Impact of El Niño on malaria vector dynamics in Tanzania: observation, improvement and unleashing forecasting potential

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Institute of Infection and Global Health

Abstract

El Nino events have been shown to impact significantly on many vector-borne diseases (VBDs), including malaria, dengue, Rift Valley fever and others. While the link between El Nino and disease is well established, the mechanism underlying it is not fully resolved, but probably involves impact of the change in rainfall patterns (often drought and then heavy rain, or vice versa) or altered temperatures brought by El Nino on the vectors themselves. Here we aim to take advantage of the collection over the past 9 years of detailed entomological data on one VBD to detect a perturbation to vector dynamics caused by the current El Nino event. The strength of the current El Nino, the existence of high quality entomological data, the inclusion of the team responsible in this proposal, and access to local meteorological data provide a unique opportunity to understand how El Niño events trigger the emergence of VBDs.

We focus on malaria, which remains the VBD with the greatest impact on human mortality and morbidity, and propose new fieldwork in the Kilombero valley area of central Tanzania, where there is a 30% prevalence of infection in people. Malaria is caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and it is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. The spatial limits of malaria distribution, its seasonal activity and the mosquito vector dynamics are very sensitive to climate factors, as well as the local capacity to control the disease.

The aim of this proposal is to characterize the chain of connections between the current El Niño event, its impact on regional and local climate, and the subsequent consequences on malaria vectors and malaria burden in Tanzania. This is carried out to better understand how El Nino affects malaria, and in order to build an early warning system prototype for malaria risk in Tanzania.

We will achieve this though the use of new and standard technologies to measure mosquito vector properties within the Kilombero Valley. We will undertake 12 months of detailed entomological study in a number of previously-studied villages in the region, in the expectation of detecting a change or perturbation to vector dynamics or behaviour caused by El Nino. These new data will be analysed in the context of the 9 years of historic data already collected between 2006-2015 (this field campaign ended in May 2015), as well as malaria clinical data and different climate datasets, ranging from regional scale satellite estimates to local scale meteorological station data available for the studied region. Detailed weather data for the areas are available from a local weather station, and will be supported by temperature/humidity data collection in the study villages.

Based on the findings, we will develop a better understanding of how El Nino impacts on malaria and its vectors (with applicability to a wider range of VBDs) and build a prototype early warning system for malaria risk in Tanzania. This will be a useful resource for local decision makers and public health specialists to target and allow vector control resources in future.

Planned Impact

Malaria remains one of the world's great scourges, killing an estimated 600 thousand people per year (the majority - 91% - in Africa) and causing huge levels of morbidity. Young children and pregnant women are the most affected groups. According to WHO, some 3.4 billion people (half the global population) live at risk of malaria, across 106 countries. WHO data indicate that mortality and morbidity caused by malaria exceed the total of all other human vector-borne diseases added together.

Malaria imposes costs on individuals and their families (who need to purchase drugs, or travel to hospital, miss work or school; or suffer death or bereavement). It also imposes costs for governments which need to fund health care facilities and public health interventions. There are lost opportunities from economic ventures and tourism. The direct costs of malaria have been estimated to be US$12 billion per year; the indirect costs are even greater.

Several studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated that the negative impact of malaria is intensified during El Nino periods. The full mechanism of action is, however, largely unresolved. We aim to exploit the strength of the current El Nino and the existence of high quality entomological data to finally understand the basis of this linkage. Our results will facilitate the implementation of appropriate control measures (against the vectors) during El Nino events. We will also use the results to develop a prototype Early Warning System for malaria in Tanzania, based on climate observations and seasonal forecasts. If effective, this is expected to provide a significant (2-3 month) lead-time malaria risk forecast in which control measures can be implemented before disease transmission intensifies. While the specific climate drivers of malaria vary regionally, it is likely that elements of this Early Warning System will be relevant to a wider area of Africa and elsewhere. This prototype will require a period of further validation before it can be used operationally, and this will not be achievable within the time span of this project.

Beyond academia, therefore, the main beneficiaries of the proposed research will be VBD control planners, public health policy makers and affected communities themselves.

