[Thailand] Thai Coast: Coastal Vulnerability, Resilience and Adaptation in Thailand.

Lead Research Organisation: Edge Hill University
Department Name: Geography and Geology

Abstract

The goal of the Thai-coast project is to improve scientific understanding of the vulnerability of Thailand's shoreline and coastal communities to hydro-meteorological hazards, including storms, floods and coastal erosion, under future climate change scenarios. In Thailand the problems of coastal erosion and flooding require immediate solutions because they affect more than 11 million people living in coastal zone communities (17% of the country's population). The Department of Marine and Coastal Resources (DMCR), in the Thai Government's Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, has calculated that each year erosion causes Thailand to lose 30 km2 of coastal land. The Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning predicts that sea level will rise by 1 metre in the next 40 -100 years, impacting at least 3,200 km2 of coastal land, through erosion and flooding, at a potential financial cost to Thailand of 3 billion baht [almost £70 million] over that time period. The Thai-coast project addresses the urgent need to enhance the resilience and adaptation potential of coastal communities, applying scientific research to inform more robust and cost-effective governance and institutional arrangements.

The Thai-coast project aims to (i) establish causal links between climate change, coastal erosion and flooding; (ii) use this information to assess the interaction of natural and social processes in order to (iii) enhance coastal community resilience and future sustainability. The project focuses on two study areas, Nakhon Si Thammarat province and Krabi province, selected on the basis of DMCR coastal erosion data and with contrasting natural and socio-economic characteristics. The Thai-coast project uses a multidisciplinary approach, integrating climate science, geomorphology, socio-economics, health and wellbeing science and geo-information technology to improve understanding of hydro-meteorological hazard occurrence, their physical and socioeconomic, health and wellbeing impacts on Thailand's coastal zone and the ways in which governance and institutional arrangements mitigate their impact. We will examine future scenarios of climate change hydrometeorology, coastal landform and land use change scenarios and assess and model impacts (coastal erosion, river-marine flooding, impacts on health and well-being), as well as population and community's adaptation, and socio-economics scenarios for sustainable development goals (sustainable cities, health-related quality of life and well-being, good governance). Our collaborative team of natural and social scientists, from UK, US and Thai research institutions, have complementary, cutting-edge expertise and will work closely with Thai Government and UK and Thai industry partners to ensure that results are policy and practice-relevant.

Thai-coast research will benefit government and policy makers, who need to plan for potential impacts caused by climate change and develop resilient strategies to deal with their impacts on natural-social systems. It will provide a link with government agencies for business/industry interests in the coastal zone of Thailand in tourism, aquaculture and associated industry and business, to assess their needs and help improve their understanding of coastal resilience in their strategic investments and management. The wider public, who inhabit Thailand's coastal communities either permanently or temporarily for work or leisure, will benefit through the advanced knowledge and awareness of identified problems and learning processes to address them. The results of the Thai-coast project will benefit coastal communities more broadly, in all Thai coastal provinces, through its contribution to more robust, cost effective, governance and institutional arrangements.

Planned Impact

The goal of the Thai-coast project is to improve scientific understanding of the vulnerability of Thailand's shoreline to hydrometeorological hazards under future climate change in order to enhance the resilience and adaptation of coastal communities through more robust, cost effective, decision-making, governance and institutional arrangements. Driven by the needs of key beneficiaries through strong, established and ongoing, two-way relationships, Thai-coast is a bespoke research project designed to improve the quality of life of coastal communities in Thailand. The Department of Marine and Coastal Resources (DMCR), Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, has already identified coastal erosion and flooding hotspots where coastal community livelihoods and wellbeing are under threat. There is a clear need to understand the response of shorelines to hydrometeorological events of different magnitudes and to predict the future likely occurrence of events of different magnitudes associated with climate change scenarios and their impacts on coastal communities. These natural events have important socio-economic consequences and the DMCR have identified the need to engage with a broad range of coastal community stakeholders and decision-makers and multi-disciplinary research in order to improve governance and institutional arrangements in mitigating the impact of hydrometeorological hazards. Tourism and aquaculture, and associated industries such as port authorities, are the dominant economic activities in Thailand's coastal zone and so the results of the Thai-coast project will benefit coastal communities more broadly, in other Thai coastal provinces, through its contribution to more robust, cost effective, decision-making governance and institutional arrangements.

