CADTIME: Clean Air for Delhi Through Interventions, Mitigations and Engagement

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Sch of Engineering

Abstract

The Clean Air for Delhi Through Interventions, Mitigations and Engagement (CADTIME) project aims to understand what is required to deliver significant reductions in levels of air pollution, within the confines of factors which are under our control, through affordable, effective interventions that consider and respond to future changes.

CADTIME brings together a consortium of institutions and experts from across both India and the United Kingdom with the goal of addressing air quality issues that affect people's health in Delhi. This goal will be achieved through the development of an Integrated Action Plan (IAP), detailing strategies and potential interventions for mitigating air pollution in both the city, and surrounding region.

The IAP will be based on development of a sound understanding of the current contributing factors to air pollution across the domestic, transport, industrial and agricultural sectors, for Delhi, as well as forecasting of how those sectors will change across the short, medium and long terms. The plan can only be realised through the contributions of government agencies, local stakeholders and collaboration with population at large. The use of workshops, focus groups and extensive consultation will ensure that proposed strategies are realistic, clearly defined, well targeted and mindful of technological and social constraints. Above all strategies will be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. They will also be far-thinking and cross-cutting, embracing political, technological and behavioural change.

The CADTIME project is envisaged to run over a 48-month period. Initial stages of the project will involve the development of modelling tools, such as collating emissions inventories and dispersion models, as well as the collection of information on current policies and best practice for mitigation within the city and region. The international nature of the consortium will allow a golden opportunity for academics and researchers from both nations to learn from each other. Latter stages of the project will see collaboration with stakeholders coming to the fore, as the IAP takes definition and shape. Care will be taken to ensure that, wherever possible, the strategies defined for Delhi will also have relevance to other major urban areas in the sub-continent. In addition to Delhi, the CADTIME consortium includes the Indian Institutes of Technology of Madras and Bombay. Ultimately, the beneficiaries of the CADTIME project will be the Indian People and Government through a reduction in the burden of ill health that is inflicted upon them by air quality.

Planned Impact

The overall aim of this research is to develop and deliver a comprehensive, scientifically-robust, novel, integrated approach that manages industrial, domestic and vehicle emissions, in Delhi from a local to regional scale and creates a platform for research to inform policy decision-making. Air pollution in Delhi is a complex problem with multiple sources and receptors and therefore multiple stakeholders. In order to ensure its success the project must have the ownership of the policy-makers and practitioners that will be responsible for its implementation. Furthermore the implementation of these policies and practices must have the support and buy-in from businesses and the public. To achieve an integrated approach, stakeholder engagement is key to the development and delivery of this research.
Ultimately, the main beneficiaries will be those who live, work and go to school in Delhi and are exposed to health-damaging levels of air pollution on a daily basis. Reducing air pollution will have a direct impact on the health and well-being of Delhi's residents and workforce, both short-term and long-term as exposure is reduced over the 35 year implementation period of the action plan. As well as the obvious social benefits that this will achieve, both in terms of levelling the imbalance of social and environmental equity associated with air pollution, as well as the quality of life improvements for all, there will be economic benefits in terms of health-cost savings and improved productivity.

While the indirect aim of this research is to improve air quality and reduce associated mortality, morbidity and its social costs, the project's primary impact will be achieved through the development and delivery of an integrated air quality action plan to enable the city to achieve the greater aim of improved air quality for itself. The main direct beneficiaries will therefore be the policy makers and practitioners with whom the integrated air quality action plan will be developed, and who will benefit from the coordination of an effective and workable solution to enable them to manage the complex air pollution situation in Delhi. In addition, there will be inevitable efficiency cost savings arising from this coordinated and integrated approach, both for local and regional governments and for emission source sector businesses.

In order to understand the complexities and opportunities for managing air pollution in Delhi and to achieve active stakeholder engagement, the project is underpinned by a series of workshops held in Delhi with participants from:

* government departments and agencies with responsibility for the main sources of air pollution associated with waste, transport, construction and energy;
* government departments and agencies with responsibility for public health;
* business representatives of the waste, transport, construction and energy sectors;
* educational establishments, community groups and members of the public.

Participants will be drawn from across Delhi and the local region in order to capture sources and impacts across the wider urban catchment, thereby achieving a more holistic and effective approach and broadening the impact and benefits across the region.

