A prototype real-time sting jet precursor tool for forecasters

Lead Research Organisation: University of Reading
Department Name: Meteorology


Sting jets are descending airstreams that can lead to damaging surface winds and gusts in autumn and winter storms. UK impacting sting-jet storms include the Great Storm (1987) and the more recent St Jude's day (2013) and Georgina (2018) windstorms. A convective-instability-based precursor to sting jets has been developed by the project team to identify these storms in datasets unable to represent sting jets due to insufficient spatial resolution. These datasets include reanalyses and global ensemble weather forecast model output. Climatological analysis has shown that this precursor is present in about 30% of all North Atlantic storms, increasing to about 40% for explosively-developing storms. A similar analysis applied to end of 21st century climate-model output using the most extreme (RCP8.5) climate forcing scenario found a 60% increase in explosively-developing storms with the precursor. Furthermore, even in reanalyses, storms with the precursor are the dominant cause of storm-related strong UK winds. In reality these winds will be enhanced by the actual occurrence of sting jets. Early detection of storms with the precursor could give advanced warning of enhanced wind risk and so improve national severe weather warnings and thus climate resilience.

The project aim is to develop a prototype real-time precursor tool for use by Met Office forecasters. The existing precursor diagnostic code will be adapted to work routinely on operational global ensemble forecast output to inform forecasters whether or not storms impacting the UK and Europe up to seven days in the future have the precursor. We will work with forecasters to develop suitable graphical outputs and trial the prototype tool during autumn and winter 2019. If the prototype tool is successful then the Met Office anticipate implementing it within their model system such that the sting-jet precursor diagnostic would be available to all their prediction systems.

Planned Impact

The proposed implementation of a real-time sting-jet precursor tool for Met Office forecasters has the potential to lead to reduction in the socio-economic costs of severe UK winter storms through improved weather forecasts. The tool will provide improved guidance on those storms likely to produce hazardous surface winds and gusts, and specifically the probability that these storms will produce a sting jet (a descending jet that can lead to the strongest wind gusts over land), several days before they occur. Current models used to provide these medium-range probability forecasts have insufficient resolution to resolve (i.e. represent) sting jets and so forecasters rely on characteristic features in satellite imagery or output from short-range (~1 day) forecasts from the UK-domain high resolution model to inform them that a sting jet is likely to be present in the storm. Once present these features provide, at best, only few hours warning of the sting jet reaching the surface. Hence, the precursor tool has the potential to provide a step change in our ability to provide early warnings of these hazardous storms.

The general public in the UK and Europe are the main beneficiaries of the proposed research. They will benefit from the project legacy of improved early warnings of potentially high impact weather events. Improved weather warnings can save lives and livelihoods.

The benefits to the general public will be realised through the benefits to the Met Office of a tool that can be used by their operational forecasters to anticipate storms that are likely to be associated with extreme, and so potentially damaging, surface winds and gusts several days before they hit the UK and western Europe. We will work closely with the Met Office to implement this tool. The resulting forecast guidance can be used by the Met Office's National Severe Weather Warning Service (NSWWS) and in European storm forecasts.

Improvements to the NSWWS are experienced directly by the general public (who may change, for example, their travel plans when warnings are issued) and indirectly through improved guidance to organisations that have responsibilities for emergency preparation and response at the local level (including emergency services and travel and utility companies). Improved early warnings of hazardous storms will enable such organisations to mobilise staff and equipment more efficiently and so mitigate impacts.

