[Viet Nam] Valuing the benefits of blue/green infrastructure for flood resilience, natural capital and urban development in Viet Nam

Lead Research Organisation: University of Stirling
Department Name: Economics

Abstract

Flooding is the most damaging and costly hydrometeorological hazard affecting millions of people globally every year. In Viet Nam, low-lying coastal cities, particularly in river deltas, face increased flood risk and vulnerability due to rapid urban development and climate change. To reduce flood risk in urban areas, the recent decade has seen increased appreciation of the potential of Blue/Green Infrastructure (BGI), such as natural and man-made wetlands, vegetated river banks and restored floodplains, to reduce flood risk and provide additional benefits, such as controlling water pollutants, providing recreational opportunities, improving air quality and increasing resilience to other stressors, such as heat waves and noise pollution. However, despite the growing interest in BGI in a flood risk management context, assessments of the effectiveness and viability of such measures have in the past been mostly piecemeal, focusing on individual impacts of such measures (e.g. flood risk reduction, provision of urban green space). Such sectorial assessments cannot account for the potential trade-offs or complementarities between the multiple impacts of individual installations, let alone whole networks of BGI. Therefore, ValBGI seeks to develop a multidisciplinary, stakeholder-informed assessment framework for the effectiveness of BGI to reduce flood risk and improve urban natural capital. Thereby, the project examines the role of BGI in short- and long-term urban development, with application to the city of Can Tho, Viet Nam. This holistic framework integrates a number of disciplines and does not only follow an interlinked and multidisciplinary research agenda but also advances the academic state-of-the-art in the individual disciplines involved. This includes the engagement of key stakeholders in the research process to co-develop solutions and disseminate evidence to key decision-makers; innovative high-resolution modelling of flooding and BGI at the city-scale; and spatially explicit assessment and valuation of changes in the provision of ecosystem services enabling the quantification of the investment into urban natural capital effectuated by BGI.

To achieve these objectives, the project comprises four work packages which function as interlinked components within the multidisciplinary assessment framework: (1) The operational backbone of ValBGI is a work package that establishes a stakeholder group to work alongside the research team from start to end. This component assesses (and when necessary stimulates) the awareness of alternative natural processes-based BGI options among local and regional urban planners and other key stakeholders. (2) A second work package reviews existing flood models for Can Tho and the Vietnamese Mekong Delta and develops a new high-resolution modelling system to assess the effectiveness of selected BGI measures in reducing flood risk. (3) In the third work package, changes in the provision of ecosystem services following the installation of BGI measures will be assessed and mapped. (4) In the fourth work package costs and benefits of BGI measures (in terms of flood risk reductions and improvements of urban natural capital) are quantified by means of valuation, and cost-benefit analyses of BGI scenarios are conducted.

The continuous stakeholder engagement in ValBGI ensures awareness for and uptake of the research outcomes by decision-makers to maximise impact of the evidence produced. Furthermore, the holistic approach provides a better understanding of the potential trade-offs and complementarities between flood risk reduction and improvement of natural capital generated by BGI. Exploring all simultaneous impacts of BGI is beneficial in providing environmental managers and urban planners with a complete array of information for supporting planning decisions.

Planned Impact

Our research will contribute to the knowledge base both locally and globally, in both academic and applied terms. Key project outcomes include (1) a multi-disciplinary assessment framework of the viability of BGI to promote flood resilience in Can Tho; (2) an integrative urban flood model; (3) a holistic assessment (including monetary valuation) of improvements to flood risk management and natural capital resulting from BGI in Can Tho, Viet Nam.
ValBGI has a clear impact strategy with a number of well-defined beneficiaries in the case study city of Can Tho and beyond. These are:

- Local flood, disaster, environmental and urban managers in Can Tho, such as the People's Committee and the City Resilience Office (CRO) of Can Tho;
- National flood, disaster and environmental managers in Viet Nam (Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment) who will benefit from the development of a multi-disciplinary framework to assess BGI measures;
- Environmental managers and NGOs, predominantly in Viet Nam but also in the UK and internationally, benefiting from improvements in BGI-related natural capital assessments. Both the methodological advancements plus elicited and collated costs and benefits will be provided.
- Public and wider society: This project will make local communities central to the evaluations of BGI measures in the case study location.
- Students and early career researchers at Can Tho University will be given the opportunity to run mini student projects. In this way, ValBGI will contribute towards building research capacity in Viet Nam for future ecosystem service assessments.
- Academia in Viet Nam and globally will benefit from the expected scientific contributions regarding (1) high-resolution modelling tools and scientific evidence supporting city-scale application of BGI for flood risk management; and (2) the spatially explicit assessment and valuation of BGI related changes flood risk and urban natural capital.

The project's impact strategy consists of a variety of routes to ensure high and relevant impact of all components of the research outcomes. These routes are:
1. Advisory board to be set up and consisting of key decision-makers, urban and environmental managers and planners and representatives from relevant local community groups to maximise the impact of the project outputs for practical flood management and appropriate urban planning in Can Tho. The board will convene in one-day meeting during the regular project meetings.
2. Innovative locally derived engagement activities, which will need to be tailored to the specific needs of different stakeholder groups (to be assessed in the project). Some suggestions include exhibitions of BGI examples, including drawings, photographs and site or building models or displays that can be used to help raise awareness (and possible benefits) of potential BGI approaches.
3. Website, social media and local press releases: A project website and Twitter and Facebook accounts will be set up, replaying project updates and circulating news from other relevant research projects in English and Vietnamese. Project meetings in Can Tho will be covered by local media to raise the profile of the UK-Vietnamese research collaboration.
4. Student projects at Can Tho University in WP3 to build capacity for future ecosystem service assessments;
5. Attendance of workshops and conferences by all members of the project team to raise the project profile;
6. Synthesis scientific report, Policy Brief / Fact Sheet and academic publications: Policy Briefs / Fact Sheets will be produced in English and Vietnamese under guidance of the AB and made available online and in print. Further, an in-depth technical synthesis report will be launched at the final meeting and published on the project website. At least five peer-reviewed academic paper will be published in academic papers in high-impact journals, reflecting the multi-disciplinary nature of the project.

Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
NE/S002871/1 01/01/2019 31/03/2019 £209,578
NE/S002871/2 Transfer NE/S002871/1 01/04/2019 31/03/2022 £216,364
 
Description The following are interim findings as the project is still ongoing:

• The concept of BGI is still new in Vietnam. Although the Vietnamese government has started to consider this approach, BGI has not been institutionalized in Vietnam. It means that the country is not yet ready for a wide application of BGI measures. However, there are still possibilities to apply the BGI interventions as some principles and solutions proposed in existing policies and plans have a number of characteristics that are close to BGI principles.

• Although the concept of BGI is still new in Can Tho and has not been institutionalized, some BGI's principles have been applied in a number of projects in Can Tho.

• A list of existing BGI-type measures were identified during a consultation workshop with relevant local stakeholders in Can Tho, in June 2020.

• Stakeholder mapping was undertaken to enable the project team to better understand each stakeholder's needs and expectations according to several parameters like influence/power capacity.
Exploitation Route As these are still interim findings they will be taken foward within the project as detailed in the case for support and other project documentation.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism

 
Description Narrative impact (so far): • An initial workshop was held in Can Tho, in June 2020 for 21 participants that represented a broad range of stakeholders. The workshop provided insights into what flood modelling information and research outputs the various stakeholders would find most useful in helping them to make informed decisions about BGI locations and potential effectiveness. The workshop demonstrated good levels of interest in better understanding the role of BGI measures. • Unfortunately, the travel restrictions associated with Covid-19 has put large constraints on the project and the project's impact particularly, the valuation survey in WP4 that was completed in February 2021, albeit approximately 10 months late. Fieldwork for the ecosystem service measurements in WP3 is about 12 months behind schedule, largely due to an inability to procure, deliver and set up monitoring equipment in Can Tho.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description [Viet Nam] Valuing the benefits of blue/green infrastructure for flood resilience, natural capital and urban development in Viet Nam
Amount £216,364 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/S002871/2 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 06/2021
 