The engagement with schools, communities and the public will have an additional educational aspect that will inform and empower individuals and families to create their own lifestyle and behavioural changes generating personal social and economic benefits that will aggregate up to achieve meaningful and sustainable community benefits. Grassroots education and action will also provide the bottom-up stimulus to ensure political support for the integrated actions promoted within the air quality action plan thereby securing its success.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description CADTIME project has started analysing historic air pollution data from Delhi and NCR (National Capital Region) and the initial analyses indicate the higher levels of PM and NO2 levels showing strong correlation with seasons, wind speed, wind direction and boundary layer height. We have carried out exhaustive review of policy related to air pollution in particular and have analysed the time scale of their impact and will now associate with the historic air pollution levels to determine effectiveness of various policy measures and interventions.
Exploitation Route Engage with key stakeholders in developing new interventions to control air pollution in Delhi/NCR
Sectors Construction,Energy,Environment,Transport

 
Description CADTIME team have conducted several focus groups with general public to discuss air pollution in Delhi and how it affects their lives, and what the public think of the interventions adopted so far. CADTIME team also has conducted interviews with experts from National Green Tribunal, Pollution Control Boards (Central and states) to understand their perspective on the effectiveness of past and current air pollution mitigation measures. This has created significant non-academic impact.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Construction,Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Transport
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description CPD Course to a Chinese delegation CPD 19th September 2018 Fujian Transportation Group, China. Professor Bell contributed a full days lectures covering the basics of traffic management and control in urban areas and the impact on the environment, carbon emissions air quality and noise and the impacts on health. The course was attended by 20 delegates and included a visit to the UTMC, urban Traffic management and Control Centre.
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description NICE Guideline (NG70) Air pollution: outdoor air quality and health
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng70
 
Description Cycling in the City Programme Evaluation
Amount £21,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 005558 
Organisation Newcastle City Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 03/2018
 
Description UKCRIC - CORONA: City Observatory Research platfOrm for iNnovation and Analytics
Amount £1,011,544 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R013411/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2020
 
