted carbon dioxide may change in the future, being sensitive to both the concentration of carbon dioxide in the Earth system and to the induced climate change. A reduction in the uptake efficiency of Earth's natural carbon reservoirs would result in a larger fraction of emitted carbon dioxide remaining in the atmosphere and thereby a larger climate change (warming) for a given cumulative emission of carbon dioxide.

To address the need to simulate both the changing global climate and the carbon cycle response to a changing climate and changing atmospheric composition, we are developing the 1st UK Earth system model, based on the core physical GCM, HadGEM3, developed at the Met Office. This development is a major collaboration between NERC centres and the Met Office, integrating a large body of core research and development into a single, world-leading ESM. This proposal aims to secure the NERC funding to maintain this collaboration. The project will support the final development and community release of the 1st UKESM models, as well as application of these models to a range of collaborative science experiments carried out at the international level to support the IPCC AR6. The project has a major emphasis on evaluating the full range of climate and biogeochemical processes and interactions simulated by UKESM1 models with an aim to increase confidence in future projections made with the models. The project will also generate and analyse a suite of such projections and deliver a set of robust estimates of Earth system change to UK government, business and the public. Finally, the project will initiate long-term development of a 2nd version of the UKESM model, for release ~2023.

Planned Impact

The main beneficiaries of the project will be:The IPCC and intergovernmental policy makers, including: UK government: particular DEFRA and DECC, DFID, DfT and MoD; UK governmental agencies and industries requiring climate services information.

Maximising the UK Contribution to the IPCC AR6
An important motivation for UKESM1 is the delivery of science to underpin the UK contribution to IPCC AR6, peer reviewed scientific outputs of UKESM1 are expected to contribute to: Working Group (WG) I assessment of the scientific aspects of climate change; WGII assessment of the vulnerability of socio-economic and natural systems to climate change, and adaptation options; WGIII, assessment options for mitigating climate change.

Both the UKESM models themselves and the resulting simulation-data will be made openly available to the NERC research community, supporting a wide spectrum of Earth system science over and above that performed directly in this project. In addition, the UKESM core group will provide support to a number of UK universities planning contributions to other Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) in CMIP6. The result of this national collaboration will be an unprecedented UK contribution to CMIP6 and, through this, also an unprecedented contribution to IPCC AR6. Importantly, this contribution will be a national effort, coordinated across the 8 NERC centres in this project, MOHC and UK universities.

Science into Policy:
The Met Office Hadley Centre (MOHC) will benefit from this project through an enhanced capacity to investigate future Earth system change and provide knowledge support to UK government . The ensemble of future projections made with UKESM1 will be made available to the UK research community, with an emphasis on supporting the UK climate impacts research. CMIP6 simulation-data will form the backbone of future data sets used by the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S), charged with providing underpinning climate services data to European governments, business and the public. UKESM1 simulations will therefore constitute the primary UK contribution to C3S. We will ensure a subset of the UKESM1 projections produce output required for dynamical downscaling over the UK using either the Met Office Hadley Centre (MOHC) Regional Climate Model of the new MOHC-NERC coupled UK Environmental Prediction model. This activity will be carried out external to the UKESM project by MOHC scientists. The resulting high-resolution (~1.5-4km grid box resolution over the UK) projections, covering the UK and adjacent coastal waters, will be a major resource for UK planners and stakeholders concerned with the risks and opportunities associated with global change. The knowledge developed from the combination of UKESM1 projections and accompanying downscaled data will be an important support for UK government departments involved in planning and policy negotiations with respect to future global change.

Wealth Creation:
There is a growing demand for information on potential future climate states, apparent in the emerging 'Climate Services' sector. The UKESM project will feed information into this sector with a wide range of potential beneficiaries, including agriculture/food security, transport and the insurance sector. This This link can be both directly from the project, through downstream research (e.g. in climate impacts) using UKESM1 data, through use of dynamically downscaled UKESM1 data covering various regions of the globe and through UKESM1 projections being part of the Copernicus Climate Change Service.

