Meteoric Influences on Stratospheric Aerosol and Clouds (MeteorStrat)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leeds
Department Name: School of Earth and Environment

Abstract

Volcanic injections of sulphur brighten the stratospheric aerosol layer with major eruptions inducing periods of strong cooling within global mean surface temperature trends.

The stratospheric ozone layer shields us from harmful UV radiation, and accurately predicting how it will recover relies on predicted changes in stratospheric aerosol and polar clouds.

The MeteorStrat project addresses two key knowledge gaps that limit current predictive capability of composition-climate models, both associated with the effects from the continual supply of meteoric material entering the upper atmosphere.

Firstly, recent in-situ observations have confirmed findings from the late 1990s that most particles in the stratospheric aerosol layer contain refractory core of meteoric origin, posing a major challenge to the current generation of interactive stratospheric aerosol models.

Secondly, how the polar stratospheric clouds, that provide the medium by which emissions of compounds such as CFCs leads to polar ozone loss, form in the Arctic has remained a persistent uncertainty, limiting the confidence of model predictions for how the ozone layer will recover.

The MeteorStrat team have made two breakthrough research findings that uniquely enable to address long-standing questions in stratospheric aerosol and PSC science.

Firstly, our global model "meteoric smoke interaction experiments" show major effects from extra-terrestrial material, the meteoric inclusions radically altering the vertical distribution of sulphuric particles, challenging how models predict changes in the stratospheric aerosol layer.

Secondly, our laboratory PSC freezing experiments reveal that rather than ablation-generated smoke particles (which were found to be poor NAT nuclei), it is an inclusion of non-ablated meteoric fragment particles that may explain how many NAT particles nucleate in the Arctic.

This project builds on these exciting research findings with two hypotheses addressing the overarching aim to assess how cosmic dust influences the composition of the stratosphere.

A. That meteoric-sulphuric particles are larger, with shorter stratospheric residence times,
has important consequences for how models predict decay from volcanic enhancement
B. The mechanism by which solid nitric acid PSCs form in the Arctic can finally be explained
by the non-ablated meteoric fragments providing the preferential NAT nuclei

We will combine our internationally-leading laboratory and modelling capabilities to test these hypotheses. Our workplan addresses the following 5 related science questions:

1. How far do the high-latitude source meteoric-sulphuric particles extend to lower latitudes and
how variable is their mid-latitude abundance across different seasons and years?
2. Do the larger meteoric-sulphuric particles effect a faster volcanic decay timescale and if so
what are the implications for the surface cooling attributed to volcanic eruptions?
3. What is the source flux and size distribution of the non-ablated "meteoric fragment" input
and how do smoke or fragments transform into Junge layer meteoric-sulphuric particles?
4. How do the distinctly composed meteoric fragments facilitate NAT freezing and what are the
implications of the laboratory findings compared to smoke-driven parameterizations?
5. Can meteoric influence explain observed PSCs and how is Arctic ozone loss enhanced?

A key philosophy of the project involves gathering in situ and satellite measurement datasets to ensure model predictions are observationally-constrained and calibrated to maximise confidence in research findings.

The project will provide the UK Earth System Model with vital capability to simulate future changes to the stratosphere, in particular for the effects from volcanic and potential stratospheric sulphur or particle geoengineering.

Planned Impact

MeteorStrat is focussed on two key features of the Earth's atmosphere, the stratospheric aerosol layer and the stratospheric ozone layer. The research will quantify how both layers are influenced by cosmic dust particles, which are continuously entrained down into the upper atmosphere as small meteoroids burn up during atmospheric entry. The research will also lead to better understanding of natural influences on climate, principally from volcanic injections of sulphur.

Our science will inform upcoming international assessments of climate (CMIP6) and of the stratospheric aerosol (SSiRC) and will be of direct interest to government departments, chiefly the BEIS "Science and Innovation for Climate and Energy" directorate and the DEFRA "Strategic Evidence and Analysis Team".

Results from MeteorStrat will feed into the upcoming IPCC AR6 assessment and any future WMO/UNEP ozone or stratospheric aerosol assessments. We have been heavily engaged with these in the past, with co-I Chipperfield serving as convenor or lead authors for several WMO/UNEP assessments.