Thai-coast addresses the needs of three principal categories of beneficiaries with whom we have existing contacts on which to build. (i) Government and policy makers. Specifically the DMCR, but also including NPD (Department of National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation), NSO (National Statistics Office), NESDB (National Economic and Social Development Board), GISTDA (Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency), MOPH (Ministry of Public Health). And at various levels including local development actors and communities, such as DOPA (Department Of Provincial Administration), Local Administration agencies and Provincial Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, who need to plan for potential impacts caused by climate change and develop resilient strategies to deal with their impacts on natural-social systems. Existing strategies will be assessed, the research tailored to gaps identified and the results used to enhance knowledge and skills to develop the strategies and build capacity. Government policy makers will benefit in the short, medium and long term (ii) Business/industry interests in the coastal zone of Thailand in tourism, aquaculture and associated industry and business e.g. multinational companies, SMEs, tourism, transport, agricultural, health care sectors. This broad group represent a potential development conflict in relation to coastal protection yet are important to the economy. Thai-coast reaches out equally to these stakeholders to enhance their links with government agencies, assess their needs and help improve their understanding of resilience in their strategic investments and management benefiting them in the longer term. (iii) The wider public who inhabit Thailand's coastal communities either permanently or temporarily for work or leisure and including the international communities who visit Thailand will benefit in the medium to longer term through advanced knowledge and awareness of identified problems and learning processes to address them.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Erosion and accretion rates are more dramatic on mangrove coastlines (-34.5 and 21.7 m/year) compared with sandy coastlines (-4.1 and 4 m/year). The highest erosion rates, on mangrove coastlines, of almost -70 m/year,. are caused by the reopening of an old lagoon at the back of the mangrove. The highest rates of coastline progradation are associated with the shoreline downdrift of harbour arms or the presence of a river mouth e.g. up to 10.6 m/year. There has been a substantial variation in shoreline sediment accretion rates in areas of mangrove and seagrass in both study provinces. This appears to be driven predominantly by low frequency - high impact events such as intense rainfall. There is no conclusive influence for Tsunamis or landslides as driving factors of sediment accretion. The rainfall has intensified mainly over the land with a relatively increase up to 200% in some regions in Southern Thailand. The future climate changes mean more extended and severe floods in Southern Thailand - the risk of flash floods will be increased significantly.

While socio-economic resilience is generally higher in more urbanized areas, there are greater variations amongst subdistricts. Some of the successful coping measures in mitigating hydro-meteorological hazards include local production of life jackets, erection of village level early warning towers and sirens, and community training in warning and evacuation drills. However, households also individually apply autonomous coping mechanisms. Different communities within the coastal regions have different levels of resilience and adopt different coping strategies when faced with emergency situations. Support provided to these communities has to build on local capacity and should be context specific. Individual coping strategies without collective action may not be effective solutions due to the occurrence of negative externalities, for example if neighbours do not apply/maintain their own protection structures. Social cohesion within an affected community is important in binding a community together and collaboratively developing successful coping mechanisms. District averages of socio-economic resilience scores mask the variations at subdistrict level. When physical and socio-economic scores are compared, Krabi Province has a higher level of physical vulnerability than Nakorn SriThammarat (NST), whilst NST is has a higher level of socio-economic vulnerability than Krabi. When physical and socio-economic factors are combined to generate the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI), the results show that the two provinces have relatively comparable CVI despite the underlying variability in physical and socio-economic resilience.

