Toward a UK fire danger rating system: Understanding fuels, fire behaviour and impacts

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Environment, Education and Development

Abstract

Wildfires have traditionally been perceived as a threat confined to regions such as Southern Europe or Australia. However, the global wildfire threat is expanding and recognition of wildfire hazard in the UK has grown substantially in recent years. In the eight financial years between April 2009 and March 2017 over 250,000 wildfire incidents were dealt with by the Fire and Rescue Services (FRS) in England alone. Individual events have been spatially extensive, challenging to fight (e.g. Saddleworth Moor, 2018), and have threatened property, transport and other infrastructure, especially in the rural-urban interface (e.g. Swinley Forest, April/May 2011). Response costs alone for vegetation fires in Great Britain have been estimated at £55 million per year, with individual large scale events costing up to £1 million. In response to significant fire seasons (e.g. 2003 & 2011), 'severe wildfire' has been included on the National Risk Register and two cross-sector national Wildfire Forums have been established (England and Wales; Scotland (with Northern Ireland)). These initiatives evidence the need for appropriate fundamental scientific understanding and systems to manage and mitigate the current and future UK wildfire threat. The recent Climate Change Risk Assessment has also highlighted the increased risk of wildfires.

Fire danger is a description of the combination of both constant and variable factors that affect the initiation, spread, and ease of controlling a wildfire on an area. Wildfire Danger Rating Systems (WFDRS) are designed to assess the fuel and weather to provide estimates of flammability and likely fire behaviour under those conditions. These danger ratings can inform management decisions for land managers, direct resourcing plans for FRS teams, and feed into strategic planning for local and national governments.

The UK does not have a WFDRS and we lack the fundamental scientific and end-user understanding to effectively predict the likelihood, behaviour and impact of wildfire incidents in the UK for present and future climate and land use scenarios. England and Wales has the Met Office Fire Severity Index system (MOFSI) operated by the Met Office based on weather forecasts only and this is solely designed to determine if open access land should be closed as defined in the Countryside and Rights of Way Act (2000) during 'exceptional' fire weather. However, during the 2018 UK drought MOFSI indices did not rise sufficiently to trigger land closures in areas that suffered severe wildfires. Additionally, due to the absence of a WFDRS in the UK, the algorithms underlying MOFSI are also used to inform the Natural Hazard Partnership Daily Hazard Assessment. The insensitivity to recent extreme fire conditions of 2018 are indicative of its inability to properly forewarn government, responders and land owners.

We therefore need a bespoke WFDRS for the UK. This project will undertake the fundamental science and analyses required for building a UK-specific WFDRS, informed by key stakeholders who will act as project partners. This must be designed for UK fuels, its complex land cover mosaics and infrastructure, and changing land use patterns and climate.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research?
This project addresses research priorities identified in the ESRC/NERC-funded Transdisciplinary Research Seminar Series 'FIRES' (RES-496-26-0038) policy brief (McMorrow et al., 2010) including a better understanding of fire behaviour in UK vegetation. It also addresses the key wildfire research needs identified in the recent CCRA2 (Brown et al. 2016), and those identified by stakeholders consulted during the preparation of the briefing note Next steps for wildfire Danger Assessment in the UK (Tsakiridou et al. 2018). This project therefore has cross-sector end-user support from across the UK, who are formally embedded as Project Partners, and benefits from access to a comprehensive network of UK beneficiaries and end-users developed through 'FIRES' and subsequent NERC-funded KE 'Project Knowledge for Wildfire (KfWf)' (NE/J500768/1).

Key end-user beneficiaries are: Fire and Rescue Services (FRS); the land management sector, e.g. Moorland Association; forestry sector; National Park Authorities (NPAs); Natural England (NE), Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), Natural Resources Wales (NRW) and other non-departmental government bodies, conservation agencies; the Met Office; local and national government resilience planners; national forums (e.g. England and Wales Wildfire Forum (EWWF); see Thorp Letter of Support [LoS]).

Internationally, this project will benefit researchers and fire practitioners working in ecosystems across similar oceanic climate zones (e.g. NW Europe, New Zealand); and we have close links with wildfire scientists and researchers in these areas (e.g. EFFIS, SCION). There are few fire danger rating systems designed for such ecosystems and this project will therefore allow the UK to lead the way in this area and to develop globally important research capacity. For example, Dr Mike Wotton notes "the work done within this proposal would allow us in Canada to enhance our models" [Wotton LoS].

How will they benefit from this research?
The project will provide end-users with a better understanding of fire danger and fire behaviour in a UK context. This information can be used tactically - it will give the FRS new insights into factors affecting fire behaviour and so enhance wildfire control. As Paul Hedley (NFCC Wildfire Lead Officer) notes it would also contribute to: "significantly improved firefighter safety" [Hedley LoS]. It can also be used strategically, in planning of FRS resources ("potential for proactive pre-positioning of resources to match risk" Hedley LoS), in land management decisions (e.g. firebreak design, tree species choice, and vegetation management for fuel reduction), and in local development planning. It will lead to increased awareness amongst practitioners who use fire as a management tool about 'good' and 'bad' days to burn, and through a deeper understanding of fire behaviour.

