Monitoring and predicting the effects of climate change on crop yields

Lead Research Organisation: UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
Department Name: Biodiversity (Wallingford)


Climate change poses one of the greatest risks to future food production both in the UK and globally. Around 72% (17.5 million hectares) of the UK land area is farmed, with 37% of this as productive arable land. In 2017, the UK agriculture sector employed 419,000 people directly and generated Gross Value Added of £10.3 billion each year. The general consensus is that climate change will have both significant positive and negative impacts on UK agriculture, and these will vary depending on geographic region. Climate-related impacts may occur through gradual, long-term change, or as a result of more rapid and stochastic changes triggered by extreme weather events, such as droughts and wet winters. In the short- to medium-term, we expect the growth of certain crops, such as maize, to benefit from longer growing seasons and higher temperatures. However, in the longer-term, changing patterns of rainfall, increased evaporation and reduced water availability will all threaten crop production. Similarly, increasingly wet autumns will constrain agricultural production by adversely affecting the timing of farming operations. These could indirectly result in environmental damage, such as soil compaction and erosion. However, considerable uncertainty remains as to the location and severity of these impacts, and the rate of recovery following perturbations. It remains a research major challenge to disaggregate the impacts of climate change on crop production from many other technological and socio-economic factors affecting yield. This uncertainty and a lack of knowledge have left the UK agricultural sector poorly prepared for a future, changing climate. An indication of this was provided by the significant impact of the 2018 summer drought on yields of many major crops.

BBSRC and NERC are currently funding a large national capability research programme "Achieving Sustainable Agricultural Systems, ASSIST" (, with strong support from the farming industry. As part of this programme, the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology has assembled a strong multi- and inter-disciplinary team to develop and test new farming systems. Building on ASSIST, the CROP-NET project aims to scope out the requirements for a robust, real-time crop and grass yield monitoring and modelling service for the UK to provide improved predictions of future climate change impacts. Specifically, we will explore:

1) the feasibility of using Earth Observation data in combination with large volumes of precision yield data collected by the farming industry to provide early warning detection of climate-related risks to crop yields across the UK;

2) the use of fine-scale projections of UK climate under UKCP18 to target locations across the UK that represent the full range of climate change scenarios over the next 30-40 years. This process will consider different climate variables (e.g. temperature, precipitation) at different temporal resolutions (e.g. average summer temperature, drought periods, and heat peaks) that are likely to affect crop growth and yield. In this way, the monitoring of yield will provide data to pick apart the different process by which climate change will affect yields;

3) the key social and economic factors affecting farmer perception of climate change threats, and their willingness and ability to adapt their farming systems in response to this; and

4) the viability of using data from an established, real-time crop yield monitoring network to improve the predictive power of crop growth models to build a demonstrator prediction service, and therefore inform climate adaptation strategies for crop production.

Planned Impact

The CROP-NET project aims to scope out the requirements for a robust, real-time crop and grass yield monitoring and modelling service for the UK to provide improved predictions of future climate change impacts on agriculture. This knowledge will inform a wide variety of end-users in respect of future land management and policy development decisions to optimise food production under climate change scenarios for the UK. Beneficiaries of the CROP-NET outputs will be:

1. Farming and Agri-businesses: CEH and its partners are working with a range of business partners to support end-users in the agricultural sector (farmers and agribusiness) by providing tools to support decision making to optimise food production and protect the environment. Examples include the development of the CEH Land Cover plus series of maps (Crops, Pesticides and Fertilisers), and our partnership with Agrimetrics to develop mobile apps for benchmarking farm crop yields against national and regional data. Farmers and our agri-business partners will benefit from the new knowledge, data and models generated by CROP-NET through the demonstration of a real-time crop and grass yield monitoring and modelling service. The Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board are a key knowledge broker and will be able to promote the demonstrator to the sector and enable better decision making around land management under climate change.

2. Policy-makers and implementers - Policy-makers in Defra, BEIS, and the devolved administrations, and policy-implementer and regulators in these departments, are likely to be amongst the main beneficiaries of CROP-NET research and have a strong interest in its outputs. The UK government has a number of key policies that are focused on reducing the risk from climate change and particularly in the agricultural sector. These include: Defra's 25 Year Environment Plan (25YEP); the new Agriculture Bill; BEIS Industrial Strategy and the Transforming Food Production programme; the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and the National Adaptation Programme; the Paris Climate Change Agreement; Wales's Well-being of Future Generations Act 2015. Decision support tools, services and information to support the design of policy that benefit society, the economy and the environment under climate change is a key requirement of these beneficiaries.