We have budgeted to fund a 1-day workshop during year 3 of the project (autumn 2020) to engage with other leading scientists, media and government civil servants on the effects of cosmic particles on stratospheric aerosol and PSCs.

MeteorStrat will further develop community modelling tools for chemistry-climate and Earth System Modelling studies and the wider public will benefit from more robust predictions of future stratospheric change.

Our existing collaborations with the UK Met Office and the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts, and the inclusion of the GLOMAP aerosol scheme within the UK Earth System Model and the flagship atmospheric monitoring system C-IFS provides guaranteed impact from the model improvements.

The general public has a keen interest in the environment, and climate change in particular.

It remains extremely important to engage with the public and to provide latest scientific evidence related to these issues. We already do this and MeteorStrat will increase our efforts in this regard.

As such, policy makers, national and European meteorological services and the general public will all benefit from the research findings from this project.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The new Leeds aerosol modelling capability for meteoric-sulphuric particles within the stratospheric aerosol layer is now an agreed element of volcanic/stratospheric aerosol monitoring capability being developed within the 2nd phase of the "Development of global aerosol aspects" consortium to progress the Composition-IFS (C-IFS) modelling system, which provides operational atmospheric composition forecasts and re-analyses within the flagship European "Copernicus" atmospheric monitoring system (CAMS). The Leeds aerosol module GLOMAP is now validated within the pre-operational cycle for C-IFS, and the volcanic/stratospheric aerosol capability will be a new application of the C-IFS-GLOMAP, incorporating the simulated interactions between meteoric smoke particles and sulphuric acid aerosol in the stratosphere (both represented within GLOMAP). With the use of the operational CAMS aerosol products, and the capability for predicting the effects from a future major volcanic eruption on the stratospheric ozone layer, surface climate metrics, satellite retrievals and different industries (e.g. solar energy), the impacts from this new volcanic aerosol capability will be considerable.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Environment
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Collaboration with US research teams re: measurements of stratospheric aerosol 
Organisation National Center for Atmospheric Research
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution At the Dec 2018 AGU fall meeting in Washington DC, Prof. Deshler, Dr. Kalnajs and Dr. Mann discussed the findings of the Leeds research team's UM-UKCA stratospheric aerosol model predictions, and invited Leeds to participate as an additional modelling activity aligned to the 2019 and 2020 field campaigns (see below). The Leeds MeteorStrat PI (Mann) joined the initial Skype planning meeting in January 2019 and explained the basis for how the Leeds team could contribute with initial simulations being run by the Leeds PDRA with work over the next 6-9 months to prepare for a bigger UK modelling contribution to the Apr-Jun 2020 campaign. Prof. Deshler has also agreed to visit Leeds in September 2019 to share the data from the campaign, and discuss dedicated model experiments the Leeds team are running, to understand the progression of the meteoric-sulphuric particle abundance as the polar vortex forms and deepens through Antarctic autumn and into winter.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Terry Deshler (Univ. Wyoming) is a project partner on the MeteorStrat project, and at the time the Leeds team were writing the MeteorStrat proposal, Prof. Deshler was preparing an NSF proposal seeking funding for two field campaign phases at McMurdo station in the Antarctic (in collaboration with Lars Kalnajs at NCAR, on high-altitude-balloon-borne condensation particle counter and optical particle counter measurements) which would measure at an unprecedented altitude (above 35km due new lightweight design, and during the autumn-winter period rather than the usual winter-spring period (usually selected due to monitoring of the ozone hole) The NSF research grant also involves Brian Toon's stratospheric aerosol and PSC modelling group at NCAR/Colorado Univ) to combine the measurements and modelling capabilities to interpret what the observations measure in the two autumn-winter seasons (Apr to Jun 2019 and Apr to Jun 2020).
Impact Agreed contribution to science aligned to the NSF project, and research papers are planned reporting the findings to the community after the 2019 field campaign.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with US research teams re: measurements of stratospheric aerosol 