The impact of this work will extend beyond malaria, as ENSO impacts on most and possibly all VBDs and even some non-VBDs. For example, the very strong El Nino in 1997-1998 led to floods in the desert area of north and northeast Kenya, which in turn gave rise to an epidemic of Rift Valley fever (RVF). There were an estimated 27,500 human infections, and 170 deaths were recorded. RVF affects livestock and people; in addition to the direct human mortality, an estimated two-thirds of pastoralist livestock died in some regions, leading in turn to food shortages, further impacting food security and human health.

The ultimate aim of this project is to improve understanding of how El Nino impacts on VBDs and, by doing so, move towards predictive models and early warning systems. By collecting high quality entomological data during the current strong El Nino we have a chance of detecting a clear signal - e.g. a perturbation in vector dynamics linked to El Nino - with relevance to a broader range of VBDs

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title The Effects of Global Climate on Mosquitoes and Malaria in the Kilombero Valley 
Description Video of the project 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact 72 views (25/02/19) The video was displayed during the meeting "Building resilience to the impacts of El Nino" held at the Royal Society, London, 15th May 2018: https://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/events/2018/building-resilience-impacts-el-nino-lessons-field.html 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rYeny_1cIqs
 
Description At the start of the La Niña 2016 (June to August 2016) the abundance of the main malaria vectors in East Africa (An. arabiensis and An. funestus) both increased. However, during the peak of La Niña, aforementioned conditions led to a drought, resulting in a significant decrease in the number of An. funestus collected. This is consistent with the standard La Niña impact seen over the region. The population of An. arabiensis was not as badly impacted as the population of An. funestus during the drought. It should be noted that mosquito abundance during these months (Oct to Dec) is usually very low. Consequently, La Niña was associated with a further decrease in mosquito abundance over the region. The long rainy season (Mar - At the start of the La Niña 2016 (June to August 2016) the abundance of both An. arabiensis and An. funestus increased. However, during the peak of La Niña, aforementioned conditions led to a significant drought, resulting in a significant decrease in the number of An. funestus collected. This is consistent with the standard La Niña impact expected over the region. The population of An. arabiensis was not as badly impacted as the population of An. funestus during the drought. It should be noted that mosquito abundance during these months (Oct to Dec) is usually very low. Consequently, La Niña was associated with a further decrease in mosquito abundance over the region. The long rainy season (Mar - May/June) started later than usual, and while the population of An. arabiensis increased rapidly, An. funestus numbers were first seen to decrease even further before recovering. These differences in abundance dynamics between the two dominant malaria vectors in the Kilombero Valley under these weather conditions are consistent with their differing micro-climatic preferences. Relative humidity and temperature ranges coinciding with the highest abundance of An. arabiensis collected in and outside houses were wider (40-100% RH and 17-36ºC) than those during peak numbers of An. funestus, ( 45-100% RH and 17-33ºC, with the majority at 24-27ºC). The wider micro-climatic range of An. arabiensis is consistent with its exophily (preferring to stay outdoors) and thus more were caught host seeking outdoors than indoors. The reverse was true for An. funestus which is more endophilic (prefers indoors). The decline of An. funestus during prolonged dry conditions is consistent with previous findings for West Africa. There, the species almost vanished from the western part of the Sahel in the early 2000s, following a dramatic drought that affected the region. Overall, An. funestus seems to show less resilience to drought conditions than An. arabiensis. The study confirmed the influence of ENSO and micro-climate on malaria vector abundance and host-seeking behaviour. This generates hypotheses for predicting the impact of future ENSO on malaria risk and vector control. In particular our observation of higher outdoor biting activity during warmer conditions indicates that vector control strategies targeted in indoor environments may unfortunately become proportionally less effective during this time.

