The ZEPLIN III Galactic Dark Matter Search

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Dept of Physics

Abstract

Please also see the PPARC publications and leaflets on dark matter. From the earliest times, observations have been made of the Universe. Since 1933 and the measurements of Fritz Zwicky, it has become apparent that the stars, planets, gas and everything else we know of in space, contributes only a few percent of the total mass of the Universe. The overwhelming evidence now suggests that about 1/3 of the remaining mass is in the form of so called dark matter, and about 2/3 is dark energy. What the dark matter and dark energy are has become one of the most important questions in science. The best candidate comes from particle physics. Here, our fundamental understanding of the basic building blocks of Nature suggests that all the particles we have ever seen, such as electrons, quarks and neutrinos, are in fact only half of all the particles that are 'out there'. In addition, there are 'supersymmetric' particles, and one of these, the lightest, is predicted to have precisely the properties needed to explain the dark matter. Hence, the prediction is that the stars we see wen we look up at the night sky are in fact only a small component of the Galaxy, the content in fact being dominated by a diffuse halo of very weakly interacting particles, known as WIMPs, through which the Sun and Earth are moving. It is the goal of the ZEPLIN-III collaboration to make the World's first direct detection of dark matter and these new particles. The ZEPLIN-III detector comprises an active target volume of 8 kg of xenon, kept cold enough to be a liquid. Occasionally, one of the WIMP particles of the dark matter through which the Earth is moving will scatter off an atom of the xenon, and when it does so it will generate a small flash of light and the liberation of a small amount of electrical charge. ZEPLIN-III is designed to be able to see these small signals, revealing the presence of the dark matter. The natural radiation of space (cosmic rays) could also do this, and so the detector has to be buried deep underground in a mine. The collaboration proposing the ZEPLIN-III project have great experience in this field. They have already completed the ZEPLIN-I project, are presently analysing data from the ZEPLIN-II detector, and have designed ZEPLIN-III to be the most sensitive dark matter experiment ever. The detector itself has already been built and tested, having been funded through previous PPARC grants. This grant application is to provide funds to allow deployment in the Boulby mine and exploitation over a period of 30 months. ZEPLIN-III is so sensitive that, in addition to going deep underground, an upgrade to lower radioactivity light detectors is required, as is the construction and implementation of a surrounding veto detector. Funds to cover these necessary aspects are also requested.

Publications

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Akimov D (2010) The ZEPLIN-III anti-coincidence veto detector in Astroparticle Physics

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Akimov D (2010) Limits on inelastic dark matter from ZEPLIN-III in Physics Letters B

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Araujo HM (2008) Measurements and simulations of muon-induced neutrons in Proc. of Identification of Dark Matter

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Araújo H (2012) Radioactivity backgrounds in ZEPLIN-III in Astroparticle Physics

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Edwards B (2008) Measurement of single electron emission in two-phase xenon in Astroparticle Physics

 
Description PPRP - LZ Dark Matter Search R&D
Amount £178,700 (GBP)
Funding ID P44228 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 03/2015
 
Description Royal Society International Joint Project
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2008 
End 06/2010
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation Brown University
Department Department of Physics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation Case Western Reserve University
Department Department of Physics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation Texas A&M University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation University of California, Berkeley
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation University of California, Davis
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation University of California, Santa Barbara
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation University of Coimbra
Department LIP Laboratory of Instrumentation and Experimental Particles Physics
Country Portugal 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation University of Maryland
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation University of Rochester
Department Department of Physics and Astronomy
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation University of South Dakota
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description LUX-ZEPLIN 
Organisation Yale University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments
Collaborator Contribution Co-founding of collaboration - co-PI Design studies Proposal developments technology developments
Impact Proposal to STFC - 2009 On going design studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description ZEPLIN III 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department Particle Physics Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Lead Institute Detector Design and Manufacture Operations Data Exploitation
Collaborator Contribution RAL - Laboratory Infrastructure, computing infrastructure Edinburgh - Veto for second run, operations support, data analysis ITEP - xenon procurement, veto components, operations support, data analysis Coimbra - data acquisition software, slow control, data analysis
Impact World leading direct dark matter search results Established two-phase xenon technology - now adopted by other groups Co-founders of LUX-ZEPLIN collaboration for next generation experiments
Start Year 2006
 
Description ZEPLIN III 
Organisation State Science Centre of Russian Federation Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics
Department Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Lead Institute Detector Design and Manufacture Operations Data Exploitation
Collaborator Contribution RAL - Laboratory Infrastructure, computing infrastructure Edinburgh - Veto for second run, operations support, data analysis ITEP - xenon procurement, veto components, operations support, data analysis Coimbra - data acquisition software, slow control, data analysis
Impact World leading direct dark matter search results Established two-phase xenon technology - now adopted by other groups Co-founders of LUX-ZEPLIN collaboration for next generation experiments
Start Year 2006
 