Description Global Challenges Research Fund consortium 
Organisation Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The consortium is led by Prof Sotiris Vardoulakis, IOM. This consortium submitted a research proposal to GCRF and has passed the Stage 1. The consortium is now developing the full proposal involving more than 25 partners in Asia, Africa and UK. The proposal is titled GCRF Clean Air Low Carbon Cities Hub.
Collaborator Contribution The consortium is led by IOM with CADTIEM partners (Newcastle University and UWE) as contributing partners.
Impact A full proposal with a budget of £15m is being developed.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Newcastle University, IIT Delhi And RM Lohia Network on Air Quality and Health 
Organisation Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital
PI Contribution Newcastle University , Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital have set up a network and working group on the topic of Air Quality and Health. This is to develop collaborative research and prepare joint proposals.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital will bring expertise on health effects of air pollution, more specifically cognitive effects. IIT Delhi will bring expertise on air quality monitoring and modelling. Newcastle University will contribute to air quality management
Impact Ideas for collaborative research and joint proposals.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Newcastle University, IIT Delhi And RM Lohia Network on Air Quality and Health 
Organisation Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Newcastle University , Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital have set up a network and working group on the topic of Air Quality and Health. This is to develop collaborative research and prepare joint proposals.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital will bring expertise on health effects of air pollution, more specifically cognitive effects. IIT Delhi will bring expertise on air quality monitoring and modelling. Newcastle University will contribute to air quality management
Impact Ideas for collaborative research and joint proposals.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Responding to the invitation to have input to the PIARC report on Approaches to Air Quality in relation to road operations. 
Organisation Transport Scotland
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution By raising awareness of sources of emissions and how they disperse in the urban environment and tactical and strategic solutions using ITS presented to the PIARC Working Group the ensuing knowledge influenced the writing of the report. Following on from the presentation given in November 2017 at the joint meeting of the ITS(UK) SEIG and the PIARC World Road Association air quality groups, Bell was invited to provide input to and feedback on the PIARC Working Group 1 of Technical Committee 3.2 report "Approaches to Air Quality in Relation to Road Operations" which included the Role of Intelligent Transport Systems and Case Studies. Case studies contributed include the Demonstration of the NUIDAP in AQATANE and Tactical and strategic management that emerged from research funded by the EU in the fifth Framework which built on earlier SRC/EPSRC research funded during the 1987-1997 period in the days when Bell was lecturer/senior lecturer at Nottingham University and Directed the Instrumented City funded by the SERC/EPSRC. Research outputs were shared also from earlier projects funded by the EPSRC in the period 1997-2007 whilst senior lecturer/professor at Leeds University including the real-world emissions measurements, driver behaviour and canyon modelling..
Collaborator Contribution Sharing the goals of the report and a wider view of non technological approaches to delivering solutions to air quality problems.
Impact Contribution to their reports.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Air Quality Management Resource Centre 21st annniversary event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An event to mark the 21st anniversary of the Air Quality Management Resource Centre. Delegates invited from across air quality management spheres in local and national government, professional organisations. Retrospective presentations on the development of Local Air Quality Management and presentations from active researchers in the AQMRC including from Dr Laura De Vito on the CADTIME project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BBC News Look North Tuesday 18th February. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Recorded interview following the Public consultation launch by the Newcastle City Council on introducing Road Charging to reduce pollution in the city of Newcastle, Gateshead and North Tyneside. Professor Margaret Bell explains the health risk of traffic related pollution specifically to pregnant women, young children and the elderly.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description CADTIME Focus groups 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Focus groups conducted with members of the public in Delhi as part of the CADTIME research. The purpose of the focus groups is to better understand baseline air quality policy measures, how much is known about them and how impactful they have been on people's lives. This understanding will help us develop policies measures in the next stage of the project that will seek to learn from the previous experience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description CADTIME interviews 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Conducted interviews with Indian stakeholders as part of the CADTIME research. The purpose of the interviews is to better understand baseline air quality policy measures (historical and current) and the challenges and opportunities encountered in their implementation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description DGEM seminar series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research seminar on "Developing a mitigation strategy for air quality in Delhi" held as part of the departmental seminar series open to staff, students and the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with school children in Delhi 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Engaged with school children at Delhi Public School, New Delhi.
October 20198
Gave a talk on air pollution and informed about the research being carried out in CADTIME project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Interview on BBC Radio 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC live radio on the Alfie and Anna at Breakfast (BBC Radio Newcastle, Tuesday 18th February)
Professor Margaret Bell talks about traffic congestion and air pollution. https://bbc.in/2SLKtrK (listen from 2:55:33)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://bbc.in/2SLKtrK
 
Description Interviewed live on BBC Radio Newcastle. Discussion on air quality and health. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed live on BBC Radio Newcastle. See the description below:
Dr Anil Namdeo talks about the effect of air pollution on human health, pollution levels in the region and what can reduce them.
https://bbc.in/2KxiUeb (listen from 18:53)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://bbc.in/2KxiUeb
 
Description Interviewed live on BBC Radio Newcastle. Expert opinion on air quality and health. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was interviewed by BBC Radio Newcastle for their coverage on air quality in the UK cities, more specifically in the North East England. My expert opinion were sought on the link between air quality and health, and how general public, policy makers and planners reduce the exposure to air pollution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Keynote address on Future Cities: Role of Urban Form on Sustainability Impacts of Cities 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited keynote address.
Organiser: Peking University
Conference title: Future City Conference
Dates: 15-17th December 2017
Location: Shenzhen, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Live radio interview with BBC Radio Somerset (21 October 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Live radio interview with BBC Radio Somerset (21 October 2018) talking about CADTIME project following reported pollution episode in Delhi.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public Engagement in the SPARK Science Festival in Hong Kong 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I led the Newcastle University team taking part in the British Council organised SPARK Science Festival in Hong Kong. This was to commemorate 70 years of British Council in Hong Kong.
With more than 30 events over three days and over 50 creative and education partners from the UK and Hong Kong, SPARKinvolved school children and general public with interactive experiences, provocative performances, stimulating talks and other innovative happenings.

Newcastle University team demonstrated air quality monitoring equipment and involved the participants in monitoring individual's exposure to air pollution by taking them on a short route passing through busy roads, junctions and a park. Data analysed and results presented during the workshop and had general discussion with the participants on how we can minimise exposure to air pollution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.britishcouncil.hk/en/spark/about