Title High-Performance Integrated hydrodynamic Modelling System (HiPIMS) 
Description The High-Performance Integrated hydrodynamic Modelling System (HiPIMS) has been applied to support flood inundation modelling and risk assessment in the UK and developing countries including Vietnam, Nepal, Bangladesh, India, China, etc. through a number of UKRI research projects. In ValBGI, the HiPIMS is adopted to simulate the detailed flood hydrodynamics from multiple sources across Mekong river catchment and Can Tho city. A modelling component for simulating the full process (from detachment, transport and deposition) of non-point source pollutants driven by rainfall induced overland flow and flooding on urban surface has been developed and coupled to HiPIMS (Jiang et al. 2020). 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The improved HiPIMS is further integrated with a module to simulate different sustainable urban drainage (SuDS) devices and will be applied to assess role of BGI in flood risk mitigation in Can Tho city. 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1364815220310082
 
Description Promoting resilience to hydrometeorological extremes in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta through improving natural capital 
Organisation Northumbria University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution An additional £39,978 of funding was obtained for an integration project linking ValBGI to another UK-Vietnamese project ("DroughtFlood" NE/S002847/1) in the same programme. The tasks to be completed in this integration project are joint activities, so cannot be separated between our contributions and partner contributions. The five tasks are: Task 1 (DroughtFlood WP3&5 + ValBGI WP2): Link hydraulic modelling and applications for the rural VMD (in DroughtFlood) and Can Tho (in ValBGI) to provide more accurate integrated boundary conditions of riverine flooding to predict the impact of surface water flooding in rural and urban settings and to quantify one type of positive externality of interventions upstream. Task 2 (DroughtFlood WP1 + ValBGI WP1): Assess the perception of stakeholders as to the existence and potential of ecosystem benefits of flood control beyond increases of flood resilience. While already a core part of the stakeholder work in ValBGI WP1, the role of ES (i.e. natural capital) can readily be explored in the stakeholder workshops planned in DroughtFlood. We will develop a common framework of ES links between rural and urban areas of the VMD and assist stakeholders in producing a conceptual diagram of all ES in the agricultural area which are impacted by controlled ingress of floodwater into agricultural plots as an additional component of the SDM. Task 3 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP3): Assess and quantify relevant ES at multiple sites in rural and urban areas using land-use maps based on earth observation. This task will link ES provision to existing data (in DroughtFlood) on land systems and livelihoods in the upstream areas. Task 4 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP4): Assess the (economic) value of (T4.1) increased flood resilience downstream resulting from implementation of measures upstream and (T4.2) of additional ecosystem benefits in the upstream rural area. T4.1 can be valued by an addition to the valuation survey planned within ValBGI WP4 (to assess the willingness of Can Tho residents to pay to support flood resilience measures upstream), whereas T4.2 is valued using benefits transfer by means of the ARIES tool (http://aries.integratedmodelling.org/). Task 5 (DroughtFlood WP1&5 + ValBGI WP1): Feed the acknowledgement of the interprovincial links in terms of provision of flood resilience and additional ecosystem benefits back to the stakeholders in both projects. The aim is to scope the barriers to the implementation of an integrated, delta-wide (and hence interprovincial) flood management strategy that makes explicit the externalities between upstream and downstream areas.
Collaborator Contribution An additional £39,978 of funding was obtained for an integration project linking ValBGI to another UK-Vietnamese project ("DroughtFlood" NE/S002847/1) in the same programme. The tasks to be completed in this integration project are joint activities, so cannot be separated between our contributions and partner contributions. The five tasks are: Task 1 (DroughtFlood WP3&5 + ValBGI WP2): Link hydraulic modelling and applications for the rural VMD (in DroughtFlood) and Can Tho (in ValBGI) to provide more accurate integrated boundary conditions of riverine flooding to predict the impact of surface water flooding in rural and urban settings and to quantify one type of positive externality of interventions upstream. Task 2 (DroughtFlood WP1 + ValBGI WP1): Assess the perception