Media Relations and Public Engagement:
There is an increasing need for the public to be informed about the science of climate change, how climate projections are made, including explanation of where projection uncertainties arise and how they impact our the delivery of robust future climate estimates. We will endeavour to contribute to this requirement through public presentations and information sheets.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Cross currents - UKESM described through poetry 
Description Through the cross currents project, five PML scientist was paired with five poets from Plymouth University. After meeting and discussing the scientists work, the poet prepares a piece of creative writing on the same theme. 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact We engaged the public, several local poets, and many members of creative writing clubs on the importance of climate change and the role of models. 
URL http://pml.ac.uk/Media_and_events/Events/PML_Events/Poetry_and_Marine_Science
 
Title Earth System Music - Music generated from the United Kingdom Earth System Model 
Description A series of seven (As of March 2020) musical pieces published on Youtube with a video. The pieces were procedurally generated using data from the United Kingdom Earth System Model (UKESM1), specifically the data products submitted to CMIP6. 
Type Of Art Composition/Score 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact These pieces were viewed over 1300 times (as of march 2020), which accounts for 19 hours viewing time. These pieces also resulted in a publication (currently in discussions phase) and an invitation to present these work at the sea change music festival in Dartington. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL27v682n8E2Sla8U7jJph9w9M6nYln-W3
 
Description We performed a preliminary analysis of a cascade of marine biogeochemistry component of UK ESM at horizontal resolutions of 1-, 1/4- and 1/12-degree. Using a lagrangian approach, we analysed five key oceanographic topics where improvements in biophysical interactions from increased resolution are most anticipated: 1. subtropical gyres - where low resolution models traditionally underestimate nutrient availability and, thus, primary production; 2. boundary currents - whose pathways and magnitudes play important roles in defining species compositions; 3. upwelling regimes - pivotal in nutrient supply, deoxygenation and acidification, and associated with our most productive fisheries; 4. ocean mixing - which controls carbon exchange between the deep ocean and the atmosphere, as well as structuring nutrient regimes throughout the world ocean; 5. Antarctic bottom water formation - critical for the long-term storage of anthropogenic carbon and the present-day distribution of key nutrients.


- The UKESM1 model was spun-up using a combination of component-only phases for land and ocean, followed by a period of fully-coupled simulation, with component-only phases spun-up under atmospheric forcing derived from precursors of UKESM1

- Model states from parallel ocean (~5000 year) and land (~1600 year) spin-up branches were united with the atmosphere and, later, the full atmosphere chemistry and aerosol component (~240 year)

- The resulting pre-industrial control has a top-of-atmosphere heat balance of less than -0.09 W / m2 and net atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-land CO2 fluxes of less than 0.1 Pg C / y

- Although equilibrated at global scale, analysis of land carbon fluxes found that regional shifts were significant, implying that longer spin-up periods are required to ensure regional as well as global equilibration

- Issues encountered during spin-up included consistency of the interfaces of component-only models, the duration and variability of the atmospheric forcing, including its overall consistency with atmospheric forcing in the target coupled model, and the important role played by rapid-turnaround evaluation tools

- While some tuning of UKESM1 was undertaken during spin-up, the slow turnover of the ocean component and conventional spin-up modes used here limited its scope, supporting the future tailoring of accelerated spin-up techniques to UKESM1 to reduce ocean biases, as well as achieve better equilibration

- A size-based model of benthic biomass, BORIS, has been coupled to output from a global-scale model of marine biogeochemistry, NEMO-MEDUSA, to examine present-day and future patterns of seafloor biomass

- Forced by temporally-varying POC fluxes, BORIS exhibits strong seasonal and interannual behaviour, with distinct patterns of timing for different components under different forcings, with important consequences for sampling

- Although there is considerable diversity in seasonal behaviour, mean annual biomass of the considered size classes is strongly dependent on the seafloor receipt of POC, highlighting the importance of good quantification of this key flux

- Compared with seasonality in POC fluxes to the seafloor, modelled seasonality in seafloor detritus and benthic organisms is much smaller, particularly with increasing organism size, with potential implications for sampling frequency

- Under future scenarios of climate change, modelled benthic biomass is found to decrease to a greater degree than surface productivity (-18% as compared to -6%), with deeper communities experiencing greater decline than in near-surface areas

- Absent forcing factors (temperature, oxygen, pH), as well as simplified ecological assumptions (implicit bacteria, no predation) have been identified as aspects for future improvement, with the acquisition of observations from more diverse benthic habitats of key importance
Exploitation Route Improvement of Uk ESM directly contributes to the objectives of IPCC and thus provides impact on global climate policy
Sectors Education,Energy,Environment