C. Caminade (U. Liverpool) also interacted with D. MacLeod (U. Oxford, involved in the NERC Forpac project) to study the impact of El Niño and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on the regional climate of East Africa during 2015-16. The positive phases of ENSO (El Niño) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) have been linked to intense rainfall over Eastern Africa during the short rains season. Using climate observations and coupled climate model experiments, we showed that the enhanced rainfall over East Africa is closely related to concomitant positive phases of the IOD and ENSO. The positive phase of the IOD with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the west and cold SSTs in the East Indian Ocean boosts surface easterly anomalies crossing the Indian Ocean, bringing more moisture and increasing local convection and rainfall over Eastern Africa. During the 2015-16 El Niño, the precipitation anomaly over most of East Africa in the short rains (October-December) season was less intense than previous El Niños (as experienced in 1997-98), due to weak negative anomalies in the East Indian Ocean and consequently less intense easterlies. However assessment of operational seasonal forecasting systems and model experiments reveals a strong wet signal predicted over East Africa in 2015-16, which is shown to be related to too-strong surface easterlies and a too-cold east Indian Ocean. Sensitivity experiments conducted with coupled climate models show an amelioration of the too strong wet signal when the East Indian Ocean lower troposphere is constrained towards reanalysis data. Overall, our results suggest that the ENSO-IOD link may be too strong in at least the ECMWF dynamical seasonal forecast system and raises the possibility that model predictions for the East African short rains during strong El Niño may have a conditional bias toward wet events. These results suggest that preparedness actions based on these outlooks may lead to more actions in vain than should be expected from a reliable forecast system. Further work is therefore required to better understand the ENSO-IOD link and improve its representation in current state of the art coupled climate models.
Exploitation Route Similar studies should be undertaken during future El Ninos, but it is essential that they begin quickly. The clear finding that mosquito populations react to climate, leads to new research projects led by collaborators on the optimization of vector control intervention selection and measurement of impact on vector borne diseases of distinct climatic strata in Tanzania.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare

 
Description Like in many other places in Sub-Saharan Africa, malaria interventions in the Kilombero Valley have had great success. However, climate and its change affect disease vector ecology and thus human malaria risk and the progress has stalled. Our project aimed to elucidate the teleconnections between El Niño/La Niña and the mosquito population. The socio-economic impact of the project so far included educational benefits to the community in the Kilombero Valley as well as capacity building among the researchers involved. Throughout the project, we engaged with the community who supported our mosquito trapping efforts and weather data collection and therefore increased the awareness of malaria risk and its link to climate. During a public engagement event, our findings were explained such as the connection between increased mosquito density and rainfall as well as differences in mosquito host-seeking preferences depending on temperature and humidity. Consequently, the community is better informed and can work with the government on new and improved intervention strategies. Close engagement with other researchers from collaborating institutions since the start of the project is building capacity in climate and disease research and creates a new wave of climate-engaged scientists among African researchers. New projects have been formulated to address the effect of climate change on vector borne diseases, understand system dynamics, create predictive risk models, and inform policy decisions.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Healthcare
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Citation by the Centre for Climate and Security
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://climateandsecurity.files.wordpress.com/2017/06/epicenters-of-climate-and-security_the-new-ge...
 
Title Entomological and microclimate data logger data for the Kilombero valley in Tanzania 
Description Field entomologists working at IHI and at the University of Glasgow have been trapping and collecting primary malaria vectors for four villages in the Kilombero Valley: Lupiro (8.38°S-36.67°E), Kidugalo (8.51°S-36.52°E), Minepa (8.26°S-36.68°E) and Sagamaganga (8.07°S-36.8°E). Trapped mosquitoes were identified to species level (An. gambiae, An. funestus and An. Coustani), their sex recorded (male or female) and their abdominal status (fed or unfed) noted in 2016-17 for this project. When available, the daily mosquito data was consistently linked to micro climate data logger data (weather conditions on site, including averaged, minimum and maximum daytime and night time values for temperature and humidity). This long record allows exploring the relationship between malaria vector dynamics and related environmental conditions. This data set has been successfully uploaded to the NERC-EID database and a doi has been successfully assigned. The data reference is as follows: "Kreppel, K.; Govella, N.J.; Caminade, C.; Baylis, M.; Ferguson, H. (2018). Entomological and microclimate data logger data for the Kilombero valley in Tanzania. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. [1] https://doi.org/10.5285/89406b06-d0aa-4120-84db-a5f91b616053". The data is embargoed until 01/2019. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None 
URL https://doi.org/10.5285/89406b06-d0aa-4120-84db-a5f91b616053
 