3. Landowners and Trusts - Large landowners in the UK such as the National Trust and the Crown Estate have strategies and plans to restore and protect the natural environment and adapt to climate change. Agriculture is a key component of their activities, and by working with their farmers the Natural Trust is testing approaches to landscape scale land management to deliver healthy, resilient and productive land. The Crown Estate has set itself ambitious aspirations to be met by 2030 that focus on closing the waste loop using circular economy principles, decarbonisation, climate change adaptation, and the creation of healthy places where their business, communities and natural habitats can thrive. Knowledge, models and tools that can support decision making under climate and land use change will benefit these organisations in achieving such goals.


10 25 50
Description The CropNET project worked with policy and practitioner stakeholders from the farming industry to develop a framework for improved predictions of the climate impacts on UK crop yields. This involved developing models capable of predicting crop yield to 2080 using the latest Met Office UKCP18 climate change predictions. These models were improved by the assimilation of earth observation data to provide improved real-time estimates of actual crop yields for any location in GB. The crop yield predictions were validated with actual yield data from a network of over 100 commercial farms across lowland Britain. The models have been demonstrated to the stakeholder community in a series of four user-requirements workshops. These have informed the design of a future crop yield prediction dashboard to support climate adaptation decisions for farmers and policy makers (
Exploitation Route The CropNET models are being used by another SPF Climate Resilience programme project (OpenCLIM - NE/T013931/1). They will underpin the development of an improved climate change risk assessment framework (CCRA5) for the UK. In addition, funding has been won to synthesise the outcomes of SPF Climate Resilience round 1 projects with an agriculture theme to produce user guidance and knowledge exchange materials.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

Description Economic performance: Crop-NET held four user workshops with stakeholders from the arable and livestock farming sectors and policy makers. This identified the information and tools they required to inform them of the impacts of climate change on their businesses, and how best to mitigate these. Based on the workshops we produced a free, on-line demonstrator tool to provide individual farm businesses with high resolution data on the impacts of climate change on their crop yields and compare these with regional and national impacts. This is important for raising awareness of the issue, and for informing future business planning and resilience. It will also support climate change adaptation strategies. Effectiveness of climate change adaptation policies: Crop-NET explored interviewed 30 farmer and farm business advisors to explore awareness of climate change and their attitudes to adaptation strategies. This was published in a peer-reviewed paper ( and has been influential in informing climate change polices in BEIS and Defra.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

Description CEH_Open CLimate IMpacts modelling framework (OpenCLIM)
Amount £195,055 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/T013915/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2020 
End 08/2022
Description UKRI SPF UK Climate Resilience Programme: Synthesis Funding
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation United Kingdom Research and Innovation 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2020 
End 07/2021
Description CROP-NET: Monitoring and predicting the effects of climate change on crop yields 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The webinar was to inform the audience of the work of CROP-NET - the following text is taken from the event abstract: CROP-NET has engaged with farmers, the farming industry and policy makers to explore their experiences, attitudes and responses to extreme weather and climate change. Our findings revealed a number of actions that would support adaptation to climate change, including improved industry collaboration, farmer-to-farmer learning, and decision support tools. We worked with these stakeholders to co-design a simple tool to enable farmers to explore future climate impacts on yields for their fields and farms, and to benchmark them against regional and national trends. This involved building crop and grass growth models that integrate real-time earth observation data to provide accurate within year prediction of yields. Model predictions were validated against precision yield data collected from over 2000 fields across GB. Our models incorporated bias-corrected UKCP18 climate predictions to forecast future yields to 2080. The Crop-NET models have been incorporated into a new UK climate risk and adaptation framework under the OpenCLIM project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
Description NERC Planet Earth magazine article on Building Resilience to Climate Change 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A summary of the the findings of the Crop-NET project was reported in the NERC Planet Earth magazine feature on Building Resilience to Climate Change. This article showcased key findings of the SPF Climate Resilience programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
Description Stakeholder Workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As part of the project, two sets of workshops were held with stakeholders from the agriculture sector to scope out (first set of workshops) a demonstration crop yield forecast system and presentation of the crop yield demonstrator (second set of workshops). The first set of workshops helped to identify desriabl feature of the demonstrator. The second set were used to gain feedback on the prototype demonstrator. Separate sets of workshops were held for the arable and livestock sectors. The workshops were attended by farmers, farm managers, policymakers and consultants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020