Description ZEPLIN III 
Organisation University of Coimbra
Country Portugal 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Lead Institute Detector Design and Manufacture Operations Data Exploitation
Collaborator Contribution RAL - Laboratory Infrastructure, computing infrastructure Edinburgh - Veto for second run, operations support, data analysis ITEP - xenon procurement, veto components, operations support, data analysis Coimbra - data acquisition software, slow control, data analysis
Impact World leading direct dark matter search results Established two-phase xenon technology - now adopted by other groups Co-founders of LUX-ZEPLIN collaboration for next generation experiments
Start Year 2006
 
Description ZEPLIN III 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department School of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Lead Institute Detector Design and Manufacture Operations Data Exploitation
Collaborator Contribution RAL - Laboratory Infrastructure, computing infrastructure Edinburgh - Veto for second run, operations support, data analysis ITEP - xenon procurement, veto components, operations support, data analysis Coimbra - data acquisition software, slow control, data analysis
Impact World leading direct dark matter search results Established two-phase xenon technology - now adopted by other groups Co-founders of LUX-ZEPLIN collaboration for next generation experiments
Start Year 2006
 
Description ZEPLIN-III Collaboration 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department Particle Physics Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Lead Insitute originating project and providing Spokesperson and STFC PI
Collaborator Contribution Xenon, Plastic scintillator, staff support
Impact Joint publications
Start Year 2006
 
Description ZEPLIN-III Collaboration 
Organisation State Science Centre of Russian Federation Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Lead Insitute originating project and providing Spokesperson and STFC PI
Collaborator Contribution Xenon, Plastic scintillator, staff support
Impact Joint publications
Start Year 2006
 
Description ZEPLIN-III Collaboration 
Organisation University of Coimbra
Country Portugal 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Lead Insitute originating project and providing Spokesperson and STFC PI
Collaborator Contribution Xenon, Plastic scintillator, staff support
Impact Joint publications
Start Year 2006
 
Description ZEPLIN-III Collaboration 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department School of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Lead Insitute originating project and providing Spokesperson and STFC PI
Collaborator Contribution Xenon, Plastic scintillator, staff support
Impact Joint publications
Start Year 2006
 
Description Astronmical Society, Crayford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 60 in audience

Applause and invited back regularly
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2009,2010
 
Description Astronomical Society Talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 30 - 80 in audience at each talk, Talks given at Abingdon, Oxford(x2), Coventry, Worcester, Cotswolds, Orpington, Dublin

Applause, occassional blog site entry. Talk to astronomy Ireland in Dublin gave rise to radio interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
 
Description BBC Horizon Special - Most of Our Universe is Missing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Multiple viewings world-wide
On-line summary

Many many emails from interested people around the world
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006
 
Description BBC One Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Single Showing 9on same program as Dr Who interview!!)

Emails
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Bristol Millenium Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Audience of 120 or so

Applause
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006
 
Description Channel 4 Live News 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Channel 4 TV News Live - 7pm - Interview

Interested emails
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Channel 4 Newsnight Feature 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prime-time National TV - single showing
On-line feature

Emails
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Discovery Channel TV 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Single broadcast
On-line article

Emails
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description IOP Regional Talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 100 in audience - talk given in Guildford and Sellafield

Applause
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Japanese Society for Promotion Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 40 in audience

Applause
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description MNBS TV Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Single broadcast - audience unknown

Emails
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Magazine Feature 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Bigraphical feature including dark matter research for Honda Dreams Magazine

Few interested emails
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Media Articles 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Numerous articles appearing in National and Local UK press and in some abroad, such as Portugal, Switzerland and Germany - too many to list

More media interest
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2010
 
Description Radio Interviews/Features 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Numerous radio interviews and features done, including Radio 5 Live, BBC Radio Cambridge Naked Scientist, Radio New Zealand, Radio York, BBC World Service, Radio 4 Frontiers Feature, BBC1 North

Follow up media interest
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2010
 
Description School Visits 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact talks given at All Saints School, Bradford Grammar School, Brrokfield School, Charterhouse School, Chesterfield College, Denbigh School, King Edward VII School, Lady Manners School, Newfield School, St. Paul's Girls School, Tapton School, Thames CoE School. Audiences varied between 20-100 pupils at each.

Applause
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
 
Description Science Museum DANA Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 150 paying attendees (sold-out). 15 minute start-up from me followed by 1.5 hrs of discussion in groups. Brian Cox also took part. Lots of discussion. TV and radio interviews done at same time.

second run one month later - again sold-out
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007