Organisation University of Wyoming
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution At the Dec 2018 AGU fall meeting in Washington DC, Prof. Deshler, Dr. Kalnajs and Dr. Mann discussed the findings of the Leeds research team's UM-UKCA stratospheric aerosol model predictions, and invited Leeds to participate as an additional modelling activity aligned to the 2019 and 2020 field campaigns (see below). The Leeds MeteorStrat PI (Mann) joined the initial Skype planning meeting in January 2019 and explained the basis for how the Leeds team could contribute with initial simulations being run by the Leeds PDRA with work over the next 6-9 months to prepare for a bigger UK modelling contribution to the Apr-Jun 2020 campaign. Prof. Deshler has also agreed to visit Leeds in September 2019 to share the data from the campaign, and discuss dedicated model experiments the Leeds team are running, to understand the progression of the meteoric-sulphuric particle abundance as the polar vortex forms and deepens through Antarctic autumn and into winter.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Terry Deshler (Univ. Wyoming) is a project partner on the MeteorStrat project, and at the time the Leeds team were writing the MeteorStrat proposal, Prof. Deshler was preparing an NSF proposal seeking funding for two field campaign phases at McMurdo station in the Antarctic (in collaboration with Lars Kalnajs at NCAR, on high-altitude-balloon-borne condensation particle counter and optical particle counter measurements) which would measure at an unprecedented altitude (above 35km due new lightweight design, and during the autumn-winter period rather than the usual winter-spring period (usually selected due to monitoring of the ozone hole) The NSF research grant also involves Brian Toon's stratospheric aerosol and PSC modelling group at NCAR/Colorado Univ) to combine the measurements and modelling capabilities to interpret what the observations measure in the two autumn-winter seasons (Apr to Jun 2019 and Apr to Jun 2020).
Impact Agreed contribution to science aligned to the NSF project, and research papers are planned reporting the findings to the community after the 2019 field campaign.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Leeds contributing meteoric-sulphuric model capability as agreed part of 2019-2022 stratospheric aerosol modelling component of European "Copernicus" atmospheric monitoring programme 
Organisation Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy
Country Belgium 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Leeds research team (PI Mann) have agreed to collaborate with the other international groups (Olivier Boucher, Sam Remy, CNRS Paris and Michael Schulz, Met Norway) to analyse simulations of the stratospheric aerosol layer with the modelling component (Composition-IFS) of the flagship European atmospheric monitoring programme Copernicus, during its 2nd phase (Apr 2019 to Mar 2022). There are two strands of activity for the stratospheric aerosol layer modelling in CAMS-aerosol phase 2, with simulations of the quiescent (background) aerosol layer and those to forecast the progression of volcanic aerosol plumes. During the 1st phase of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS), from Apr 2016 to Mar 2019, the Leeds aerosol microphysics module GLOMAP-mode (already a core component of the joint NERC-Met Office UK Earth System Model) was validated in the pre-operational Composition-IFS system (independently by the CNRS and Met Norway groups) in advance of the switch-over from the mass-based aerosol scheme currently being applied for operational global aerosol forecasts and re-analyses. Leeds contributed model "initialisation fields" from major volcanic aerosol simulations the group carried out in 2017/2018 with the interactive stratospheric aerosol configuration of the UK's composition-climate model UM-UKCA. These simulations are based on a "what-if" major eruption scenario for how the minor Agung eruption in October 2017 could have progressed. The experiments essentially scale-up from 1963 event (about half the sulphur from 1991 Pinatubo) to a Tambora-scale event (approximately 10 times the sulphur from the 1963 Agung event). These initialisation fields then were applied in the European Composition-IFS system to enact the same scenarios within the weeks-to-months timescale the Integrated Forecasting System is designed to predict for. Following discussion at the 2016 CAMS assembly in Athens, the Leeds group agreed to collaborate with KNMI scientist Vincent Huijnen and BIRA scientist Simon Chabrillat (who were contributing to the Global Reactive Gases consortium project within the Copernicus CAMS programme). The team agreed to, as an additional element (not originally planned within 1st phase of CAMS), combine the interactive stratospheric ozone modelling capability they had produced with the interactive stratospheric aerosol capability the Leeds group were developing.