of stakeholders as to the existence and potential of ecosystem benefits of flood control beyond increases of flood resilience. While already a core part of the stakeholder work in ValBGI WP1, the role of ES (i.e. natural capital) can readily be explored in the stakeholder workshops planned in DroughtFlood. We will develop a common framework of ES links between rural and urban areas of the VMD and assist stakeholders in producing a conceptual diagram of all ES in the agricultural area which are impacted by controlled ingress of floodwater into agricultural plots as an additional component of the SDM. Task 3 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP3): Assess and quantify relevant ES at multiple sites in rural and urban areas using land-use maps based on earth observation. This task will link ES provision to existing data (in DroughtFlood) on land systems and livelihoods in the upstream areas. Task 4 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP4): Assess the (economic) value of (T4.1) increased flood resilience downstream resulting from implementation of measures upstream and (T4.2) of additional ecosystem benefits in the upstream rural area. T4.1 can be valued by an addition to the valuation survey planned within ValBGI WP4 (to assess the willingness of Can Tho residents to pay to support flood resilience measures upstream), whereas T4.2 is valued using benefits transfer by means of the ARIES tool (http://aries.integratedmodelling.org/). Task 5 (DroughtFlood WP1&5 + ValBGI WP1): Feed the acknowledgement of the interprovincial links in terms of provision of flood resilience and additional ecosystem benefits back to the stakeholders in both projects. The aim is to scope the barriers to the implementation of an integrated, delta-wide (and hence interprovincial) flood management strategy that makes explicit the externalities between upstream and downstream areas.
Impact No outputs yet. This is an interdisciplinary collaboration involving hydrological modelling, physical and human geography, economics and political science.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Promoting resilience to hydrometeorological extremes in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta through improving natural capital 
Organisation University of Hull
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution An additional £39,978 of funding was obtained for an integration project linking ValBGI to another UK-Vietnamese project ("DroughtFlood" NE/S002847/1) in the same programme. The tasks to be completed in this integration project are joint activities, so cannot be separated between our contributions and partner contributions. The five tasks are: Task 1 (DroughtFlood WP3&5 + ValBGI WP2): Link hydraulic modelling and applications for the rural VMD (in DroughtFlood) and Can Tho (in ValBGI) to provide more accurate integrated boundary conditions of riverine flooding to predict the impact of surface water flooding in rural and urban settings and to quantify one type of positive externality of interventions upstream. Task 2 (DroughtFlood WP1 + ValBGI WP1): Assess the perception of stakeholders as to the existence and potential of ecosystem benefits of flood control beyond increases of flood resilience. While already a core part of the stakeholder work in ValBGI WP1, the role of ES (i.e. natural capital) can readily be explored in the stakeholder workshops planned in DroughtFlood. We will develop a common framework of ES links between rural and urban areas of the VMD and assist stakeholders in producing a conceptual diagram of all ES in the agricultural area which are impacted by controlled ingress of floodwater into agricultural plots as an additional component of the SDM. Task 3 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP3): Assess and quantify relevant ES at multiple sites in rural and urban areas using land-use maps based on earth observation. This task will link ES provision to existing data (in DroughtFlood) on land systems and livelihoods in the upstream areas. Task 4 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP4): Assess the (economic) value of (T4.1) increased flood resilience downstream resulting from implementation of measures upstream and (T4.2) of additional ecosystem benefits in the upstream rural area. T4.1 can be valued by an addition to the valuation survey planned within ValBGI WP4 (to assess the willingness of Can Tho residents to pay to support flood resilience measures upstream), whereas T4.2 is valued using benefits transfer by means of the ARIES tool (http://aries.integratedmodelling.org/). Task 5 (DroughtFlood WP1&5 + ValBGI WP1): Feed the acknowledgement of the interprovincial links in terms of provision of flood resilience and additional ecosystem benefits back to the stakeholders in both projects. The aim is to scope the barriers to the implementation of an integrated, delta-wide (and hence interprovincial) flood management strategy that makes explicit the externalities between upstream and downstream areas.
