The Dust Enrichment of Galaxies

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

Interstellar dust plays a key role in the evolution of galaxies, particularly during the star formation process. During their AGB red giant phase of evolution, low and intermediate mass stars are known to be important contributors to the interstellar dust budgets of galaxies like our own. However, massive stars, and their core-collapse (CC) supernovae, could potentially make a significant contribution to the dust budgets of some galaxies, particularly during their earliest stages of evolution.The copious amounts of dust observed in many high-z galaxies are not believed to be produced by low and intermediate mass stars, since the galaxy ages of 1 Gyr or less are too short for significant numbers of AGB stars to be present. Massive stars, and their CC SNe, arising from the starbursts that power these galaxies, are the most plausible sources of their dust. This proposal seeks to renew a current PDRA grant for three years, from September 2009, in order to exploit significant time allocations that have been made for spaceborne studies with Herschel, Spitzer and the HST. These observations, coupled with optimal data reduction procedures and appropriate radiative transfer modelling, can enable a quantification of the contributions of high mass stars and of lower mass stars to the dust enrichment rates of different galaxy types.

Publications

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Andrews J (2011) PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC EVOLUTION OF THE IIP SN 2007it TO DAY 944 in The Astrophysical Journal

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Andrews J (2010) SN 2007od: A TYPE IIP SUPERNOVA WITH CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION in The Astrophysical Journal

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Andrews J (2011) EVIDENCE FOR PRE-EXISTING DUST IN THE BRIGHT TYPE IIn SN 2010jl in The Astronomical Journal

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Barlow MJ (2013) Detection of a noble gas molecular ion, 36ArH+, in the Crab Nebula. in Science (New York, N.Y.)

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Bendo G (2010) The Herschel Space Observatory view of dust in M81 in Astronomy and Astrophysics

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Boselli A. (2010) The Herschel Reference Survey in PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC

 
Description Used the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the UK-led SPIRE instrument consortium, to study the far-infrared properties of evolved stars and supernova remnants.
Exploitation Route All reults have been published on arXiv (green open access) as well as in refereed journals.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine

 
Description Discovered very large quantities of dust had been formed in the Cas A and SN1987A supernova remnants, conforming supernovae as key contributors to the cosmic dust content of galaxies.
First Year Of Impact 2009
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description MESS (Mass loss from Evolved StarS) - a Herschel GTKP 
Organisation Catholic University of Louvain
Department Institute Of Astronomy
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution KULeuven and UCL were leaders of the MESS KPGT, which has resulted in 9 publications in 2010 and 2011, so far.
Collaborator Contribution Leuven hold the Herschel PACS Guaranteed Time that was contributed to the MESS Herschel Guaranteed Time Key Project, while MJB leads the Herschel SPIRE team that contributed SPIRE Guaranted Time to this Key Project.
Impact See `Herschel' entries in publication list.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Ask me about the Big Bang, Paris 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Ask me about the Big Bang, Paris - no talk, just discussions with passers-by.

Paris event covered in French print and television media. Now occurs regularly.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Press release on Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy results, based on a Sep 2nd 2010 Nature paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Colour feature in the UK Metro newspaper (Friday September 10th 2010 issue) on our detection of water around the luminous carbon star CW Leo

There are as yet no metrics for the impact of this sort of article. The Metro has a daily readership of 2 million across the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Public talk, University of London Observatory 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talk attended by 30 people.

Repeat requests.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Public talk, Your Universe, UCL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Public talks generally attended by 30-100 people. Questions and discussions followed in every case.

Follow-up invitations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011
 
Description School talk, Camden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School visit attended by 25 children. Lengthy discussions, and questions

followed by e-mail afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Talk to Astronomical Society, Basingstoke. Talk to Astronomical Society, Crayford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talks generally attended by 30-100 people. Questions and discussions followed in every case.

Follow-up invitations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010
 
Description Talk to UCL alumni, UCL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk to UCL alumni.

fund-raising.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008