Key findings from each work package in the project have been presented and shared with the local and regional stakeholders. Feedback from the participants has been positive with some comments and suggestions about the methodology (for example; taking into consideration the different monsoon seasons of the eastern and western coasts of Thailand; clarity of index measurement and continuing update of data used to construct the map and index), dissemination and potential uses of the findings and data generated by the project (for example; the data should be made available and accessible to all local stakeholders, perhaps on the online platform; the data is very useful for the preparing of the provincial development plan and action plans by various policy agencies e.g. policy briefs on specific issues related to coastal vulnerabilities, such as vulnerable areas or vulnerable groups for specific disaster/vulnerability would be useful). For planning the next workshop, which will take place on a local level, our target communities have been agreed with the participants of the most recent workshop who also helped us identify the local stakeholders who should be invited to the next workshop. This enables us to communicate our project findings with the most appropriate stakeholders for whom the results hold most value.
Exploitation Route Key findings are being used initially for assessment of views on existing risks from and governance of hydrometeorological hazards and a needs analysis conducted through the project Workshops with stakeholders and end users. Key findings will be presented at international conferences and be published in international journals as the project progresses; at the end of the project they will be presented to key national policy makers as well as being used to inform provincial development plans.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

 
Description Better understanding of the impact of climate change, and associated hydrometeorological hazards, on communities with different socio-economic characteristics. Participants at the project workshops report that the project data is very useful for informing the preparation of the provincial development plan and action plans by various policy agencies.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Environment
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Geo-information Technology for Coastal Erosion and Vulnerability Assessment: training workshop
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The SE Asia (Thai) PI was invited to be a trainer and present a talk entitled 'Geo-information Technology for Coastal Erosion and Vulnerability Assessment' in the Intensive Workshop with 15 participants, hosted by Thai Government Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) in Mid-October 2019. The workshop trained practitioners in how to assess coastal vulnerability so that the method can be applied at other sites in Thailand.
 
Description Past Global Changes (PAGES) Floods Working Group
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description GCRF: Examining practices of community-driven Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) entrepreneurship in response to new knowledges of climate-change risk, Thailand
Amount £24,930 (GBP)
Organisation United Kingdom Research and Innovation 
Department Global Challenges Research Fund
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2020 
End 03/2021
 
Description Global Challenges Research Fund: Climate Change, Coastal Erosion and Risks of Flooding to Low-Lying Coastlines Subject to Tropical Storms, Thailand
Amount £24,883 (GBP)
Funding ID PI Prof Irene Delgado-Fernandez (CO-Is: Dr Anna Jones; Prof Cherith Moses) 
Organisation Edge Hill University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 10/2019
 
Description Newton Fund & Met Office CSSP (CHN19/6): The impact of climate change on water resources in China: WP1 Lead, Dr Yi Wang, University of Sussex
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Organisation Meteorological Office UK 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2020 
End 03/2021
 
Description UKRI CoA CV-19 Support Fund; University of Brighton
Amount £7,323 (GBP)
Organisation United Kingdom Research and Innovation 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2021 
End 09/2021
 
Title Flood forecast modelling 
Description Developed a flood forecast model in GIS to predict alterations to the frequency and impact of extreme weather events in light of climatic change. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Improvements in flood forecasting to predict alterations to the frequency and impact of extreme weather events in light of climatic change. 
 
Title coping capacity index 
Description This was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data collection on the social and economic dimensions of resilience, and a review of literature on coping mechanisms to hydro-meteorological hazards within the study area. Measuring and mapping socio-economic resilience was based on the available data gathered from the social and economic dimensions, with existing/standard indicators on exposure and vulnerability applied uniformly across subdistricts. Combining the two dimensions produced novel socio-economic resilience index scores by subdistrict, which were mapped accordingly for the two coastal provinces of Krabi and Nakhon Si Thammarat. Complimenting this work we have also derived a coping capacity index scores by combining availability of skills (soft capacities) and availability of structural resources (hard coping capacities). 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact new method for assessing the coping capacity of coastal communities to hydrometeorological hazards 
 
Title evaluating coastal change using remotely sensed data 
Description Developed a semi-automated method for evaluating coastal change using remotely sensed data using Google Earth Engine. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact improvement in assessing long term, decadal, coastal change to identify erosion and accretion patterns using remote sensing data 
 
Title high resolution future climate modelling 
Description We have used the latest IPCC global model output at the time of our project and downscaled the model output to a very high spatial resolution of 3-km by 3-km so that the future flood risk assessments can be carried out. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Improved spatial resolution of climate modelling to very high spatial resolution of 3-km by 3-km to predict future rainfall so that the future flood risk assessments can be carried out. 
 