Collaborator Contribution An additional £39,978 of funding was obtained for an integration project linking ValBGI to another UK-Vietnamese project ("DroughtFlood" NE/S002847/1) in the same programme. The tasks to be completed in this integration project are joint activities, so cannot be separated between our contributions and partner contributions. The five tasks are: Task 1 (DroughtFlood WP3&5 + ValBGI WP2): Link hydraulic modelling and applications for the rural VMD (in DroughtFlood) and Can Tho (in ValBGI) to provide more accurate integrated boundary conditions of riverine flooding to predict the impact of surface water flooding in rural and urban settings and to quantify one type of positive externality of interventions upstream. Task 2 (DroughtFlood WP1 + ValBGI WP1): Assess the perception of stakeholders as to the existence and potential of ecosystem benefits of flood control beyond increases of flood resilience. While already a core part of the stakeholder work in ValBGI WP1, the role of ES (i.e. natural capital) can readily be explored in the stakeholder workshops planned in DroughtFlood. We will develop a common framework of ES links between rural and urban areas of the VMD and assist stakeholders in producing a conceptual diagram of all ES in the agricultural area which are impacted by controlled ingress of floodwater into agricultural plots as an additional component of the SDM. Task 3 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP3): Assess and quantify relevant ES at multiple sites in rural and urban areas using land-use maps based on earth observation. This task will link ES provision to existing data (in DroughtFlood) on land systems and livelihoods in the upstream areas. Task 4 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP4): Assess the (economic) value of (T4.1) increased flood resilience downstream resulting from implementation of measures upstream and (T4.2) of additional ecosystem benefits in the upstream rural area. T4.1 can be valued by an addition to the valuation survey planned within ValBGI WP4 (to assess the willingness of Can Tho residents to pay to support flood resilience measures upstream), whereas T4.2 is valued using benefits transfer by means of the ARIES tool (http://aries.integratedmodelling.org/). Task 5 (DroughtFlood WP1&5 + ValBGI WP1): Feed the acknowledgement of the interprovincial links in terms of provision of flood resilience and additional ecosystem benefits back to the stakeholders in both projects. The aim is to scope the barriers to the implementation of an integrated, delta-wide (and hence interprovincial) flood management strategy that makes explicit the externalities between upstream and downstream areas.
Impact No outputs yet. This is an interdisciplinary collaboration involving hydrological modelling, physical and human geography, economics and political science.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Promoting resilience to hydrometeorological extremes in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta through improving natural capital 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution An additional £39,978 of funding was obtained for an integration project linking ValBGI to another UK-Vietnamese project ("DroughtFlood" NE/S002847/1) in the same programme. The tasks to be completed in this integration project are joint activities, so cannot be separated between our contributions and partner contributions. The five tasks are: Task 1 (DroughtFlood WP3&5 + ValBGI WP2): Link hydraulic modelling and applications for the rural VMD (in DroughtFlood) and Can Tho (in ValBGI) to provide more accurate integrated boundary conditions of riverine flooding to predict the impact of surface water flooding in rural and urban settings and to quantify one type of positive externality of interventions upstream. Task 2 (DroughtFlood WP1 + ValBGI WP1): Assess the perception of stakeholders as to the existence and potential of ecosystem benefits of flood control beyond increases of flood resilience. While already a core part of the stakeholder work in ValBGI WP1, the role of ES (i.e. natural capital) can readily be explored in the stakeholder workshops planned in DroughtFlood. We will develop a common framework of ES links between rural and urban areas of the VMD and assist stakeholders in producing a conceptual diagram of all ES in the agricultural area which are impacted by controlled ingress of floodwater into agricultural plots as an additional component of the SDM. Task 3 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP3): Assess and quantify relevant ES at multiple sites in rural