The research outputs and stakeholder meetings will also help inform policies for local fire management plans, as well as national civil contingency planning. Wildfire was included for the first time on the 2013 National Risk Register (Cabinet Office, 2013) and thus wildfire must now be assessed by Local Resilience Forums (LRF) for consideration on Community Risk Registers and Integrated Risk Management Plans. A dedicated UK WFDRS would help them to demonstrate wildfire impacts to LRFs in wildfire 'hotspots'.

Reference: Cabinet Office (2013) National Risk Register of Civil Emergencies, Cabinet Office, London.
McMorrow et al. (2010) FIRES Policy Brief. Available online: http://tinyurl.com/nmw9pz5
Brown et al. (2016) UK Climate Change Risk Assessment Evidence Report, Chapter 3, Natural Environment and Natural Assets. Adaptation SubCommittee of Climate Change Committee, London. 207pp.
Tsakaridou M., Gazzard, R. & Morison, J. (2018) Briefing Note: Next steps for wildfire Danger Assessment in the UK, Presented to EWWF and circulated to stakeholders.
 
Title "Could Mr Sands Please Come to Reception?" poem. Part of Arts Council funded 'Hot Poets' project 
Description Gareth Clay was involved in the creation of a wildfire themed poem as part of the Arts Council funded 'Hot Poets' project (https://www.livtorc.co.uk/hot-poets/). This involved working with poet Joelle Taylor (recipient of 2021 T.S. Eliot Prize) to explore ideas around fire, fire-affected landscapes and how people and fire interact. Through online meetings and a field visit to Thursley Common in October 2021 (facilitated by the Ecological Continuity Trust and Natural England), Joelle created the poem 'Could Mr Sands Please Come to Reception?'. The 12 poems from Hot Poets were released during the 12 days of COP26. Follow on activities during 2022 are ongoing. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Ongoing engagement with the Hot Poets project during 2022 (including performance of the poem at the Southbank Centre in April 2022). Inclusion in the Hot Poets book https://www.etsy.com/uk/LivTorcPoetry/listing/1118085743/hot-poets 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tZiOju_QWt4
 
Description External Reviewers for Natural England review "The causes and prevention of wildfire on heathlands and peatlands in England" (NEER014) (Gareth Clay, Nick Kettridge)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://publications.naturalengland.org.uk/publication/4741162353295360
 
Description National Fire Chief's Council (NFCC) Wildfire Tactical Advisors CPD seminar series
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Thomas Smith delivered a CPD training session to around 25 Fire and Rescue Service Wildfire Tactical Advisors on 9th December 2020 titled 'Free online tools for remote sensing and modelling UK wildfires'. Materials were also circulated to a further 8 Tac Ads who were not in attendance. Course covered: • Online satellite imagery (hotspot detections, high-resolution imagery for identifying active parts of a fire, burnt area and fire perimeter, post-fire investigations etc.) • Wildfire spread modelling using Prometheus (free software) - useful for scenarios training, prescribed burning planning, and (perhaps) operational fire fighting. Used a series of case studies from various parts of the UK, including Winter Hill, Swinley, Hamsterley Forest. This training event developed skills of Tac Ads by showing how operational incident command could be supported by Earth Observation technologies. Tom had previously supplied some imagery at wildfire incidents over the past year where these have been used in incident command.
 
Description Submission to 3rd Climate Change Risk Assessment "UK Wildfires and their Climate Challenges" (Multiple team members - Belcher, Clay, Doerr, Elliott, Kettridge, Morison, Santin, Smith)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Training National Trust volunteers, Marsden Moor
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description FIREURISK - DEVELOPING A HOLISTIC, RISK-WISE STRATEGY FOR EUROPEAN WILDFIRE MANAGEMENT
Amount € 10,000,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 101003890 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 04/2021 
End 04/2025
 
Description Dorset Urban Heath partnership YouTube video, featuring members of UKFDRS project team 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Members of the project team were included as part of a video produced by the Dorset Urban Heaths Partnership (https://www.dorsetheaths.org.uk/) about why controlled burning is carried out on heathlands. 268 views (at 11/02/2022).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KP1THuvJDok
 
Description Global trends in wildfire and its impacts - blog for Royal Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post for the Royal Society by project team members (Stefan Doerr and Cristina Santin) about climate change and wildfire risk, and the relative contribution of human activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://royalsociety.org/blog/2020/10/global-trends-wildfire/
 
Description Interview for BBC website news article (Stefan Doerr) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stefan Doerr was interviewed as part of a BBC article titled "Climate change: Droughts and fires 'may be features of Wales". 29/10/2021
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-59078295
 