Collaborator Contribution The CNRS modelling group ran simulations of the Holhuraun eruption (Iceland) and Calbuco eruption (Chile) and the additional what-if scenario for the October 2017 minor eruption of Mt Agung (Bali) progressing to major eruption on the scale of the 1963 event (and larger). The KNMI scientist (Huijnen) contributed the stratospheric chemistry modelling, adding sulphur chemistry following the reaction-set the Leeds group implemented in the UK model (see Dhomse et al. 2014). The BIRA scientist (Chabrillat) contributed improvements to the representation of the photolysis cross-sections for the gas phase sulphur species in the Dhomse14 scheme and advised KNMI on the stratospheric chemistry developments. KNMI have joined the CAMS43 consortium for the 2nd phase of CAMS43 (Apr 2019 to Mar 2022), the co-operation continuing to progress these initial model experiments towards an operational volcanic aerosol plume forecasting capability within Composition-IFS.
Impact Peer-reviewed journal publications are planned during 2nd phase CAMS43 reporting the results from predictions with the Composition-IFS volcanic aerosol forecasting system, and re: the quiescent stratospheric aerosol layer (incorporating the meteoric-sulphuric particles). With the GLOMAP system now validated to become the aerosol scheme for the operational CAMS global aerosol forecasting and re-analysis system (co-ordinated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting), there are likely to be a range of important impacts arising from this progression in capability in the coming years.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Leeds contributing meteoric-sulphuric model capability as agreed part of 2019-2022 stratospheric aerosol modelling component of European "Copernicus" atmospheric monitoring programme 
Organisation European Union
Department Comenius
Country European Union (EU) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Leeds research team (PI Mann) have agreed to collaborate with the other international groups (Olivier Boucher, Sam Remy, CNRS Paris and Michael Schulz, Met Norway) to analyse simulations of the stratospheric aerosol layer with the modelling component (Composition-IFS) of the flagship European atmospheric monitoring programme Copernicus, during its 2nd phase (Apr 2019 to Mar 2022). There are two strands of activity for the stratospheric aerosol layer modelling in CAMS-aerosol phase 2, with simulations of the quiescent (background) aerosol layer and those to forecast the progression of volcanic aerosol plumes. During the 1st phase of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS), from Apr 2016 to Mar 2019, the Leeds aerosol microphysics module GLOMAP-mode (already a core component of the joint NERC-Met Office UK Earth System Model) was validated in the pre-operational Composition-IFS system (independently by the CNRS and Met Norway groups) in advance of the switch-over from the mass-based aerosol scheme currently being applied for operational global aerosol forecasts and re-analyses. Leeds contributed model "initialisation fields" from major volcanic aerosol simulations the group carried out in 2017/2018 with the interactive stratospheric aerosol configuration of the UK's composition-climate model UM-UKCA. These simulations are based on a "what-if" major eruption scenario for how the minor Agung eruption in October 2017 could have progressed. The experiments essentially scale-up from 1963 event (about half the sulphur from 1991 Pinatubo) to a Tambora-scale event (approximately 10 times the sulphur from the 1963 Agung event). These initialisation fields then were applied in the European Composition-IFS system to enact the same scenarios within the weeks-to-months timescale the Integrated Forecasting System is designed to predict for. Following discussion at the 2016 CAMS assembly in Athens, the Leeds group agreed to collaborate with KNMI scientist Vincent Huijnen and BIRA scientist Simon Chabrillat (who were contributing to the Global Reactive Gases consortium project within the Copernicus CAMS programme). The team agreed to, as an additional element (not originally planned within 1st phase of CAMS), combine the interactive stratospheric ozone modelling capability they had produced with the interactive stratospheric aerosol capability the Leeds group were developing.