and urban areas using land-use maps based on earth observation. This task will link ES provision to existing data (in DroughtFlood) on land systems and livelihoods in the upstream areas. Task 4 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP4): Assess the (economic) value of (T4.1) increased flood resilience downstream resulting from implementation of measures upstream and (T4.2) of additional ecosystem benefits in the upstream rural area. T4.1 can be valued by an addition to the valuation survey planned within ValBGI WP4 (to assess the willingness of Can Tho residents to pay to support flood resilience measures upstream), whereas T4.2 is valued using benefits transfer by means of the ARIES tool (http://aries.integratedmodelling.org/). Task 5 (DroughtFlood WP1&5 + ValBGI WP1): Feed the acknowledgement of the interprovincial links in terms of provision of flood resilience and additional ecosystem benefits back to the stakeholders in both projects. The aim is to scope the barriers to the implementation of an integrated, delta-wide (and hence interprovincial) flood management strategy that makes explicit the externalities between upstream and downstream areas.
Collaborator Contribution An additional £39,978 of funding was obtained for an integration project linking ValBGI to another UK-Vietnamese project ("DroughtFlood" NE/S002847/1) in the same programme. The tasks to be completed in this integration project are joint activities, so cannot be separated between our contributions and partner contributions. The five tasks are: Task 1 (DroughtFlood WP3&5 + ValBGI WP2): Link hydraulic modelling and applications for the rural VMD (in DroughtFlood) and Can Tho (in ValBGI) to provide more accurate integrated boundary conditions of riverine flooding to predict the impact of surface water flooding in rural and urban settings and to quantify one type of positive externality of interventions upstream. Task 2 (DroughtFlood WP1 + ValBGI WP1): Assess the perception of stakeholders as to the existence and potential of ecosystem benefits of flood control beyond increases of flood resilience. While already a core part of the stakeholder work in ValBGI WP1, the role of ES (i.e. natural capital) can readily be explored in the stakeholder workshops planned in DroughtFlood. We will develop a common framework of ES links between rural and urban areas of the VMD and assist stakeholders in producing a conceptual diagram of all ES in the agricultural area which are impacted by controlled ingress of floodwater into agricultural plots as an additional component of the SDM. Task 3 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP3): Assess and quantify relevant ES at multiple sites in rural and urban areas using land-use maps based on earth observation. This task will link ES provision to existing data (in DroughtFlood) on land systems and livelihoods in the upstream areas. Task 4 (DroughtFlood WP2&3 + ValBGI WP4): Assess the (economic) value of (T4.1) increased flood resilience downstream resulting from implementation of measures upstream and (T4.2) of additional ecosystem benefits in the upstream rural area. T4.1 can be valued by an addition to the valuation survey planned within ValBGI WP4 (to assess the willingness of Can Tho residents to pay to support flood resilience measures upstream), whereas T4.2 is valued using benefits transfer by means of the ARIES tool (http://aries.integratedmodelling.org/). Task 5 (DroughtFlood WP1&5 + ValBGI WP1): Feed the acknowledgement of the interprovincial links in terms of provision of flood resilience and additional ecosystem benefits back to the stakeholders in both projects. The aim is to scope the barriers to the implementation of an integrated, delta-wide (and hence interprovincial) flood management strategy that makes explicit the externalities between upstream and downstream areas.
Impact No outputs yet. This is an interdisciplinary collaboration involving hydrological modelling, physical and human geography, economics and political science.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Interview by BBC Newsbeat on flooding in Asia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact PI Tobias Borger was interviewed by BBC Newsbeat. This interview resulted in an online article on teh BBC website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/newsbeat-49346312
 
Description Project stakeholder workshop Can Tho June 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Vietnamese project team conducted a stakeholder engangement workshop in Can Tho, Vietname. The event was attended by 21 representatives of different governmental and non-governmental organisations concerned with the implementation of flood defense, urban development and blue-green infrastructure construction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020