Description Ifakara Health Institute 
Organisation Ifakara Health Institute
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Collaborating on this project. IHI staff trapping mosquitoes in local villages
Collaborator Contribution Designing study and undertaking field and laboratory work
Impact none yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description LSCE/CEA, Paris and Universite de Versailles 
Organisation Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Collaboration with Gilles Ramstein (LSCE/CEA, Paris) and Margaux Charra (LSCE/CEA Paris). Cyril Caminade co-supervised M. Charra (PhD student - project funded by CEA) and he is a co-I on the EPICLIM project (CEA-DRF IMPULSION - about 20k Euros - PI G. Ramstein). M. Charra stopped her PhD due to personal reasons - a new PhD student (A. Chemison) has been recruited and started her PhD in Oct 2019.
Collaborator Contribution Shared contribution between Liverpool and LSCE/CEA - PhD poposal and EPICLIM ANR project proposal, attendance to a conferences and seminars for the funders (CEA, Saclay). One publication in preparation
Impact Successful PhD studentship (M. Charra - funded by CEA now A. Chemison). Successful funding for the EPICLIM project (about 20k Euros) - which focuses on the impact of ice-destabilization scenarios on malaria burden in Africa. One publication in preparation
Start Year 2017
 
Description Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) 
Organisation Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)
Country France 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution E. Rogenhofer (MSF, Vienna) contacted S. Kienberger (U. of Salzburg), C. Caminade and A.P. Morse (U. Liverpool) and A. Tompkins (ICTP) to produce malaria simulations for the North Kivu district in DRC. MSF had to respond to a large malaria outbreak in 2014-15 over this region (about 1500m) - see http://www.msf.org/en/article/democratic-republic-congo-malaria-epidemic-%E2%80%9C-pediatric-unit-crammed-beds%E2%80%9D. The multi-disciplinary team discussed these issues on skype, C. Caminade (U. Liverpool) produced LMM simulations for the region of interest, produced a few key figures and drafted a report for MSF. Results show that climate conditions were exceptionally conducive for malaria transmission over this region in 2014-15.
Collaborator Contribution A. Tompkins (ICTP) ran more malaria simulations using the Vectri malaria model. All partners helped on the paper/report draft. We are now waiting for MSF to send clinical field data to validate our simulations. This work should lead to a high impact publication, raising further concerns about the risk of malaria to climb in mid-altitude region under future climate change conditions.
Impact Publication in preparation (waiting for MSF colleagues to send field clinical data to validate our model simulations).
Start Year 2017
 
Description NOAA Climate Prediction Center - Africa desk 
Organisation National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution C. Caminade and A.P. Morse (U. Liverpool) collaborate with W. Thiaw and I. Diouf (NOAA-CPC Africa desk) to develop an early warning system prototype for malaria risk in Africa based on the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM, work in progress). Caminade helped I. Diouf to install the LMM on the NOAA servers. I. Diouf already produced prototype plots for the CPC website. The malaria forecast data is not public yet. Standard weather products provided by the NOAA-CPC African desk can be accessed at [http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/international/africa/africa.shtml]
Collaborator Contribution Our partners have small funding from NOAA to develop an early warning system prototype for malaria risk in Africa based on the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM). I. Diouf already installed the LMM on the NOAA servers and he produced prototype plots for the NOAA-CPC website. Caminade provided advice on other potential directions (looking at other diseases like meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa and heatwaves) NOAA federal funding has been secured until 2022 One publication: "Climate variability and malaria over West Africa" by Diouf et al., 2020 (NOAA) was accepted for the American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene (in press)
Impact Diouf presented his results to the (1) AGU fall conference in Louisiana, USA and (2) CORDEX Meeting, 12-16 Feb 2018 in Cape Town (South Africa).
Start Year 2017
 
Description St Francis hospital, Ifakara 
Organisation St Francis Hospital, Tanzania
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Non official partner on this grant. We contacted staff members at St Francis hospital to acquire anonymous clinical data for Ifakara.
Collaborator Contribution They sent us anonymous data on malaria clinical infections in their hospital
Impact none
Start Year 2016
 
Description University of Glasgow 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Partners in this project
Collaborator Contribution Partners in this project
Impact none yet
Start Year 2016
 