Collaborator Contribution The CNRS modelling group ran simulations of the Holhuraun eruption (Iceland) and Calbuco eruption (Chile) and the additional what-if scenario for the October 2017 minor eruption of Mt Agung (Bali) progressing to major eruption on the scale of the 1963 event (and larger). The KNMI scientist (Huijnen) contributed the stratospheric chemistry modelling, adding sulphur chemistry following the reaction-set the Leeds group implemented in the UK model (see Dhomse et al. 2014). The BIRA scientist (Chabrillat) contributed improvements to the representation of the photolysis cross-sections for the gas phase sulphur species in the Dhomse14 scheme and advised KNMI on the stratospheric chemistry developments. KNMI have joined the CAMS43 consortium for the 2nd phase of CAMS43 (Apr 2019 to Mar 2022), the co-operation continuing to progress these initial model experiments towards an operational volcanic aerosol plume forecasting capability within Composition-IFS.
Impact Peer-reviewed journal publications are planned during 2nd phase CAMS43 reporting the results from predictions with the Composition-IFS volcanic aerosol forecasting system, and re: the quiescent stratospheric aerosol layer (incorporating the meteoric-sulphuric particles). With the GLOMAP system now validated to become the aerosol scheme for the operational CAMS global aerosol forecasting and re-analysis system (co-ordinated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting), there are likely to be a range of important impacts arising from this progression in capability in the coming years.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Leeds contributing meteoric-sulphuric model capability as agreed part of 2019-2022 stratospheric aerosol modelling component of European "Copernicus" atmospheric monitoring programme 
Organisation National Center for Scientific Research (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Leeds research team (PI Mann) have agreed to collaborate with the other international groups (Olivier Boucher, Sam Remy, CNRS Paris and Michael Schulz, Met Norway) to analyse simulations of the stratospheric aerosol layer with the modelling component (Composition-IFS) of the flagship European atmospheric monitoring programme Copernicus, during its 2nd phase (Apr 2019 to Mar 2022). There are two strands of activity for the stratospheric aerosol layer modelling in CAMS-aerosol phase 2, with simulations of the quiescent (background) aerosol layer and those to forecast the progression of volcanic aerosol plumes. During the 1st phase of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS), from Apr 2016 to Mar 2019, the Leeds aerosol microphysics module GLOMAP-mode (already a core component of the joint NERC-Met Office UK Earth System Model) was validated in the pre-operational Composition-IFS system (independently by the CNRS and Met Norway groups) in advance of the switch-over from the mass-based aerosol scheme currently being applied for operational global aerosol forecasts and re-analyses. Leeds contributed model "initialisation fields" from major volcanic aerosol simulations the group carried out in 2017/2018 with the interactive stratospheric aerosol configuration of the UK's composition-climate model UM-UKCA. These simulations are based on a "what-if" major eruption scenario for how the minor Agung eruption in October 2017 could have progressed. The experiments essentially scale-up from 1963 event (about half the sulphur from 1991 Pinatubo) to a Tambora-scale event (approximately 10 times the sulphur from the 1963 Agung event). These initialisation fields then were applied in the European Composition-IFS system to enact the same scenarios within the weeks-to-months timescale the Integrated Forecasting System is designed to predict for. Following discussion at the 2016 CAMS assembly in Athens, the Leeds group agreed to collaborate with KNMI scientist Vincent Huijnen and BIRA scientist Simon Chabrillat (who were contributing to the Global Reactive Gases consortium project within the Copernicus CAMS programme). The team agreed to, as an additional element (not originally planned within 1st phase of CAMS), combine the interactive stratospheric ozone modelling capability they had produced with the interactive stratospheric aerosol capability the Leeds group were developing.
Collaborator Contribution The CNRS modelling group ran simulations of the Holhuraun eruption (Iceland) and Calbuco eruption (Chile) and the additional what-if scenario for the October 2017 minor eruption of Mt Agung (Bali) progressing to major eruption on the scale of the 1963 event (and larger). The KNMI scientist (Huijnen) contributed the stratospheric chemistry modelling, adding sulphur chemistry following the reaction-set the Leeds group implemented in the UK model (see Dhomse et al. 2014). The BIRA scientist (Chabrillat) contributed improvements to the representation of the photolysis cross-sections for the gas phase sulphur species in the Dhomse14 scheme and advised KNMI on the stratospheric chemistry developments. KNMI have joined the CAMS43 consortium for the 2nd phase of CAMS43 (Apr 2019 to Mar 2022), the co-operation continuing to progress these initial model experiments towards an operational volcanic aerosol plume forecasting capability within Composition-IFS.