Title socioeconomic resilience indices 
Description A new approach in looking at resilience by combining social and economic variables to come up with socioeconomic resilience indices 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact NA at this point in time 
 
Title Coastal change 
Description Coastal change database 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Coastal change database for assessing long term, decadal rates of coastal erosion and accretion to assist with informing coastal management decisions. 
 
Title Coastal vulnerability index 
Description The physical factors and socio-economic factors in the GIS database have been combined to generate the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) map at the sub-district level of the two provinces. The resultant index of each sub-district was also written in the GIS database. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Improved method for assessing the vulnerability of coastal communities to hydrometeorological hazards. 
 
Title Databases of locals' experiences 
Description Databases of locals' experiences about natural disasters they faced, their awareness, their preparedness, as well as their adaptation. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact NA 
 
Title Flood forecast modelling 
Description Flood forecast GIS database has been created for the two study sites as well as a modelling of the impacts of flooding. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Improved predictions of the magnitude and extent of flooding and improved assessment of the impacts of flooding. 
 
Title Future rainfall modelling 
Description With our NCAR PP, we have used the state-of-the-art Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model to carry out the future climate scenarios downscaling in order to model future rainfall. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Improved, high resolution, modelling of future rainfall to inform flood modelling. 
 
Title High-resolution climate model outputs 
Description High-resolution climate model outputs have been archived at Sussex HPC. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact NA at this point in time 
 
Title Socio-economic reslience 
Description This was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data collection on the social and economic dimensions of resilience, and a review of literature on coping mechanisms to hydro-meteorological hazards within the study area. Measuring and mapping socio-economic resilience was based on the available data gathered from the social and economic dimensions, with existing/standard indicators on exposure and vulnerability applied uniformly across subdistricts. Combining the two dimensions produced novel socio-economic resilience index scores by subdistrict, which were mapped accordingly for the two coastal provinces of Krabi and Nakhon Si Thammarat. We also derived a coping capacity index scores by combining availability of skills (soft capacities) and availability of structural resources (hard coping capacities). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Improvements in assessing the resilience and coping capacities of communities to the impacts of hydrometeorological hazards 
 
Description Center for Earth System Science Tsinghua University 
Organisation Tsinghua University China
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution WP 2 Lead Dr Yi Wang brings scientific expertise and intellectual input in climate modelling. He is involved in a large research team of ~30 students, PDRAs, and staff. He is supervising ~20 PhDs and a few PDRAS at Tsinghua. The VF post also allows him to work on many NSFC (Chinese national research funding agency) projects, one of them is linked to Global climate risk assessment, land surface and hydrological processes and extreme events under projected climate which has a clear synergy with the Thai coast project.
Collaborator Contribution Centre for Earth System Science Tsinghua University provides intellectual input and scientific expertise in modelling earth systems through expertise in integrating physical and social sciences, engineering and management toward a more comprehensive and systematic study of the Earth sciences to better meet the challenges of global environmental change and sustainable development. The College for Global Change Studies, in which the Centre is based, has four broad academic fields: 1. Earth system science; 2. Earth system modelling; 3. Earth observation technology; 4. Global change economics. WP2 Lead, Dr Yi Wang currently has a Visiting Professorship (honorary) at the Centre for Earth System Science of Tsinghua University (2019-2022) where he is working on a project concerned with global climate risk assessment, land surface and hydrological processes and extreme events under projected climate which has a clear synergy with the Thai coast project.
Impact High-resolution climate model outputs archived at Sussex HPC.
Start Year 2019
 
Description National Centre for Atmospheric Research, USA 
Organisation National Center for Atmospheric Research
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution WP Lead Dr Yi Wang brings scientific expertise and intellectual input in climate modelling.
Collaborator Contribution The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is a next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system designed for both atmospheric research and operational forecasting applications. It features two dynamical cores, a data assimilation system, and a software architecture supporting parallel computation and system extensibility. The model serves a wide range of meteorological applications across scales from tens of meters to thousands of kilometers. The effort to develop WRF began in the latter 1990's and was a collaborative partnership of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (represented by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the Earth System Research Laboratory), the U.S. Air Force, the Naval Research Laboratory, the University of Oklahoma, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). WRF has a large worldwide community of registered users (a cumulative total of over 48,000 in over 160 countries), and NCAR provides regular workshops and tutorials on it. NCAR has contributed scientific expertise and intellectual input to WP1 climate science modelling + training of WP1 PDRA in downscaling WRF model for this project.
Impact High-resolution climate model outputs archived at Sussex HPC
Start Year 2018
 
Title Flood modelling 
Description Flood risk maps at catchment levels under different IPCC AR5 scenarios. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Improved ability to predict the extent and magnitude and potential impacts of future flooding events. 
 