 
Title MEDUSA as a component of UK ESM 
Description MEDUSA (Model of Ecosystem Dynamics, nutrient Utilisation, Sequestration and Acidification) is developed as an "intermediate complexity" plankton ecosystem model to study the biogeochemical response, and especially that of the so-called "biological pump", to anthropogenically driven change in the World Ocean. The base currency in this model was nitrogen from which fluxes of organic carbon, including export to the deep ocean, were calculated by invoking fixed C : N ratios in phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus. However, due to anthropogenic activity, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has significantly increased above its natural, inter-glacial background. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact MEDUSA is a component model of UK ESM and as such it directly contributes to the future climate projections within the framework of IPCC 
URL http://www.geosci-model-dev.net/6/1767/2013/
 
Title Simulations with the sea ice model CICE documenting the impact of improved sea ice physics 
Description Sea ice thickness data (CryoSat-2) have been used to identify and correct shortcomings in simulating winter ice growth in the widely used sea ice model CICE. Here, we provide the data from CICE simulations documenting the impact of improved sea ice physics and the sensitivity to forcing and initial data. Adding a model of snow drift and using a different scheme for calculating the ice conductivity improve model results. Sensitivity studies demonstrate that atmospheric winter conditions have little impact on winter ice growth, and the fate of Arctic summer sea ice is largely controlled by atmospheric conditions during the melting season. A full description of the data processing and uncertainties is given by Schröder et al. (2018), 'New insight from CryoSat-2 sea ice thickness for sea ice modelling', in The Cryosphere. All simulations are listed in Tables 1 to 3 of this paper. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title UK Earth System Model 
Description The model was developed and tested on the internal UK Met Office HPC, with occasional test runs on MONSooN, the shared Met Office/NERC resource (including NEXCS, the NERC-only share of the machine). Following an extensive period of scientific testing, the model was made available to our collaborators for porting to other platforms. These include ARCHER, the UKRI national platform and machines run by some of the international members of the Unified Model Partnership - specifically, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and New Zealand's National Institute of Weather and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). The port to ARCHER is being performed by our colleagues in the Computational Modelling Services (CMS) unit of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS). As with other models, CMS will also provide front-line user support (in collaboration with the UKESM core group) for UKESM1 following its release. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact UK contribution to IPCC Assessment Report 6 
URL https://ukesm.ac.uk/portfolio-item/the-release-of-ukesm1-update/
 
Title UKESM1 CMIP6 simulation data 
Description UKESM1 simulations constitute the main contribution from the UK to the World Climate Research Program sponsored 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). All UKESM1 CMIP6 data is being made openly available to international researchers at the UK Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) node at the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis (CEDA), see: https://esgf-index1.ceda.ac.uk/search/cmip6-ceda/ 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact CMIP6 data forms one of the main internation climate modelling supports for the 6th Assessment Report of the IPCC. 
URL https://esgf-index1.ceda.ac.uk/search/cmip6-ceda
 
Description National Partnership for Ocean Prediction - NPOP 
Organisation Centre For Environment, Fisheries And Aquaculture Science
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I lead the ecosystem models Action Group
Collaborator Contribution the partnership has the aim to promote the use of operational oceanography for marine and maritime policy, management and industries
Impact the partnership organised workshops, conferences and meeting with stakeholders. It is multidisciplnary, involving physical and biological oceanographer, ecosystem modeller, remote sensing scientists and data assimilation scientists
Start Year 2016
 
Description National Partnership for Ocean Prediction - NPOP 
Organisation Meteorological Office UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I lead the ecosystem models Action Group
Collaborator Contribution the partnership has the aim to promote the use of operational oceanography for marine and maritime policy, management and industries
Impact the partnership organised workshops, conferences and meeting with stakeholders. It is multidisciplnary, involving physical and biological oceanographer, ecosystem modeller, remote sensing scientists and data assimilation scientists
Start Year 2016
 
Description National Partnership for Ocean Prediction - NPOP 
Organisation National Oceanography Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I lead the ecosystem models Action Group
Collaborator Contribution the partnership has the aim to promote the use of operational oceanography for marine and maritime policy, management and industries
Impact the partnership organised workshops, conferences and meeting with stakeholders. It is multidisciplnary, involving physical and biological oceanographer, ecosystem modeller, remote sensing scientists and data assimilation scientists
Start Year 2016
 