Finally, improved understanding of these hazardous storms and their characteristics (by academics, forecasters and the general public) is likely to result as a legacy of this project. This legacy should improve the UK's future climate resilience to these storms.
Description The goal of this work was to develop and test a prototype real-time sting-jet precursor tool for forecasters. This has been achieved. The tool now runs automatically on output from the Met Office's ensemble weather forecast model (18 equally likely forecasts) as soon as the output is available and plots generated are available to inform Met Office forecasters. While the utility and calibration of these plots is subject to ongoing evaluation, the outputs are already being used to inform forecasters about the likelihood that storms that may impact the UK have exceptionally strong winds (associated with sting jets) several days before they arrive. Previously forecasters could only determine this likelihood from short-range (~1 day) forecasts or satellite imagery that indicated that sting jets were already present in the storm.
Exploitation Route The diagnostic tool was made available to forecasters in mid November 2019. The legacy of the diagnostic tool will be determined after its utility and calibration has been assessed which will be after a sufficient number of strong storms have impacted the UK.
Sectors Environment

Description Forecasters are using the implemented diagnostic tool to inform the weather guidance that they issue. In particular, the tool is feeding into the national severe weather warnings relating to strong winds from extratropical cyclones (also known as winter storms), These warning can have strong societal and economic impact.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Environment
Impact Types Societal,Economic

Description A global climatology of sting-jet cyclones
Amount £97,672 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/X010473/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2022 
End 06/2023
Title Sting-jet precursor tool 
Description The sting-jet precursor tool is now automated to run on outputs from the Met Office's global ensemble weather prediction model as soon as the forecast has completed. Graphical outputs showing the precursor are available for viewing by forecasters via an internal Met Office web page. Forecasters can use this information to inform their forecasts of potentially severe extratropical cyclones several days before the cyclone impacts the UK. This information is already feeding into national severe weather warnings. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This tool is already informing Met Office forecasters about the likelihood that an extratropical cyclone impacting the UK will have exceptionally strong surface winds and gusts. This information feeds into national severe weather warnings. 
Title Python code to calculate diagnostic DSCAPE from vertical atomspheric soundings 
Description Computation of Downdraught Slantwise Convective Available Potential Energy (DSCAPE) from vertical soundings 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Other researchers will be able to calculate this diagnostic from vertical atmospheric soundings. This is substantially computationally cheaper than the original, standard method of diagnosing DSCAPE as DCAPE along slanting absolute momentum surfaces because the interpolation of data to momentum surfaces is computationally expensive. 
URL https://github.com/omartineza/csisounding
Description Met Office 
Organisation Meteorological Office UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Worked together with partner to adapt existing diagnostic code (which we developed) to run on Met Office systems. Worked with partner to optimise graphical display of diagnostic for use by Met Office forecasters and to decide how to inform forecasters about the new diagnostic.
Collaborator Contribution Partner tested the diagnostic code on the Met Office systems and ensured that the model output available was suitable for input into the diagnostic code. Partner set up automation of processes to run the diagnostic routinely on model output. Partner communicated the availability of the graphical display of the diagnostic to forecasters and informed them about its potential usefulness.
Impact Graphical outputs from the sting jet precursor diagnostic tool are now available to Met Office forecasters in near real-time providing information about the likelihood that storms will have exceptional winds several days in advance. This information is already being used by forecasters to inform the guidance they provide for the national severe weather warnings.
Start Year 2019
Description Participation in Met Office winter testbed 
Organisation Meteorological Office UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team was engaged in the evaluation of the sting jet precursor diagnostic (that was developed by this project) in the Met Office winter testbed in 2022
Collaborator Contribution A broad range of Met Office staff including operational meteorologists (aka forecasters) had the opportunity to evaluate the usefulness of the diagnostic applied to weather forecasts in real time.
Impact Feedback from the testbed is leading to enhancements of the diagnostic to improve its usefulness and uptake by operational forecasters.
Start Year 2022
Description 8th European Windstorm Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited Talk, by Oscar Martinez-Alvardo: A prototype real-time sting jet precursor tool for forecasters at 8th European Windstorm Workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
Description European Conference on Severe Storms 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given at European Conference on Severe Storms (ECSS): A prototype real-time sting jet precursor tool for forecasters by Oscar Martinez-Alvarado,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019