Title Entomological and microclimate data logger data for the Kilombero valley in Tanzania 
Description Open Government Licence - Shared copyright for this dataset between NERC, the university of Glasgow, the university of Liverpool and the Ifakara Health Institute. 
IP Reference  
Protection Copyrighted (e.g. software)
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed Yes
Impact none
 
Description Climate change impacts on health in Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact On 5th of July 2018, K. Kreppel gave a lecture on "changes in disease as a result of recent climate changes in Tanzania" to U.S. students from the School for International Training visiting Arusha, Tanzania. The NERC-funded malaria /El Nino project was used as an example for current research needs and its findings discussed in detail with the students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2018
URL https://studyabroad.sit.edu/
 
Description Comment for Yale climate connections - "malaria climate change past present future" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Comment for Yale Climate connections about climate change effects on malaria in the USA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2018/10/is-malaria-more-likely-in-a-warmer-u-s/
 
Description Community engagement activity - Lupiro village in the Kilombero Valley of Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact After the data collection was finished and the exploratory analysis had been completed, findings of the study were reported to the village elders in Lupiro, in the Kilombero Valley in August 2017. Village elders or their representatives and household owners involved in the study were invited for an informal meeting and any questions about the study were answered and study results and implications explained in Swahili. About 15-20 people came. This dialogue led to an increase in public awareness due to explaining the aim of the study to all household owners before they gave consent and answering questions at the end of the study in Lupiro.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Contribution to mainstream scientific article for reseau action climat france 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact C. Caminade contributed to a mainstrean scientific for Reseau Action Climat, NGO based in Paris, which is coordinating national actions for climate change issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://reseauactionclimat.org/changement-climatique-favorise-encephalite-tiques-virus-moustique-tig...
 
Description Interview & contribution to an article for Le Figaro Sciences "Rechauffement La Terre en 2050", Jun-Jul-Aug 2019 - "la nouvelle carte du paludisme" page 78 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to an article for a mainstream science magazine sold in kiosk
Sold out / not available at https://boutique.lefigaro.fr/produit/129693-la-terre-en-2050 but available from other retailers (see link below)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.zeens.fr/247407/46846/figaro-sciences-hs
 
Description Invited keynote presentation - "Maladies infectieuses vectorielles et changement climatique", French Academy of Medicine, Paris, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Caminade was invited to give a prestigious keynote presentation (Maladies infectieuses vectorielles et changement climatique) by a working group commissioned by the French academy of Medicine (Commission XIV), lead B. Swynghedauw. Contribution to a report titled "Impacts of climate change on human and animal health", involving world leading French scientists in several fields, biodiversity, air pollution, vector-borne diseases, heat mortality... (7 May 2019).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited keynote presentation - British Association for Veterinary Parasitology, University of Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Caminade was invited to give a keynote presentation (Impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases, past, recent and future trends) for BAVP, winter meeting 2018, in Cambridge, UK (10-11 Dec 2018).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://bavp.org.uk/meeting-news/bavp-winter-meeting-cambridge-10-11th-december-2018/
 
Description Invited keynote presentation - The International Society for Neglected Tropical Diseases (ISTND Bites), Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Caminade was invited to give a keynote presentation (Impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on regional climate and malaria vector dynamics in Tanzania) for ISNTD Bites 2019 "Vector control in public health programmes: from evidence base to disease control" in Liverpool, UK (20 June 2019). Talk and participation in debate (Panel 2 discussion).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.isntdbites.com/programme-2019/4594637923
 
Description Invited presentation - 8th annual humanitarian symposium: humanitarianism in the modern world - media, movement & hidden populations, Liverpool School of tropical Medicine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Caminade was invited to give a presentation (Climate change and health, a humanitarian challenge) for the 8th annual humanitarian symposium: humanitarianism in the modern world - media, movement & hidden populations, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK (13 Nov 2018).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.lstmed.ac.uk/news-events/events/8th-annual-humanitarian-symposium-humanitarianism-in-the...
 