Description Interview for BBC website news article (Thomas Smith 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Comment from Thomas Smith (Co-I) on the Chobham Common wildfire
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-surrey-53728175
 
Description Interview for BBC website news article (Thomas Smith) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to BBC article about winter wildfires on Dartmoor (Co-I Thomas Smith)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-devon-56037220
 
Description Interview for Channel 4 News segment on wildfires (includes interviews with Stefan Doerr and Claire Belcher) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Filming for Channel 4 News segment (15/09/2021) on a recent paper on wildfire emissions in Australia. Commentary from Stefan Doerr and Claire Belcher were included in the news article. Filming was on location at Wareham Forest during a project team field visit to the site. Wareham Forest fire in 2020 was a major incident and forms a key case study for the project. Members of the team discussed the work of the UKFDRS project with the Channel 4 production team in the field and helped inform the discussions on the day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.channel4.com/news/australian-wildfires-released-more-co2-than-annual-emissions-of-german...
 
Description Interview for National Geographic Magazine (quotes from Andy Elliott, Gareth Clay) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviews with Andy Elliott and Gareth Clay about UK wildfires for the well-read National Geographic Magazine (online). This was well circulated on social media at the time. Includes specific reference to the NERC project.

Update (August 2021): Request for engagement (to Gareth Clay) with TV production company as part of the development of a YouTube original film. Researcher made the connection after reading this National Geographic article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.nationalgeographic.co.uk/environment-and-conservation/2020/04/british-wildfires-are-gett...
 
Description Interview for Sky News Daily Climate Show, 4th August 2021 (Stefan Doerr) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stefan Doerr was interviewed on the Sky News Daily Climate Show commenting on the risk of future wildfires in the UK, 4th August 2021. YouTube link has nearly 20,000 views
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMt_NG_gGCw
 
Description Interview for national newspaper (Thomas Smith) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to article in Financial Times (20th August) "Europe seeks solutions as it grapples with catastrophic wildfires"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.ft.com/content/460a232e-e2c5-463c-87ae-2f9bb09a6149?shareType=nongift
 
Description Interview for national newspaper (Thomas Smith) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Project Co-I Thomas Smith was interviewed and provided statistical analysis for a Financial Times article on UK wildfires. This generated significant interest on social media (including over 100 comments on the FT webpage)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.ft.com/content/41b9c9b3-6132-4e75-a20b-96fbef900702?shareType=nongift
 
Description Interview for the Independent (Thomas Smith) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Thomas Smith was interviewed for the Independent as part of a piece on firefighters being on 'frontlines of climate change' and campaign from the FBU and others for greater support and resources for firefighters to help them tackle worsening climate disasters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/firefighters-climate-change-crisis-b1761830...
 
Description Invited presentation given to NERC staff entitled "Fire and water: predicting and mitigating water contamination following wildfires". (Co-I Stefan Doerr) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 12 May 2020: Prof Stefan Doerr, Invited presentation given to NERC staff entitled "Fire and water: predicting and mitigating water contamination following wildfires". 30 min zoom presentation to NERC and other UKRI staff with subsequent Q&A session. As part of this presentation I presented on the UKFDRS project as future impact-driven NERC-funded work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Life Solved Podcast - Wildfire (interview with Mark Hardiman) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Mark Hardiman was interviewed for the Life Solved podcast from University of Portsmouth about climate, wildfires and human activities in the UK, which speaks to many of the aims for the UK FDRS project.

The interview was recorded prior to the start of the project but only released in September 2020 (incidentally at a time when the west coast of the USA was suffering devastating wildfires).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.port.ac.uk/news-events-and-blogs/podcasts/life-solved/episode-7-wildfire
 
Description NFCC Wildfire Investigation Webinar (presentation by Andy Elliott) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact National Fire Chiefs Council ran a webinar on 30th June 2020 on Wildfire Investigations at which Andy Elliott (PDRF on project) spoke on experimental research into probable causes of wildfire and fire behaviour.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.nationalfirechiefs.org.uk/NFCC-Events/nfcc-wildfire-investigation-webinar/10193?OccId=14...
 
Description Presentation to the Fire and Rescue Service Conference 2021, 30/11/21 (Andy Elliott) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to the conference in Andy's Fire & Rescue Service capacity, but was asked to explain the challenges faced by the wildfire community from three perspectives: FRS response, Research and Land Management. Andy outlined the UKFDRS project in detail as part of this National on-line conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Presentation to the Hardown Hill Society, 25/11/2021 (Andy Elliott) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation to the Hardown Hill Society on the ongoing work on Hardown Hill taking fuel samples for the UKFDRS project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description TV documentary, "Britain's Extreme Weather: Superstorms & Heatwaves", Channel 4 (Monday 23rd august, 9pm) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Rayanne Vitali and Andy Elliott were involved in the production of this Channel 4 documentary, including filming in the Exeter wildFIRE lab. Rayanne was interviewed about UK wildfires and was featured in the documentary (at approximately 24:10 mins / 50 min programme)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021