Title BGC-val: Biogeochemical model evaluation suite 
Description The BGC-val model evaluation suite. This is a python toolkit to evaluation marine models from netcdf to html. This release is associated with the paper submitted to Geoscientific Model Development: BGC-val: a model and grid independent python toolkit to evaluate marine biogeochemical models, Lee de Mora, Andrew Yool, Julien Palmieri, Alistair Sellar, Till Kuhbrodt, Ekaterina Popova, Colin Jones, and J. Icarus Allen, Geoscientific Model Development, 2018. gmd-2018-103 This file is the version 1.0.1 of BGC-val which is associated with the final version of the GMD paper. The previous beta version (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1215935) has been superseded by this version. A fully functional and documented snapshot of the BGC-val toolkit with an associated DOI address will be permanently available via the Zenodo service, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1320830. An up to date version will be available at via our in-house gitlab server: https://gitlab.ecosystem-modelling.pml.ac.uk/BGC-val-users/bgc-val Registration for the gitlab server is required: http://www.pml.ac.uk/Modelling_at_PML/Access_Code 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact This toolkit has been used for monitoring the spin up of the UKESM, speeding up the turnover of model production and validation iterations, while strengthening the role of collaboration between the multiple sites who contribute to the UKESM. Outside of the UKESM, this toolkit has also been applied to the NEMO-ERSEM model in the North Atlantic domain, to POLCOMS-ERSEM in the GCOMS North East Asia domain, and to many CMIP5 models products. 
URL https://www.geosci-model-dev.net/11/4215/2018/
 
Title ESMValCore 
Description ESMValCore: A community tool for pre-processing data from Earth system models in CMIP and running analysis scripts. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2020 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact This is the underlying processing core to the ESMValTool toolkit. 
URL https://esmvaltool.readthedocs.io
 
Title ESMValTool v2 (beta) 
Description ESMValTool v2: A community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth system models in CMIP. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2019 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact This toolkit is being used to evaluate CMIP5 and CMIP6 models. We also expect to use this toolkit to evaluate UKESM1 in the near future. Please note that L. de Mora is only one of a dozen or so contributions to this toolkit. 
URL http://esmvaltool.readthedocs.io/en/version2_development
 
Title ESMValTool: A community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth system models in CMIP. 
Description The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community-development that aims at improving diagnosing and understanding of the causes and effects of model biases and inter-model spread. The ESMValTool is open to both users and developers encouraging open exchange of diagnostic source code and evaluation results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) ensemble. This will facilitate and improve ESM evaluation beyond the state-of-the-art and aims at supporting the activities within CMIP and at individual modelling centers. We envisage running the ESMValTool routinely on the CMIP model output utilizing observations available through the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) in standard formats (obs4MIPs) or made available at ESGF nodes. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2020 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Widely used to evaluate CMIP6 models in and outside of IPCC reports. 
URL https://esmvaltool.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
 
Description GLORIA workshop held in Madagascar, 14-16 June 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Central to GLORIA research is a workshop held in Madagascar, 14-16 June 2016, where experts from the marine and climate sciences worked with Malagasy stakeholders to share information, explore adaptive solutions and develop recommendations for future action to minimize climate change impacts on marine-dependent, low-income communities.

Results from the workshop informed climate change adaptation efforts in Madagascar and elsewhere in the Western Indian Ocean and other regions where similar marine-dependent communities are also affected by rapid warming of adjacent seas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://gullsweb.noc.ac.uk/
 
Description Blue Dot Music and Science Festival 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact UKESM participated in the 2019 Blue Dot Music and Science Festival, held at Jodrell Bank Observatory, July 18 to 21 2019. (https://www.discoverthebluedot.com/home).

The festival attracted tens of thousands of visitors and our stand, entitled 'UKESM: A Model Earth' consisted of a brilliant display, with puzzles, an interactive quiz and climate oriented games suitable for children and families. In addition, the primary attraction at the stand was the interactive Pufferfish globe, on which we displayed six videos illustrating different aspects of the coupled Earth system and future Earth system change. Among the videos shown, visitors had the opportunity to explore latest simulation results from the 1st version of the UK Earth system model (UKESM1), released to UK researchers last February 2019 (for more information visit https://ukesm.ac.uk/project-outcomes/model-releases/).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.discoverthebluedot.com/profile/ukesm:-a-model-earth
 
Description Cross currents - UKESM described through poetry 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Through the cross currents project, we prepared and presented a public facing evening of science and poetry. Each scientist was paired with a poet. First the scientist presented a short description of their work, then the poet recited a poem written on the same theme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://pml.ac.uk/Media_and_events/Events/PML_Events/Poetry_and_Marine_Science
 
Description NERC Into the Blue Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact UKESM project participated at this event organised by NERC during October half-term and that was centred around the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) research aircraft.