Title Future climate projection 
Description We have used the latest IPCC global model output at the time of our project and downscaled the model output to a very high spatial resolution of 3-km by 3-km so that the future flood risk assessments can be carried out. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2020 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Improved modelling of future rainfall under different climate scenarios at very high spatial resolution (3 x 3 km grid) to inform flood modelling. 
 
Description Geographical Association of Northern Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The talk was presented at Queen's University Belfast. Approximately 50 students and 10 teachers attended the event which sparked questions and discussion afterwards. To reeach a broader audience, the talk and resources were subsequently distributed to Geography departments in schools across Northern Ireland by the GA co-ordinator who has reported an increased interest in related subject areas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Past Global Changes (PAGES) Floods Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Floods Working Group (FWG) brings together all the scientific communities reconstructing past floods (historians, geologists, geographers, etc.) and those studying current and future floods (hydrologists, modelers, statisticians, etc.) to coordinate, synthesize and promote data and results on the natural variability of floods. The meeting aim was to produce regional syntheses on existing paleofloods records as well as to co-define key milestones and deliverables for the second phase. Planned output is a review paper on changes in flood activity related to cold/warm climate phases that will rely on the workshop material and an upcoming survey and a Science Brief describing how past flood data can contribute to implement more reliable DRR strategies. To this end, key international stakeholders are being contacted: UNESCO and UNSIDR.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://pastglobalchanges.org/calendar/upcoming/127-pages/1943
 
Description Press release to disseminate information on the project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release by all project partners in January 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.edgehill.ac.uk/news/2019/01/major-study-could-benefit-11-million-thai-people-living-in-v...
 
Description Project launch workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Project launch for dissemination purposes and for input from stakeholders and end-users to ensure that the project work addresses their needs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Project web site 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project web-site disseminates information about the project to a wide audience; it has resulted in requests for further information e.g. from media and invitations to give talks on the work of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.edgehill.ac.uk/nerc-tcp
 
Description Stakeholder-End User Workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact two facilitated workshops with officials, stakeholders, NGOS and community leaders at the two project study sites. Held at the Provincial Government Offices: Nakhon si Thammarat (Friday 8 March 2019) and Krabi (11 March 2019). Initial workshop to assess views on existing risks from and governance of hydro-meteorological hazards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Stakeholder-End User Workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Focus group discussions with key informants from the local government and private agencies, community leaders and local people living in the vulnerable areas from hydrometeorological hazards in Nakornsithammarat and Krabi (in Mid- December 2019). Aims of the attendance were to observe and compile contextual information in order to get better understanding about factors in the area that contributed to the risks from hydrometeorological hazards, currently implemented policy interventions, governance, strategies and measures, and challenges in dealing with the hazards (both at the provincial and community levels). This information and understanding will be utilised in designing and facilitating the 2nd workshop by the WP6 with key stakeholders in both provinces, planned to be in mid-2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Workshops with stakeholders in both study sites 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact During October 19th- 21st, 2020 (month 23 of the project), led by the WP6, the second workshop of the project with local stakeholders in Nakhon SI Thammarat and Krabi Provinces were held with main purposes to disseminate and validate project's key findings from WP1-5 with the stakeholder including representatives from the provincial governmental organizations, civil society organizations and community-based organizations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description training workshop: Geo-information Technology for Coastal Erosion and Vulnerability Assessment 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The SE Asia (Thai) PI was invited to be a trainer and present a talk entitled 'Geo-information Technology for Coastal Erosion and Vulnerability Assessment' in the Intensive Workshop with 15 participants, hosted by Thai Government Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) in Mid-October 2019. The outcome was to train practitioners in the methods used to assess coastal vulnerability so that these can be applied at a national level.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019