Impact Peer-reviewed journal publications are planned during 2nd phase CAMS43 reporting the results from predictions with the Composition-IFS volcanic aerosol forecasting system, and re: the quiescent stratospheric aerosol layer (incorporating the meteoric-sulphuric particles). With the GLOMAP system now validated to become the aerosol scheme for the operational CAMS global aerosol forecasting and re-analysis system (co-ordinated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting), there are likely to be a range of important impacts arising from this progression in capability in the coming years.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Leeds contributing meteoric-sulphuric model capability as agreed part of 2019-2022 stratospheric aerosol modelling component of European "Copernicus" atmospheric monitoring programme 
Organisation Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute
Country Netherlands 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Leeds research team (PI Mann) have agreed to collaborate with the other international groups (Olivier Boucher, Sam Remy, CNRS Paris and Michael Schulz, Met Norway) to analyse simulations of the stratospheric aerosol layer with the modelling component (Composition-IFS) of the flagship European atmospheric monitoring programme Copernicus, during its 2nd phase (Apr 2019 to Mar 2022). There are two strands of activity for the stratospheric aerosol layer modelling in CAMS-aerosol phase 2, with simulations of the quiescent (background) aerosol layer and those to forecast the progression of volcanic aerosol plumes. During the 1st phase of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS), from Apr 2016 to Mar 2019, the Leeds aerosol microphysics module GLOMAP-mode (already a core component of the joint NERC-Met Office UK Earth System Model) was validated in the pre-operational Composition-IFS system (independently by the CNRS and Met Norway groups) in advance of the switch-over from the mass-based aerosol scheme currently being applied for operational global aerosol forecasts and re-analyses. Leeds contributed model "initialisation fields" from major volcanic aerosol simulations the group carried out in 2017/2018 with the interactive stratospheric aerosol configuration of the UK's composition-climate model UM-UKCA. These simulations are based on a "what-if" major eruption scenario for how the minor Agung eruption in October 2017 could have progressed. The experiments essentially scale-up from 1963 event (about half the sulphur from 1991 Pinatubo) to a Tambora-scale event (approximately 10 times the sulphur from the 1963 Agung event). These initialisation fields then were applied in the European Composition-IFS system to enact the same scenarios within the weeks-to-months timescale the Integrated Forecasting System is designed to predict for. Following discussion at the 2016 CAMS assembly in Athens, the Leeds group agreed to collaborate with KNMI scientist Vincent Huijnen and BIRA scientist Simon Chabrillat (who were contributing to the Global Reactive Gases consortium project within the Copernicus CAMS programme). The team agreed to, as an additional element (not originally planned within 1st phase of CAMS), combine the interactive stratospheric ozone modelling capability they had produced with the interactive stratospheric aerosol capability the Leeds group were developing.
Collaborator Contribution The CNRS modelling group ran simulations of the Holhuraun eruption (Iceland) and Calbuco eruption (Chile) and the additional what-if scenario for the October 2017 minor eruption of Mt Agung (Bali) progressing to major eruption on the scale of the 1963 event (and larger). The KNMI scientist (Huijnen) contributed the stratospheric chemistry modelling, adding sulphur chemistry following the reaction-set the Leeds group implemented in the UK model (see Dhomse et al. 2014). The BIRA scientist (Chabrillat) contributed improvements to the representation of the photolysis cross-sections for the gas phase sulphur species in the Dhomse14 scheme and advised KNMI on the stratospheric chemistry developments. KNMI have joined the CAMS43 consortium for the 2nd phase of CAMS43 (Apr 2019 to Mar 2022), the co-operation continuing to progress these initial model experiments towards an operational volcanic aerosol plume forecasting capability within Composition-IFS.
Impact Peer-reviewed journal publications are planned during 2nd phase CAMS43 reporting the results from predictions with the Composition-IFS volcanic aerosol forecasting system, and re: the quiescent stratospheric aerosol layer (incorporating the meteoric-sulphuric particles). With the GLOMAP system now validated to become the aerosol scheme for the operational CAMS global aerosol forecasting and re-analysis system (co-ordinated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting), there are likely to be a range of important impacts arising from this progression in capability in the coming years.
Start Year 2018