A total of 5250 attendees across 5 days had the opportunity to visit our UKESM stand in the 'NERC Into The Blue Exhibition' at the Runway Visitor Park in Manchester last October. Around 40 exhibitors including scientists and volunteers from all NERC Institutes, plus some UK Research Centres and Universities, showcased and engaged with adults and children on numerous aspects of environmental and natural sciences; from marine DNA and biodiversity to climate change and atmospheric research.

'What's happening to our climate? - Modelling the future' was the title of our UKESM stand. The public, lots of children among them, interacted avidly with our projecting globe, games and quizzes. The PufferSphere globe borrowed for this particular event from the University of Reading, was a really engaging and educational attraction. Visitors could see and learn from a series of short movies projected inside the globe showing different aspects of the Earth system, including how carbon dioxide in the atmosphere moves across the planet, oceans currents distribute heat and nutrients along oceans, ice on land and sea-level changes occur, and the future temperature rise that our models can predict. Every visitor had the opportunity to interact with the globe, learn and ask any question to the UKESM team members present there. In addition, our stand had learning materials and information displayed in the form of three posters about (1) What is an ESM and its components, (2) How to model the climate, and (3) What do climate models tell us about the future; together with information leaflets and climate change quizzes for all audiences. The children's favourite though was our games. We had a simple and educative online 'Drag and drop puzzle game on ESM components' (you can play the game online) in a flat screen connected to a laptop, which was extremely popular among children ranged 7-12 years old. We also developed for this event a game named Climate spinner, to help explain uncertainty and the likelihood to increase global mean temperature from present day and its relationship to the different scenarios (socioeconomic pathways).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://ukesm.ac.uk/portfolio-item/ukesm-at-into-the-blue/
 
Description NOC annual science open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The NOC annual science open day is open to the general public, with typically 500+ people of all ages and interests visiting the centre.

The modelling exhibition uses electronic displays, latterly interactive ones, to illustrate the properties of the ocean - physical and biological - that are the focus of our work. This allows us to talk to individual visitors or groups on general topics around ocean physics (circulation, seawater properties) and marine biology (productivity, nutrients), and on high-interest contemporary topics such as climate change and ocean acidification (including how these will affect general ocean properties). Ongoing Arctic change and wider Earth system science are particular focuses.

Our open day presentations aim to (a) introduce general oceanographic concepts (as illustrated by models), (b) introduce and explain the role of modelling in oceanography and Earth science, (c) entrain and inform school pupils and undergraduate students about careers and career paths in oceanography.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL https://noc.ac.uk/education/open-days
 
Description Public talk on marine biogeochemical modelling at the Science Cafe Southampton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A general talk (60 minutes) on marine biogeochemical modelling was delivered to an audience of around 20 members of the general public (17 December 2019). The talk concluded with an extended period (45 minutes) of questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In the first week of July 2017, The Royal Society held their annual flagship Summer Science Exhibition, in the society's home in London. Consistently attracting tens of thousands of curious visitors each year, the exhibition remains as prestigious as it was at its creation, and an incredible opportunity for members of the scientific community to show off their work to the public and develop public understanding of the amazing work that these teams do. That year the UKESM project was one of the 22 exhibits at the event from about hundreds of applications to this high profile public unique dissemination opportunity, showcasing "the best of UK science" and visited by around 14,000 members of the public, including some schools, press and Royal Society Fellows.

UKESM's stand was the only one in the field of climate science. Our stand, 'A Model Earth' consisted of a brilliant display, puzzles, an interactive quiz, climate oriented games, information, and our crowd-pleaser: the interactive puffersphere globe, where we alternated in displaying 6 different videos to provide s visual explanations of different aspects of the Earth system. Members from all areas of the project pitched in to help on the stand throughout the week and although completely exhausting, I've yet to come across someone who didn't have an amazing and enjoyable experience.

https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2017/summer-science-exhibition/exhibits/a-model-earth/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2017/summer-science-exhibition/exhibits/a-model...
 
Description UKESM newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The UKESM newsletter has been published regularly since 2015, and is designed to keep the Earth System Modelling community up to date on the progress and advances in the UKESM model. There have been 10 editions (as of MArch 2020), with contributions from across the UKESM Core Development group and wider LTSM project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020
URL https://ukesm.ac.uk/category/news/newsletters/
 
Description UKESM website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact UKESM-project official website as a hub of information regarding the project, team members, areas of work, outcomes, Newsletters, further information on events, workshops etc. Website visitors come from national as well as international locations, with an average number of 200 visitors a month in the last year (March 2018 to March 2019).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019
URL https://ukesm.ac.uk/