Description Invited presentation - The London NERC Doctoral Training partnership 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Caminade is invited to give a presentation (Impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases) for the The London NERC Doctoral Training partnership (Feb 2020)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://london-nerc-dtp.org/2019/12/06/teaching-week-february-2020/
 
Description Meeting "Building resilience to the impact of El Nino" organised at the Royal Society, London 15th May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The research team (Baylis, Caminade, Morse, Kreppel) attended the meeting "Building resilience to the impact of El Nino" organised at the Royal Society, London on 15th of May 2018 [https://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/events/2018/building-resilience-impacts-el-nino-lessons-field.html]

During the meeting:
The team displayed live Anopheles Gambiae mosquitoes (with camera and laptop) and the youtube project video on a stand
K. Kreppel presented the main results of the project in plenary session
The team contributed to various outputs during the multi-disciplinary discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/events/2018/building-resilience-impacts-el-nino-lessons-field.html
 
Description NERC-DFID El Nino synthesis workshop examining resilience at the University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact It pulled together teams from across the El Nino impacts projects to develop outputs and a workshop for a wider community. We discussed how our projects directly or their outputs could develop resilience to future events driven by climate variability especially El Nino in each of the regions, worldwide, that the individual projects were based. This has lead to the meeting at The Royal Society in May 2018 that two-stage programme featuring a one day, high profile and open audience event aiming at exchanging ideas and creating networks between different sectors and interest groups, followed by a second day featuring working group sessions with key stakeholders, aiming at identifying lessons learned from the recent El Niño event. Our proposed dissemination event provides the platform for the 14 individual projects, and the four synthesis projects, to share their findings
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.iccs.org.uk/event/building-resilience-impacts-el-nino-lessons-field
 
Description Opinion piece for Infectious Disease Hub - "Climate change and pestilence: vector-borne diseases in a changing world" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Caminade was invited to write an opinion article for Infectious Diseases Hub
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.id-hub.com/2019/09/10/climate-change-pestilence-vector-borne-diseases-changing-world/?fb...
 
Description Outreach event - The Emergence of an Environmental Citizenship - "Night of Ideas" at the Alliance Française in Manchester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Caminade was invited to give a public/outreach presentation (climate change and health) at the Alliance francaise in Manchester for the night of Ideas event organised by the French Institute (31 Jan 2019)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://nightofideas.co.uk/uk-wide/
 
Description Public outreach event, Everyman cafe, Liverpool 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact C. Caminade presented - The four horsemen, climate change and planetary health. Public outreach event - Infectious Science in the pub series, Everyman cafe, Liverpool, 6 March 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Radio Interview for BBC World Service, Crowd science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio Interview for BBC World Service, Crowd science, Spider Silk and Super Fly Senses - Sep 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/w3csv3dw
 
Description US NOAA CPC Africa Desk and Tanzania Meteorological Agency - Climate and Health Workshop 10-12 August 2016, in Dar es Salam, Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The meeting was to look at the development climate services for health in East Africa and was jointly organised between the Africa Desk, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA, USA and the Tanzania Meteorological Agency and invited participants from meteorological and health services across East Africa. The use of climate information in health early warnings is an emerging theme as challenges to deal with climate variability and the frequency of extreme events such as flooding, drought, dust storms, and heat waves, increase. The international community under the leadership of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and within the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) is heavily engaged in exploring opportunities to enable climate based health early warning systems. CPC proposes to build on expertise to support decision making in food security, to reach out to the health community, working in partnership with health organizations both domestically and internationally. The training workshop on the basic understanding of climate variability including the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The objectives of the workshop are: (1) To bring about awareness on climate variability and extremes among the health specialists so they can better inform NOAA of their real needs in climate; (2) To enable CPC to identify the gaps and priorities for these regions in terms of the use of climate information in health early warning system; and (3) To develop products that the health sector can use for informative decision making; (4) To enable NOAA and NWS to develop a strategy for each of the regions moving forward to foster long term collaboration with national and international institutions working on climate and public health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description Webinar "Climate Change and Infectious Diseases" organised by "Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE)", USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Caminade gave a live webinar "Climate Change and Infectious Diseases" organised by CEH - with interactive questions from the public (USA participants mostly).
Related video on youtube: https://youtu.be/Ij_tNphdRTs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.healthandenvironment.org/webinars/96503?fbclid=IwAR3PkddpzJZ0E2q2ZkV_fG3B6laG81q564leSKE...